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Intl. j. Basic. Sci. Appl. Res. Vol., 2 (5), 435-438, 2013 International Journal of Basic Sciences & Applied Research. Vol., 2 (5), 435-438, 2013 Available online at http://www.isicenter.org ISSN 2147-3749 ©2013 VictorQuest Publications Assessment of The Validity of McArdle Step Test for Estimation Oxygen Uptake (Vo2max) Zar Abdossaleh*, Safari Mohammad Amin Department of Physical Education & Sport Science, University of Jahrom, Islamic Republic of Iran *Corresponding Author Email: [email protected] Abstract The purpose of this study is to assess the suitability of the McArdle step test for determine maximum oxygen uptake in male students. For this purpose we randomly selected thirty male students of Shiraz University, with mean age, height, and weight of 22.6 year, 166.4 cm, and 56.9kg, respectively. Vo2 max of each participant was determined by shuttle run test and also by applying McArdle test within an interval of seven days between the tests. The mean of Vo2 max subjects were 45.53 (ml/kg/min) in Shuttle run (20 m) test and 44.53 (ml/kg/min) in McArdle step test. Also, the results show that Exhibited significant statistical correlation (r=0.71, p<0.001) between the two tests. The result suggest that McArdle step test can be applied in the studied population to produce a good estimation of maximum oxygen uptake, specially in the field where large numbers of participants are to be evaluated without a well equipped laboratory. Keywords: Vo2 max, McArdle step test, Male university students, Shuttle run test. Introduction Cardio respiratory fitness is in fact the capacity of heart, lung, blood vessels to brought the oxygen and food for muscles during Specific time (Rogers, 1990). Uncouthly, much of the victories and resist ration of records in sport competitions and also having physical healthiness is due to cardiorespiratory fitness which in directly related to efficiency of cardiorespiratory and the rate of maximum oxygen consumption of person (Asadmanesh, 1997). Maximum oxygen consumption is one of the parameter of resistance performance (Satipati, 2005). Vo2max is the maximum amount of oxygen that a person consume during maximal exercise and many expert of sport sciences have an announced it as a method for evaluating aerobic fitness and as factor for predicting the success of athletes in resistance activities. Various methods have designed for measuring Vo2 max either in laboratory or in field. Although the methods in laboratory has high validity and precision, but because of its high costs it is not suitable for everyday (Haghravan, 1993). In this regard, the presentation of suitable methods- which is easy to perform and which have high credibility in measuring the fitness of Cardiorespiratory-is necessary on the other hand, the field Methods are cheaper and more apply able than those of laboratory (Haghravan, 1993). The precise measurement of Vo2 max requires expensive laboratory equipment, much time and to some extent enough motivation. But instead of direct measurement for Vo2 max, we can use indirect method and the McArdle step test complex is useful for this purpose (Patricia, 1998). Validity means that weather the test used to measure something, really measures it or not? (Asadmanesh, 1997). Cardiorespiratory fitness and maximum oxygen consumptions are one the important and credible parameter of healthy, physical fitness and endurance capacity (Haghravan, 1993; Zahrayee, 1996). The precise evaluation of this parameter by step test always was uncertain and to some extends with diversion. For this reason, the credibility and capability of the test in evaluating in the subject to more studies. The 20 meter shuttle run test and McArdle step test is the field tests to measurement of maximum oxygen consumption (Vo2 max). Because performing these tests requires less equipments small space and one metronome are required-must of the times and at most circumstances we can use them. Cooper (2005) in a research evaluated the validity and reliability of 20 meter shuttle run test for measuring the rate of Vo2 max in young active men and concluded that the 20 meter shuttle run test is a suitable test for measuring Vo2 max. Montgomery at 1992 in a reliability research studied the 20 meter shuttle run test with running for 6 minutes on treadmill .the researcher got %68 of correlation coefficient between two tests (Asadmanesh, 1997). Safrit got %72 correlation coefficient for men and %75 for women in step tests in contract with Vo2 max of treadmill (Zahrayee, 1996). McArdle in a study that 41 young women (18-22) took part, got %75 of correlation coefficient (McArdle, 534 which increases by 0. Zwiren (1991). According to the fact that each of these tests in performed in different procedure and each of them requires specific instruments and equipment which can be not at access. The static society composed of all male students of shiraz university who were passing general physical education and among them 30 male student. 2 (5).1536 Speed Age Description of McArdle step test: The athlete steps up and down on the platform at a rate of 22 steps per minute for females and at 24 steps per minute for males. these two tests in determining Vo2 max have correlation. using the formula below (McArdle. Also the Variance of Vo2 max estimation between McArdle step test and shuttle run (20m) is represented by figure 1. For these reasons.5 km/hr. Methodology The study was an experimental research. Sci. The research method was half empirical.5 km/hr each minute (Zahrayee. 2013 1972). but one commonly used version has an initial running velocity of 8. Basic. using the formula below (Ramsbottom.42 Heart Rate It should be noted that of tests were performed separately in two weeks and subjects performed the tests at a same day in each week and at the same time. 435-438. the most accurate assessment of aerobic capacity is the direct measurement of maximum oxygen uptake (VO 2max) during a graded exercise test. For this reason the test if also often called the ‘beep’ or ‘bleep’ tests. j. The results of analysis of data represented significant correlation (r=0. The mean of Vo2 max subjects were 45. reported %73 of correlation coefficient for this test and that of Vo2 max of treadmill. The time between recorded beeps decrease each minute (level).53 (ml/kg/min) in Shuttle run (20 m) test and 44.238 Speed –3. However.Intl. height. Appl.71. There are several versions of the test.000 Correlation coefficient 0. Mean and Standard deviation of Vo2 max McArdle step test and shuttle run (20m). respectively. Then. p<0.resulted from two tests-20 meter shuttle run test and McArdle step test-is presented at table1. The athlete immediately stops on completion of the test.4 cm. Shuttle run(20 m) test McArdle step test Mean Standard deviation Sample number 45. 71 .2075 5. direct measurement of VO2max is primarily reserved for the laboratory setting because of the cost of the equipment. correlation coefficient is (r=0.248 Age +0. with mean age.001) between 20 meter shuttle run test and McArdle step test in assessing maximum oxygen uptake.53 (ml/kg/min) in McArdle step test. 1996). In other words. and 56. so all variants were not controllable.001) and there is significant correlation between 20 meter shuttle run test and McArdle step test. Data analysis The data were analyzed using SPSS 11. 166.71.33-0. this research is pursuing top show to which extent. Res. Since the study was performed on human beings. and weight of 22. Scoring: an estimation of Vo2 max can be calculated form the test results.. 1988): Vo2max (ml/kg/min)=31.025+3. 1996). their medical and sport background was gathered by questionnaire.05.5333 6. Correlation between Vo2 max estimation between McArdle step test and shuttle run (20m).9kg.3481 30 30 Table2. the information regarding their cardio respiratory capabilities measured by utilizing two kinds of tests were statically analyzed on the basis of hypothesis of the study. the need for trained technicians.6 year. Vol. Also. and the inability to test large numbers of people at one time. As table 2 shows. for a total of 3 minutes.4 with Pearson’s coefficient of correlation and statically significance was set at P 0. Results The Mean and standard variation of Maximum oxygen uptake . p<0. 1972): Vo2max (ml/kg/min) = 111. Result Significant 534 P-Value 0. This score can be converted to a Vo2 max equivalent score using calculator and also an estimation of Vo2 max can be calculated form the test results. Description of Shuttle run (20 m) test: This test involves continuous running between two lines 20m apart in time to recorded beeps. First all of the information of their physical status. and the heart beats are counted for 15 seconds from 5-20 seconds of recovery (Zahrayee.5341 44. Scoring: The athletes score is the level and number of shuttles (20m) reached before they were unable to keep up with the recording. So. despite its level of accuracy. Table1. the aim of this research is to compare and show the different of the result of Vo 2 max of male students of Shiraz University by these two tests (20 meter shuttle run test and McArdle step test). were randomly selected as a static sample. 00 40.507 35. Validity of queens college step test for estimation of maximum oxygen uptake in female student. it is purposed that step test can be used for measuring maximum oxygen consumption (Vo 2 max) in studying samples (Chatter. The validity of a One-Mile walk test for high school age individuals. Hagberg JM.00 40. 2004). Whenever it is impossible to perform 20 meter shuttle run test we can substitute other tests such as McArdle step test. Rodgers et al.. In a research directed by Gay (2004). 1998. Res. 2 (5). 435-438. j. McSwegin SA. Vol.00 60. the step test can be used to estimate the maximum oxygen uptake. Amit B. Buckley et al. Martin WH. for estimating the maximum oxygen uptake (Vo2 max). The other study directed by Satipati (2005) to evaluation the validity of step test for estimating maximum oxygen consumption (Vo2 max) of female student. The result showed that there are was not significant differences of Vo2 max between the groups. Basic. the validity of step test in studied in comparison with ergo-meter bicycle test for measuring maximum oxygen consumption (Vo2 max) and there are was not a significant difference results. Plowman GM. McArdle step test and 20 meters shuttle run test. 121: 32-35. Pratima C. The reason of such difference can be the age and gender of subjects..00 Y=14. According to this result. But there is differences between correlation coefficient of this study and that of other studies. the finding of current study reported a significant and direct correlation between two tests. 1990).00 45. reported significant relation between the result of (Vo 2 max) of step test and running on treadmill and shuttle run (Rogers. they realized that in big samples. Haghravan J.00 35. Discussion and Conclusion Finding of present study regarding McArdle step test represent a significant correlation (r=0. At the end.51). but there differences are not high and significant. Accordingly. 68: 2195-2199. Ehsani AA. Tehran. In conclusion. MA Thesis.00 50. Asadmanesh A. 2(1): 47-63.University of Tehran.Tarbiat moallem University. Wolff GL. 2013 60. J Appl Physiol.00 55. 534 .00 50.. Surveying validity of shuteel run test and step test in measuring cardiorespiratory fitness of students. 2005. Appl. Although there is a difference between correlation coefficient of this study and that of others in some cases. such as Zwiren (1991) (McArdle step test and treadmill r=0. The finding of current study show significant correlation with that of other studies.Vo2 max estimation of shuttle run test(20 m) Intl. gender and the differences of characteristics of subjects.00 Vo2 max estimation of Mc Ardle test Figur1.59+0. (2004) evaluated the validity and reliability of step test for estimating the maximum oxygen uptake (Vo2 max). where there is no access to well equipment laboratory. References Rogers MA. Satipati CJ. The main reasons for these differences are related to age. Measurement in Physical Education and Exercise Science.00 R Sq Linear = 0. MA Thesis. Surveying validity of 600yard test and step test in measuring cardiorespiratory fitness of students. Decline in VO2max with aging in master athletes and sedentary men.00 45.71) between this test and that of 20 meter shuttle run test. Patricia J. it can be suggested that these two tests can be used substituted. 1993.7*x 55. Variance of Vo2 max estimation between McArdle step test and shuttle run (20m). 1997. Sci. Indian J Med Red. 1990. Chatter jee S. MA Thesis. Res. Surveying and comparing physical and physiological characteristics of wrestling athletes. Br J Sports Med. Zwiren.Intl. 39: 19-26. Hanford M. Vol. Br J Sports Med. 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The repeatability and criterion related validity of the 20m multistage fitness test as a predictor of maximal oxygen uptake in active young men. 38:197-205. j. British Journal of Sports Medicine. McArdle WD. physical work capacity and step test scores in college women. Ramsbottom. 4: 182-6. Medicine and Science in Sports.. 1972. 2013 Zahrayee H.