Exploring Video as a Multimedia Element The Power of Video The ability to incorporate video into a multimedia project marked a significant achievement in the evolution of the multimedia industry (Shuman). What does video give us that other media elements cannot? Video gives us the power to capture reality and relive real events. Video gives real evidence or proof Video shows something credible, real, true Videos can teach something, show something, persuade people to buy something, and even make people laugh or cry. Video A video is a series of moving images. Video quality is determined by three factors: Frame Rate Resolution Aspect Ratio Frame Rate Video is comprised of sequential images seen in rapid succession. The number of images of the video shown per second is called the frame rate. Videos have a frame rate of 24-45 fps. Television has a frame rate of approximately 30 fps. Frame rate is measured in frames per seconds (fps). A constant frame rate is desired for smooth playback. If the computer is not able to replay the movie at the frame rate it was encoded for, it will either stutter and slowdown or drop frames. Frame rate is one of the factors affecting movie file size and quality. Resolution The size of a video image is measured in pixels for digital video Just like images, video resolution is also affected by the picture dimensions. Videos range from the following sizes (in pixels) 320x240 •Internet resolution 640x480 •TV resolution 1280x720 •HDTV resolution 1920x1080•HDTV resolution 4x3 4:3 The three most common aspect ratios are 4x3.Aspect Ratio The width to height ratio of the video image is referred to as the aspect ratio Ratios are expressed in the form "width x height". 16x9 (widescreen) This format has gained acceptance as the new standard for widescreen TV. 16x9. 4x3 (standard screen) Standard television format used throughout the second half of the 20th Century. 21x9. 21x9 (cinemascope) A very wide screen format used for theatrical release movies. DVD and high-definition video. . Converting a 21x9 video to a narrower format requires cropping of the video picture. .Converting between Aspect Ratios Conversions almost always involve compromise on the video image. . you need to rewind. Digital cable. Video has made the transition from analog to digital. HDTV has a 16:9 aspect ratio. the connection to the computer is digital. and it will still be as good as the original. Digital TV There are two types of digital television: standard definition (SDTV) high definition (HDTV) SDTV offers resolution roughly equivalent to a conventional analog signal with image display ratios or aspect ratios of 4:3 or 16:9. pause. You can make more copies of a DV tape. If you were to duplicate the new tape. Home and Work –DVDs.Types of Video Analog Video Digital Video Analog Video Linear such as a video tape (VHS) Has a beginning . . In editing an analog video . some noise from the recorder is added to the new tape. With digital video. and fast-forward to display desired frames Digital Video Allows random selection to any part of the video Editing can be simple as cutting and pasting parts of the video Adding special effects and transitions are easy with a video-editing program Analog video must be digitized in order to place it in a multimedia file Advantage of Digital over Analog Video Digital Video has lesser generation loss When you duplicate a video tape (like VHS). Broadcasting -standards have been set and stations are moving towards programming only digital television (DTV). then noise from the previous tapes would be carried over to the third tape. Digital satellite. middle. The HDTV format offers the potential for approximately twice the horizontal and vertical resolution of current analog television. Each copy of the tape adds to the generation loss from the original. This transition has happened at every level of the industry. There is no generation loss when transferring DV. and end. It also takes approximately five times the bandwidth to broadcast as SDTV. at least. even if they have 16:9 widescreens. Newer TVs today are. SDTV-ready. You will know if your TV has digital signal if you can connect DV (digital video) camcorders and DVD players through an IEEE 1394 (Firewire) or DVI connector. Firewire IEEE 1394 Cable Digital Visual Interface Connector Overview of Making Videos Pre-Production Production Post Production Pre-Production Planning Stage Requirements Outline Script Storyboards Budget / Finance Cast Costumes Sets / Props Locations Logistics . Not all digital TV sets sold today support HDTV. Storyboard & Script Sample . Today shooting analog footage (video tape) is still common. the cast. convert it to a digital format: AVI MPEG QuickTime Common Video Formats AVI (Audio Video Interleave) Windows' standard format MPEG-4 Part 14 (MP4) FLV (Flash Video) format used to deliver MPEG video through Flash Player MOV Apple's QuickTime format VOB (DVD Video Object) DVD standard WMV Microsoft format RM (Real Media) .Production Actual shooting of the video The main concerns are the lighting. In order to edit the video. and the actual shooting of the video. the acting. and a soundtrack To begin post-prod. you have to reedit everything after a certain point. and special effects. Editing is done by a professional video editor Editing Digital Video Video post-production has moved from analog tape-to-tape editing to the world of digital nonlinear editing (NLE). titles. copy. graphics. If you want to insert new video at the beginning or middle of a finished project. paste. Traditional tape-to-tape editing follows a linear path. titles. reedit. and add music. developed by Real Networks for streaming video and audio Post-Production Assembly of different video clips Adding of visual effects. you need to place the raw video material into the computer. Digital editing of videos allow you to quickly cut. Microsoft Video Editing Software MS Movie Maker Interface . Video Transitions Common Adobe Software for Video Editing Adobe Premiere Pro . mixing. Real-time editing Adobe After Effects The industry standard for motion graphics and visual effects Other necessary software during video editing: Adobe Audition or Audacity audio recording. and editing Adobe Encore DVD Tool for DVD creation Adobe Premiere Preview Project pane -where video assets are managed Monitor panels -where video being edited is viewed Timeline panel -where the actual editing takes place Editing Techniques Transitions used to blend two different scenes or clips in a video to create a smooth playback Clipping to cut out a portion of a video from a longer video to make a video clip Fade-ins and Fade-outs Fade-in is used at the start of a video to gradually start a scene Fade-out is used at the end of a video to gradually close the video visual . or descriptions Hardware to transfer videos Different hardware needed to transfer videos: A/V Cable for RCA input jacks S-Video Cable for S-Video jack Video card FireWire support USB connection Video Use in Multimedia Projects Videos in a multimedia project can be integrated for several purposes: Entertainment Instructional Commercial Presentation Tips for Embedding Video in Multimedia Projects Avoid videos that play too long 30 seconds is ideal 1 minute is tolerable 3 minutes is too long Long videos should be split into several smaller videos Videos must be of good quality when used in a multimedia project Good lighting Clear or crisp Smooth playback Videos must have playback controls play. . pause. forward. etc. stop. rewind. Time Stretching Also referred to as slow-motion Used to slowdown the playback of video to give emphasis on some scenes or actions Text Overlay Used for adding captions. scene titles. . FLV or Flash Video works best for videos with smaller file format. Better to compress or optimize the video into a smaller file format without losing much of the quality.Format Conversion Videos that are directly edited are usually in AVI or MOV format.