Journal of Environmental Management 163 (2015) 125e133Contents lists available at ScienceDirect Journal of Environmental Management journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/jenvman Review Perspectives of phytoremediation using water hyacinth for removal of heavy metals, organic and inorganic pollutants in wastewater Shahabaldin Rezania a, b, Mohanadoss Ponraj c, *, Amirreza Talaiekhozani a, e, Shaza Eva Mohamad d, **, Mohd Fadhil Md Din a, b, Shazwin Mat Taib b, Farzaneh Sabbagh f, Fadzlin Md Sairan a, b a Centre for Environmental Sustainability and Water Security (IPASA), Research Institute for Sustainable Environment, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM), 81310 Johor Bahru, Malaysia b Department of Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM), 81310 Johor, Malaysia c Construction Research Center (CRC), Institute for Smart Infrastructure and Innovation Construction (ISIIC), Faculty of Civil Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM), 81310 Johor Bahru, Malaysia d Malaysia Japan International Institute of Technology, UTM, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia e Department of Civil Engineering, Jami Institute of Technology, Isfahan, Iran f Faculty of Chemical Engineering, Bioprocess Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM), 81310 Johor Bahru, Malaysia a r t i c l e i n f o a b s t r a c t Article history: Received 5 May 2015 Received in revised form 13 August 2015 Accepted 14 August 2015 Available online xxx The development of eco-friendly and efﬁcient technologies for treating wastewater is one of the attractive research area. Phytoremediation is considered to be a possible method for the removal of pollutants present in wastewater and recognized as a better green remediation technology. Nowadays the focus is to look for a sustainable approach in developing wastewater treatment capability. Water hyacinth is one of the ancient technology that has been still used in the modern era. Although, many papers in relation to wastewater treatment using water hyacinth have been published, recently removal of organic, inorganic and heavy metal have not been reviewed extensively. The main objective of this paper is to review the possibility of using water hyacinth for the removal of pollutants present in different types of wastewater. Water hyacinth is although reported to be as one of the most problematic plants worldwide due to its uncontrollable growth in water bodies but its quest for nutrient absorption has provided way for its usage in phytoremediation, along with the combination of herbicidal control, integratated biological control and watershed management controlling nutrient supply to control its growth. Moreover as a part of solving wastewater treatment problems in urban or industrial areas using this plant, a large number of useful byproducts can be developed like animal and ﬁsh feed, power plant energy (briquette), ethanol, biogas, composting and ﬁber board making. In focus to the future aspects of phytoremediation, the utilization of invasive plants in pollution abatement phytotechnologies can certainly assist for their sustainable management in treating waste water. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Keywords: Water hyacinth Wastewater treatment Pollutant removal Pytotechnology Contents 1. 2. 3. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Water hyacinth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 2.1. Morphology and habitat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Application of aquatic plants in wastewater treatment for the removal of pollutants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 3.1. Removal of heavy metals using water hyacinth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 3.2. Removal of inorganic and organic compound . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 * Corresponding author. ** Corresponding author. E-mail addresses: [email protected]
(S.E. Mohamad). http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2015.08.018 0301-4797/© 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. (M. Ponraj), [email protected]
. 2005). . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 conclusion . . . The abilities of water hyacinth such as higher growth rate. . . . . . . only few review papers related to wastewater treatment using water hyacinth have been published (Mahamadi. . total suspended solids. . . . long pendant roots. . . 8 1. . . . . . . Rezania et al. . Water hyacinth has long roots which are generally suspended in water. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The ecology. S. 8 References . . . . . . . . The growth of this plant on the surface of water can reduce the penetration of sunlight into the water. . production of biogas and bioethanol (Mshandete et al. . It is a member of the family Pontederiaceae which is indigenous to Brazil. . . . . . which can be utilized by the plants (Gopal. . . . nitrogen and phosphorous removal (Gupta et al. living conditions and the applications of water hyacinth is described by (Klumpp et al. . . . . 2.. 2012. . and power generation. . . . . . 1987). . leaves and rhizome. . . . . Sunlight is vital for many photosynthetic organisms. . . . . 2003). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The average height of water hyacinth is 40 cm. Although. . . which is used for co-firing in coal power plant. . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . which mainly constitutes organic matters and heavy metals (Lalevic et al. . Mahamadi (2011) found that some of the aquatic plants like water hyacinth can also be used for the production of biofuels. . . . . . 6 Future perspectives of phytotechnology/phytoremediation in pollution control . . Therefore. . . 6.. . . Water hyacinth can rapidly grow over 60 kg per each m2 of water surface by which it can cause critical effects on sustainable development of economy (Ganguly et al. . . . . . . . .. 1999). . after the removal of pollutants from waste water. 2007). . . . . . . . . . the Amazon basin and Ecuador region (Tellez et al. . . . . . urbanization and industrialization. Gupta et al. The main reason for releasing huge amount of wastewater into the environment is because of increase in population. . . Malik (2007) reported that naturally water hyacinth create serious challenges in the ﬁled of navigation. water lettuce and vetiver grass are plants that have been used for the removal of wide range of pollutants. biosorbent for the removal of toxic metals (Malik. . 2011b). . . . the growth of water hyacinth growth is rapid due to the absence of natural enemies or competitor in non-indigenous countries.. As attempts for controlling it has not been completely successful. environmental friendly technologies have been gaining attention among the researchers worldwide. . . . . . . paper manufacturing (De Groote et al. . Therefore. . . . . 2012). . . . . inorder to avoid these problems using of phytoremediation technology must be carried out along with the controlling of water hyacinth. . . . The different applications of water hyacinth have been illustrated in (Fig.126 4. . That is why a reliable technology is needed to treat wastewater before it is being released into the water bodies (Talaie et al. 7 Acknowledgment . . . inexpensive. Water hyacinth is frequently mentioned in literature as one of the most problematic plants in the world due to its uncontrollable growth in water bodies such as irrigation systems or open ponds. . . . . Introduction Eichhornia crassipes also known as water hyacinth has gained signiﬁcant attention as aquatic plant which has the ability to absorb pollutants from aquatic environments with rapid proliferation. . . . This plant is reported to be as one of the most productive plants worldwide (Gopal. . dissolved solids. . . . . . . . 2. . (2015) have reported that dried water hyacinth can used for manufacturing briquette. . . water hyacinth can be used for recovering some of the toxic and non-degradable materials like heavy metals (Isarankura-NaAyudhya et al. . . 2002). . . Water hyacinth has 6 to 10 lily-like ﬂowers. . . 2004). . . leaves. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . low operation cost and renewability shows that using this plant it can be considered as a suitable technology for the treatment of wastewater. wastewater treatment technologies are often costly. . . 2012). . 1987). 2008). . . . Morphology and habitat The mature water hyacinth comprises of stolon's. . 1). . . . / Journal of Environmental Management 163 (2015) 125e133 Control of water hyacinth growth . . . irrigation. . . . . . 2011. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Rezania et al. . . . . . . . . . . . . Water hyacinth For many centuries water hyacinth has been applied as an ornamental crop due to its attractive appearance by humans. . compost (Szczeck. which includes biochemical oxygen demand. . . . . 2007).. . . . . Aerobic microorganisms use the organic matter and nutrient present in the wastewater and convert them into inorganic compounds. where water hyacinth has been recently transferred (Malik. . . . . . . . . . 5. Usually. . . . . . . . . .. . chemical oxygen demand. The most possible usage of water hyacinth includes making of animal fodder/ﬁsh feed (Aboud et al. . 2013). which is approximately equal of 270e400 tons (Kunatsa et al. More studies are found related to water hyacinth in the tropical and subtropical regions because of its abundance in these regions. .. . . . . . . . The main focus of this review is to compare how water hyacinth is effective in the removal of pollutants from waste water in comparision to other aquatic plants and to provide insight for the development and new emerging technologies of phytoremediation. . . . . . . . Recently. .. . . . Mostly this review emphasize the most recent studies during the past ﬁve years for the uptake and removal of organic. . Water hyacinth was also introduced as the invasive and free-ﬂoating aquatic macrophyte by many botanists (Gopal. pollutant absorption efﬁciency. . Water hyacinth.. . . . 2005). .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . sometimes it can grow up to 1 m height. Patel. . . . . . . . . . 1987). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Many researchers have reported the application of phytoremediation techniques for treating different types of wastewater. also as phytoremediation agent (Sajn-Slak et al. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . diameter of each one is 4e7 cm. two million water hyacinths exist per each hectare of water. .. . 2). . . . . 2012. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . .. . . . 2007). . . . . . . . Talaie et al. . . . heavy metals. reducing sunlight means reducing the grow rate of photosynthetic organisms and at the same time disturbing the ecological balance (Tiwari et al. fruit clusters. . .. . . Moreover. . . . The root structure of aquatic plants in particular water hyacinth can present suitable environment for the aerobic microorganisms to function in the sewage system. . . . . . . . 2011a). 2012). . . inorganic and heavy metal present in waster water using water hyacinth to make it as a suitable. . 2007). . . . . .. Indian scientists have suggested many formulation of medicines using water hyacinth for treating diseases (Oudhia. 2015). This technology to produce biofuels can overcome both environmental pollution and the depletion of energy sources worldwide. . the best management strategy is to ﬁnd some usage for them (Patel. . Usually. . . . .. . . . . . . 2012). . . . . . . . . . . . effective and environmental friendly technology for treating wastewater. . . . . . . . . . . . . In addition. . . . . Rezania et al. However. . . . . . . Different parts of water hyacinth such as the stems and leaves are made from air-filled tissues which allows the plant to ﬂoat on water (Fig. 1999). . . . . 2011. . . . . . they are not always environmental friendly (Dixit et al. . . in addition to storm water. paniculata have been discovered so far (Verma et al. Rezania et al. azurea. Application of aquatic plants in wastewater treatment for the removal of pollutants Wastewater is a mixture of pure water with large number of chemicals (including organic and inorganic) and heavy metals which can be produced from domestic. this notorious weed continues to propagate worldwide successfully. which is known to survive up to 20 years (Patel. Many physical. The growth conditions of water hyacinth are summarized in Table 1. chemical and biological methods have been developed for the treatment of wastewater. 2007). Africa. crassipes has widely invaded to Europe. Over growth of this plant in India has caused severe siltation in the wetlands of the Kaziranga National Park and Deepor Beel lake. 3).. diversifolia and E..S. 3. (2006) in China. Among phytoremediation techniques. Nutrient enriched waters are most favorable for the growth of water hyacinth and at the same time it can also tolerate low concentration of nutrients. sufﬁcient research and efforts have been made to eradicate water hyacinth. 2002). that is the main reason why this plant cannot be found in the coastal areas (Jafari. One of the problems to eradicate water hyacinth is because of its seed. 2010). 2012). Current geographical distribution of water hyacinth in the world is shown in (Fig.. artiﬁcial wetlands (AW) is known to be as the most effective technology to treat wastewater. The concept of this method is based on the using of plants and microorganisms in the same process as to remove the pollutants from environment (Lu. Asia and North America (Fig. Several ecological impacts in SacramentoeSan Joaquin River Delta located in California has been reported by Khanna et al. (2011). The growth of water hyacinth in sea water is limited because of salinity. along with the Sundarbans mangrove forest of Bangladesh (Biswas et al. 2011). crassipes. 2007). 2007).. 2009). It is reported that biological methods are more interesting for wastewater treatment and one of the branches of biological method for wastewater treatment is phytoremediation (Roongtanakiat et al... located in Africa is one of the largest lakes in the word that is being covered with thick layer of water hyacinth (Kateregga and Sterner. industrial and commercial activities. E. Among these it is found that E. 3) (Shanab et al. surface water and ground water (Dixit et al. 1. Water hyacinth has the ability to tolerate drought condition and can survive in the moist sediments for months (Center et al. Due to the danger of the entry of chemicals into wastewater it must be treated before the ﬁnal disposal. 2010).. According to Chu et al. Jimeonez and Balandra (2007) reported that nearly 40. Different applications of water hyacinth.000 ha of water bodies are threatened by this notorious weed in Mexico. invasion of water hyacinth has become a serious environmental issue. Lake Victoria. / Journal of Environmental Management 163 (2015) 125e133 127 Fig. The other countries to be threatened by this weed include Spain and Portugal (DellaGreca et al. 2003). E. 2009). Although. The AWs can promote biodiversity via preparation of a . Four our species of water hyacinth including E. . Generally. and (3) should be easy to control (Roongtanakiat et al. Fig. 2003).128 S.. ﬁshes and birds (Dixon et al. The selected species must contain the following features: (1) high ability to uptake both organic and inorganic pollutants. 2009). 2007) which require lesser land space (Lu. AWs are described to be as environment friendly. 3. It should be noted that the selection of suitable species of plants is important for the implementation of phytoremediation (De Stefani et al. simple. AWs also helps to improve air quality and prevention of climate changes by lesser production of carbon dioxide.. 2011). 2007).. 2. a) Leaves b) Baby plant c) Rhizome d) Flower. 2003). Current geographical distribution of water hyacinth in the world. effective and ecologically sound technology (Roongtanakiat et al. Rezania et al. Different parts of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes). large habitat for a wide number of wildlife such as the reptiles. economic.. / Journal of Environmental Management 163 (2015) 125e133 Fig. rodents. . (2) high ability to grow faster in wastewater. plant to plant within a genus (Singh et al. It should be also noted that the ability of pollutant removal varies from species to species.. hydrological functions and biomethylation (Azaizeh et al. Vetiver Grass (Chrysopogon zizanioides). The use of plants as biosorbents for the removal of heavy metals is considered to be inexpensive. 2004).04e0. in 14 and 11 days individually. 2003). In the most recent years the exploration of water hyacinth as the bioindicator for heavy metal removal present in the aquatic ecosystems have been demonstrated (Priya and Selvan. calcium. 47. (4) industrial wastes. According to (Koutika and Rainey. Duckweed and water hyacinth is being considered for the treatment of dairy and pig manure based wastewater (Sooknah and Wilkie.08 kg dry weight/m2/day 1. 3. 2015) apart from the impacts shown by Salvinia molesta and E. plants like Water Lettuce (Pistia stratiotes).5 C) Gopal. Phytoremediation can be considered advantageous if the plant is considered to be as solardriven pump which can concentrate and extract particular type of elements present in the polluted wastewater (Tripathy and Upadhyay. particularly the heavy metals and will help in improving the quality of water (Sooknah and Wilkie. (2005) to treat one liter of wastewater contaminated with 1500 mg/L arsenic requires 30 g of dried water hyacinth root for a period of 24 h Emerhi (2011) estimated chromium (III) removal from the aqueous solution and found the removal rate to be 87.S. 1987 Sooknah and Wilkie.. leaves. magnesium . According to Shaban et al. translocated to the shoots and other plant tissues. In addition to water hyacinth. 2000 2003). Rezania et al. 1995 Wilson et al. More research is expected to accomplish a more prominent productivity in the removal of contaminants or different treatment strategies of the plant and its parts which can be focused in near future.012e1. Four aquatic plants namely water hyacinth (Eichornia crassipes).. Jamuna et al. According to Park et al. 2000). Xiaomei et al.. Lasat (2002) has shown that plants are successful in removing the heavy metals. 2010a. zebra surge (Scirpus tabernaemontani) and taro (Colocasia esculenta) were evaluated for their effectiveness in the removal of mercury from wastewater. Both the ﬁeld and laboratory studies have shown that water hyacinth is capable of removing large number of pollutants present in the swine wastewater (Valero et al.2. 2007). Aquatic macrophytes have greater potential to accumulate heavy metals present inside their plant bodies where. 2014) have mentioned water hyacinth to be as a huge potential for the removal of wide range of pollutants from wastewater. 2014). 3. root seemed to play a major role for the uptake of mercury from wastewater (Skinner et al. 2007. stratiotes). respectively.077 m2/day 1610 plants can be produced from only 10 plants during 10 months 6e8 C Less than 5 mg/L 10e40 C (optimum temperature 25e27. ﬂowers). 2007). The rate of photosynthetic activity and plant growth have a key role during the implementation of phytoremediation technology for the removal of low to moderate amount of pollutants (Xia and Ma. Jadia and Fulekar (2009) reported that heavy metals are uptaken by the roots of the plant. (2004) used water hyacinth for the removal of Zn and Cd from wastewater and also measured the concentration of Cd and Zn absorbed in different parts of water hyacinth (stem. 2009). 2010.. It was observed for the presence of 2040 mg/kg of Cd and 9650 mg/kg of Zn accumulated in the roots of water hyacinth. 1987 De Casabianca et al. the most exceedingly problematic aquatic weed was discovered to be exceptionally difﬁcult to control and eradicate the plant from the water bodies. human health is being threatened with the release of polluted wastewater in presence of heavy metals into the environment. (6) natural residues and (7) other biomaterials. crassipes towards the environment and human health. during their study for the removal of heavy metals in aqueous solution using water hyacinth found Langmuir and Freundlich models ﬁtted well for the biosorption of all the metal ions.. (2002) demonstrated that aquatic macrophytes with higher growth rate such as water hyacinth can be potentially applied to remove heavy metals from wastewater. roots.. 1987 Gopal. Although water hyacinth is known to be a persistent plant all over the world. It was found that for all the plants.. production of animal feed and compost.. Removal of heavy metals using water hyacinth Nowadays. Factors Range References Growth rate on the basis of dry weight Growth rate on the basis of surface Growth rate on the basis of plan number Water pH Water salinity Water temperature 0. Common Reed (Phragmites australis) have been successfully implemented for the treatment of wastewater containing different types of pollutant (Lu et al. The root of the plant helps to absorb the pollutants existing in the wastewater. Duckweed (Water lemna). Padmapriya and Murugesan (2012). water hyacinth has more advantageous impacts in terms of phytoremediation capacity. water lettuce (P. it is being widely used as a main resource for waste management and agricultural process (Malik. Girija et al. (Priya and Selvan. 2011).. 2004). (5) agricultural wastes. 2010b). (2) fungi. Moreover valuable heavy metals can be recovered from the plants by burning and extracting the metals from the ash. Dipu et al. 2011. (2005) have reported the use of seaweeds as the most inexpensive and accessible material that has gained a lot of attention as biosorbent. / Journal of Environmental Management 163 (2015) 125e133 129 Table 1 Water hyacinth growth conditions. (2019) biosorbents used for the removal of metal ions from wastewater can be divided into seven categories: (1) bacteria. however its ability to uptake nutreint supplements has given a conceivable route for its use in phytoremediation. The most recent studies being carried out for the removal of heavy metals using water hyacinth is listed in Table 2. biogas generation. Water hyacinth. Suzuki et al. This plant recently gained attention as a possible absorbent for the treatment of wastewater polluted with heavy metals (Mahamadi and Nharingo. Klumpp et al.52% with 10 mg Cr/1 solution. Liao and Cheng (2004) ranked the heavy metal removal rate based on the ability of water hyacinth to remove (Cu > Zn > Ni > Pb > Cd) and showed that higher and lower removal efﬁciency belonged to Cu and Cd. Removal of inorganic and organic compound Water hyacinth has been widely studied in the laboratory at pilot and large scale for the removal of organic matter present in the waster water in comparison to other aquatic plants (Costa et al.1. 2007). 2006. effective and eco-friendly technology. where they are concentrated and harvesting the plant can permanently remove these contaminants. Gupta and Balomajumder (2015) found that water hyacinth can uptake more than 99% of phenol in a single and twofold solution of Cr and Phenol (at 10 mg/ L). Bulrush (Typha). (3) algae. 54 and 33%) of solids. The treated wastewater in the presence of water hyacinth for the duration of 25 days resulted in the reduction (37. 2004 Gopal. (2010) demonstrated that 36% of nitrogen and phosphorus could be removed from swine wastewater using water hyacinth. Ni and Zn present in the water hyacinth root was found to be 1344. and total hardness. Initial concentration of Zn. (Cd) (Cr) Diluting stock solution in drinking water As (V). As (III) Hydroponic medium (Hg) Artiﬁcial waste water (Cd (NO3)2$4H2O in deionized water) (Cd) Artiﬁcial waste water (NiCl2_6H2O) was added to obtain concentrations of 1. 2012 Singh and Kalamdhad. Type of waste water Uptake of heavy metals Findings/Highlights References Wastewater from simulated wetland (Cr). 2015). 2014 Malar et al.99. The bio concentration factor for Cu. Rezania et al. Ni and DTPA extractable Pb and Cd were not detected. . and petiole tissues. 3 and 4 mg L1 (Ni) Almost 65% removal of heavy metals was achieved using water hyacinth. integrated biological control and watershed management controlling nutrient supply..5e2. Improved and large scale utilization of the water hyacinth species can serve as a positive approach to control.. but all of the metal concentration was observed in the TCLP test during composting. Biological control of Mokhtar et al. though its quest for nutrients has given a possible way for its use in phytoremediation. (2015) in their latest study showed that the roots of water hyacinth are primarily involved in the transportation. 23% and 21% removal of COD. ortho-phosphate. Overall..3% removal) The order of trace metal accumulation in the root tissue was found to be as Zn > Cu > Ni..74 and 1. where highest 137 Cs uptake value from the waste solution.0. crassipes reduced proportionately the biomass and ﬂoral structures.6. A prototype ﬁlter made from water hyacinth (20 g) was capable of removing 80% and 84% of arsenic from drinking water with the concentration of 250 and 1000 mg/L. 2003).. Also reported among the different forms of nitrogen. 2015 E. near to 80% was observed with the exposure to sunlight along with the presence of60Co.6% removal) 1. 24% and 50% (Cd). 2015). (Cu) Lissy et al. 2013 Brima and Haris. 250 and 50 lg/L) was found to decreased in the order of nPb > Cu > Cd > Zn during ﬁrst day. (Ni). 2005). especially in the developing countries. 2011 Hammad.. In combination of water hyacinth and duckweed for treating dairy wastewater it could remove 79% of total nitrogen and 69% of total phosphorus (Tripathy and Upadhyay. 2011 Synthetic waste water (Cu) Agricultural drain. Pb and Cd in water (500. 22. 2005. 2015 Gonzalez et al.1 mg/L ¼ (61. Higher removal rate of60Co (100%) in presence of60Co in waste solution obtained. A series novel self-spreading phenoxy carboxylic acid derivatives were design and synthesized.6% removal) 2. 2. river and mixed industrial drain. / Journal of Environmental Management 163 (2015) 125e133 Table 2 Recent studies on the removal of heavy metals using water hyacinth.04 mg/L ¼ (97. (Cr). Water hyacinth.. 1250. (Mn). After 8 days the removal efﬁciency was 8% and 24% (Cu). ammonical nitrogen (NH3eN) was found to be removed to a greater extend when compared to other forms of nitrogen. Therefore. Cu. The controlling mechanisms have had an ~a important impact in controlling the spread of E. Ismail et al. (Pb)..6 respectively. Use of biochar pyrolyzed from water hyacinth resulted in the removal of nearly 100% Cd from the aqueous solution within 1 h at initial Cd 50 mg L1. It was found that water hyacinth exhibited better performance for reducing nitrate in comparison to orthophosphate. (Zn).. Concentration of Cu decreased as mentioned below: 5.11 mg/L ¼ (95. 18% and 57% (Zn) at pH 8 and pH 6. showed a remarkable approach towards the controlling and eradication of water hyacinth growth along with the combination of herbicidal control. if better socio-economic returns (Güeren eradication of this notorious weed is not possible so easily.130 S. 2008). The recent studies for the removal of pollutants using water hyacinth are summarized in Table 3. Control of water hyacinth growth Many studies have shown that mechanical.. (Fe). 2011 Saleh. Chen et al. leaf.758. (Cu). 2012 Smolyakov. (Cu). (Cu) Industrial wastewater (Zn). (Cd) Composting wastewater (Cd). 2015). Valipour et al. (Ni) Simulated radio contaminated aqueous solution (Cs) (Co) Artiﬁcial lake water (Zn). (Cu). 2015). Malik (2007). TP and TN (Jianbo et al. 1. Water soluble Cd. crassipes (Güeren et al. Accumulation of mercury ion was 1. when considering the social and environmental beneﬁts. 4. Center et al. (1999) showed that sustained herbivory of E. 11% and 26% (Pb). the worst aquatic weed was found to be nearly impossible to eradicate from the water bodies. Total metal concentration was found to increase during the process of composting. crassipes has been conducted in many parts of the world and the ways of controlling the growth of water hyacinth has been addressed by several researchers (Koutika and Rainey.. Higher Ni accumulation was observed in roots in comparision to aerial parts. Wastewater from duck farm was treated by water hyacinth and resulted in 64%. Pb. 2013 Yapoga et al. nitrite and ammoniacal nitrogen. Ni adsorption was found to be qucik during ﬁrst 24 h. (Pb). then the feasibility of using this plant as a energy resource (bioethanol.39 mg/g dry weight in the root. Appreciable amount of heavy metal occurred during a 15 day experiment. (Zn). (2015) showed the efﬁciency of water hyacinth and water lettuce for the uptake of nitrate. 250. Zhang et al. 2015 Zhang et al. which can ﬂoat on the water surface and showed excellent herbicidal activities against the water hyacinth (Zheng et al. where the shoots resulted in the accumulation of considerable amount of nutrients (N & P) in comparison to the root area.5 to 0. the frameworks can possibly provided ~ a et al. chemical and biological methods can be applied to eradicate water hyacinth but all these methods are only partially successful (Shabana and Mohamed. In-spite of these approaches still there is an extensive instability in their monetary due to the aspects of underdeveloped extraction and handling innovations.5 to 0. Maximum removal efﬁciency of metal was recorded during the 10th day and the leaves of water hyacinth was found to be as least accumulator in comparison to the roots. 57% as textile > metallurgical > pharmaceutical wastewater. 6. phosphate. (COD). 2012 Rezania et al. conductivity. 2010 Eutrophic lake Transparency. (BOD). Water quality improved surrounding the water hyacinth mats.2% of (COD) 26. Optimum removal rate for all the parameters was found to be between 12 and 15 days using WH. Domestic waste water 3 (TSS).8%e53. (NO3). conclusion This paper has shown the different possibilities of using water hyacinth for the removal of pollutants present in waste water.and 26. the utilization of water hyacinth in wastewater treatment frameworks has been progressively reported and treatment regimens are created as a consequence of the lasted development in relation to the approach towards phytoremediation (Priya and Selvan. Also.6% of (PO3 4 eP). / Journal of Environmental Management 163 (2015) 125e133 131 Table 3 Recent studies for the removal of organic and inorganic using water hyacinth.3% for TSS. TSS: (73. It was found that 20% or 15 L of water reduction occurred weekly and 40% increase in the plant biomass was observed after 14 days. (TN).5% of (BOD) 83. nitrate Shah et al. Type of waste water Removal of organic and inorganic Findings/Highlights References Dye wastewater Nitrogen. Average for (BOD) ¼ 54. 2009). 44. Lower values belong to Water morning glory and higher values belong to water hyacinth. still in its initial improvement stages and full scale applications are still constrained. 2015 Valipour et al. 56. The presence of arsenic in drinking water is a noteworthy wellbeing concern in numerous nations worldwide with a huge number of individuals already being affected. NH3eN: (72. Rezania et al. In this manner. (NH3). (TSS). the usage of intrusive plants in pollutant reduction phytotechnologies may help with their practical application (Rai.4%e53... (NH3eN) biogas. 2014 Rezania et al. Removal of parameters for mixed culture of Eichhornia crassipes and Salvinia natans: 84. proﬁcient. sulphate (45%). (DO). also in most of the parameters the concentration was found to be decreased. 5. hardness. (TDS). ammonium nitrogen. transfer and disposal of these phytoremediating aquatic macrophytes is a noteworthy concern towards the effective usage of phytoremediation innovation as there is an urgent requirement for creating cheaper systems taking Wang et al. (COD). 2014 Anandha Varun and Kalpana. 2014).6% of (NO3eN) 53.8%e32.. (74%) nitrate removal and (71%) phosphate COD reduction: (79%). as metallurgical > textile > pharmaceutical wastewater (DO) ¼ 62. (EC). As described by Ali et al. (PO4). total hardness. (TN). for the removal of Arsenic from drinking water (Raju et al.4% for COD. the administration.48%) at HRT of 14 h was achieved. (PO43 ). In addition. sulfate.69%). 2015). (COD). moreover its a natural one and does not require power or other kind of vitality. TN: (76.02%). phosphate Domestic waste water (COD). (2013) this innovative technology additionally needs lower energy resources. phytoremediation has been considered to be an eco-friendly “green” and low-tech distinct option for more dynamic and remedial techniques (Jadia and Fulekar. (NO3eN) (TKN). 2015 into account the accessible materials.. Future perspectives of phytotechnology/phytoremediation in pollution control Phytoremediation is a moderately late innovation and is seen as practical. nitrate Domestic waste water (COD). (PO4 ) Domestic sewage water Ammonia. Meanwhile it is imperative that clear vision about this innovation needs to be considered and the precise data obtained should be made accessible to all the public as to improve its adequacy as a worldwide manageable innovative technology. (BOD). PO4eP: (38. textile and pharmaceutical waste water (BOD). Water hyacinth þ papaya stem resulted in the removal rate: (67%) reduction in ammonia. Signiﬁcant reduction of electrical conductivity (25% decrease). (NHþ 4 ).. briquette) should be aimed by the researchers. (PO3 4 eP) Domestic waste water pH.7% e61. (NH4). Water hyacinth showed better efﬁciency with 25%e50% of waste water. (NO3). (TOC). biomass growth rate The experiment was carried using 25%. (NO3). (TP). (NO2). Water hyacinth is found to be suitable for controlling the urban and different types of waste water coming from the industry. Numerous plants like Eichhornia crassipes have been reported to be as a particulate contamination phytoremediator (Rai and Panda. A signiﬁcant decrease in all of the parameters was noticed. (TN). Comparison of Water hyacinth and Water morning glory showed: 37. 50%. (PO43 ) 45%. 2015).S. It is also demonstrated that among the aquatic plants.6% for NH4þ.. 2013 Kumari and Tripathi.0% of (TKN) 56. Disregarding the numerous difﬁculties. The execution of more research and innovation is needed for this technology to advance and promote in the developing countries due to its lower cost and feasibility.4% for PO3 4 . water hyacinth is a decent and viable possibility for nutrient uptake and improving the . BOD removal: (86%). 75% of (TN) and 75% of (TP) reduction happened during the ﬁrst week of experiment. pH. 2013 Moyo et al. novel. TOC 45%. (TP) Polluted river water (TDS).. 2012 Ajayi and Ogunbayio. (TN) Municipal waste water (BOD). (DO). (TP). 2014 Loan et al. phosphate (33%) and total hardness (37%) between the sample points SR1 and SR3 were obtained. Optimum growth rate was found in 18 days with removal rate of (COD) 95%. 80% of (COD). Although various aquatic plants have been indicated for the arsenic uptake and recommended for arsenic phytoremediation. TP: (44. 2014). pH. eco-friendly technology.. (COD) Metallurgical.61%).64% as metallurgical > pharmaceutical > textile wastewater Nitrate-nitrogen ¼ 48.84%). 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