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Project Management, 2e (Pinto) Chapter 12 Resource Management 12.1 True/False 1) There is, for almost all projects, usually a dominant constraint that serves as the final arbiter of project decisions. Answer: TRUE Diff: 1 Section: 12.1 The Basics of Resource Constraints Skill: Definition AACSB Tag: Reflective 2) In a resource constrained project, the work must be finished by a certain tim e, or date, as efficiently as possible. Answer: FALSE Diff: 1 Section: 12.1 The Basics of Resource Constraints Skill: Definition AACSB Tag: Reflective 3) All that is needed to create a resource loading calendar is the work breakdow n structure and the activity network. Answer: FALSE Diff: 2 Section: 12.2 Resource Loading Skill: Factual AACSB Tag: Reflective 4) Because resource management is typically a multivariate, combinatorial proble m (i.e., on that is characterized by multiple solutions involving literally doze ns, hundreds, or even thousands of activity variables) truly correct answers are not possible. Answer: FALSE Diff: 2 Section: 12.3 Resource Leveling Skill: Definition AACSB Tag: Reflective 5) A resource loading table is created through identifying the project activitie s and their resources required to completion and applying this information to th e project schedule baseline. Answer: TRUE Diff: 2 Section: 12.3 Resource Leveling Skill: Factual AACSB Tag: Reflective 6) If resources have been over-allocated, the loading table must be reconfigured to eliminate resource contention points. The project manager can focus solely o n the original point of contention since the activities in a project are separat e entities. Answer: FALSE Diff: 2 Section: 12.3 Resource Leveling Skill: Conceptual AACSB Tag: Reflective 7) Resource loading charts are used to display the amount of resources required as a function of time on a graph. Answer: TRUE Diff: 2 Section: 12.4 Resource Loading Charts Skill: Definition AACSB Tag: Reflective 8) If an activity can be split, only the functional portion of the original acti vity needs to be accomplished for the project to be fully completed. Answer: FALSE Diff: 2 Section: 12.4 Resource Loading Charts Skill: Factual AACSB Tag: Reflective 9) The problem of resource underutilization that a project manager faces when ma naging a single project disappears in the multi-project environment. Answer: FALSE Diff: 2 Section: 12.5 Managing Resources in Multiproject Environments Skill: Factual AACSB Tag: Reflective 10) In-process inventory represents the amount of work waiting to be completed b ut delayed due to unavailable resources. Answer: TRUE Diff: 2 Section: 12.5 Managing Resources in Multiproject Environments Skill: Factual AACSB Tag: Reflective 12.2 Fill in the Blank 1) The __________ is primarily limited by availability of a type of labor or pro ductive asset but may also contain some activities of work package elements that must be finished by a certain date. Answer: mixed-constraint project Diff: 1 Section: 12.1 The Basics of Resource Constraints Skill: Factual AACSB Tag: Reflective 2) The best method for establishing the existence of resource conflicts across p roject activities uses __________ to analyze project resources against scheduled activities over the project's baseline schedule. Answer: resource loading charts Diff: 1 Section: 12.1 The Basics of Resource Constraints Skill: Factual AACSB Tag: Reflective 3) The concept of __________ refers to the amounts of individual resources that a schedule requires during specific time periods. Answer: resource loading Diff: 2 Section: 12.2 Resource Loading Skill: Definition AACSB Tag: Reflective 4) The work breakdown structure and activity networks are needed to create a res ource __________ or __________. a(n) __________ commonly occurs when the resou rce schedule is reworked to eliminate sources of resource conflict. or __________.3 Resource Leveling Skill: Conceptual AACSB Tag: Reflective 8) __________ are used to display the amount of resources required as a function of time on a graph. which proponents say results in the smal lest schedule slippage in the overall project. for e ach day a project is delayed past the contracted delivery date. Answer: liquidated damages Diff: 2 Section: 12. usage calendar Diff: 2 Section: 12.2 Resource Loading Skill: Factual AACSB Tag: Reflective 5) __________ is the process that addresses the complex challenges of project co nstraints as to minimize the effects of resource demands across the project's li fe cycle.Answer: loading form. Answer: slack Diff: 2 Section: 12.3 Resource Leveling Skill: Factual AACSB Tag: Reflective 7) As resource leveling proceeds. Answer: Resource loading charts Diff: 2 Section: 12.4 Resource Loading Charts Skill: Definition AACSB Tag: Reflective 10) Schedule slippage often results in financial penalties.3 Multiple Choice . Answer: ripple effect Diff: 2 Section: 12.3 Resource Leveling Skill: Definition AACSB Tag: Reflective 6) One heuristic for prioritizing resource allocation is to apply resources to a ctivities with the smallest __________. Answer: Splitting Diff: 2 Section: 12.5 Managing Resources in Multiproject Environments Skill: Factual AACSB Tag: Reflective 12. Answer: Resource leveling (resource smoothing) Diff: 2 Section: 12.4 Resource Loading Charts Skill: Definition AACSB Tag: Reflective 9) __________ an activity means interrupting the continuous stream of work on an activity at some midpoint in its development process and applying that resource to another activity for some time period before returning the resource to compl ete the original task. Answer: B Diff: 1 Section: 12. or computing time available to accomplish all that he had left to do. C) mix-constrained. Answer: D Diff: 1 Section: 12. B) capacity. The deadline loomed and he had several other thing s to accomplishî deadlines for papers and key correspondence that demanded replies. they find themselves with a bit of a: A) time constraint. Answer: A Diff: 1 Section: 12. B) resource constrained one. C) mix-constrained one. Answer: C Diff: 1 Section: 12. B y his reckoning. B) resource-constrained.1) A project that must be finished by December 31st is: A) time-constrained. D) resource loading charts. D) drag .1 The Basics of Resource Constraints Skill: Conceptual AACSB Tag: Reflective 3) The assistant professor frantically prepared his tenure and promotion dossier for the personnel committee. B) network diagrams. paper. B) resource constraint. D) personally constrained one.1 The Basics of Resource Constraints Skill: Definition AACSB Tag: Reflective 5) The amounts of individual resources that a schedule requires during specific time periods is referred to as the resource's: A) loading. C) mixed constraint.1 The Basics of Resource Constraints Skill: Definition AACSB Tag: Reflective 2) The One Shovel Construction Company is hired by the City of Edmond to lay sew er pipe from the east end of town to the west end of town. While the crew would like to begin at both ends simultaneously and have a dramatic ceremony when both ends meet.1 The Basics of Resource Constraints Skill: Conceptual AACSB Tag: Reflective 4) The best method for establishing the existence of resource conflicts across p roject activities uses: A) Gantt charts. D) capacity-constrained. he probably didn't have enough toner. C) constraint. C) Pareto diagrams. His project is unfortunately a: A) time constrained one. D) partial network. Answer: A Diff: 2 Section: 12.2 Resource Loading Skill: Definition AACSB Tag: Reflective 7) A resource loading form can be generated once you have developed: A) the activity network and productivity profile. Answer: C Diff: 2 Section: 12.2 Resource Loading Skill: Definition AACSB Tag: Reflective 6) A resource loading form is also known as a(n): A) load schedule.Answer: A Diff: 1 Section: 12. Resource Suki 64 A 16 C 24 D 24 Terri 40 B 24 E 16 hrs hrs hrs hrs hrs hrs hrs Work Work Work Work Work Work Work Work Details 23-Oct 30-Oct 32h 32h 16h 16h 8h 24h 16h 16h 8h 16h 8h 8h 8h A) Suki B) Terri C) Both D) Can't be determined from the information provided. D) the project budget and the productivity profile. C) the activity network and the work breakdown structure.2 Resource Loading Skill: Definition . B) the work breakdown structure and the project budget. Answer: B Diff: 2 Section: 12. D) network resource profile.2 Resource Loading Skill: Factual AACSB Tag: Reflective 8) Which of the following would NOT typically be displayed in a resource loading table? A) the project team members B) the tasks the project team members have been assigned C) the time the activities are expected to take D) the expenses allocated to the activities Answer: D Diff: 2 Section: 12.2 Resource Loading Skill: Factual AACSB Tag: Reflective 9) Use the resource loading table to determine which of the Yaki sisters is over -allocated. C) activity resource schedule. B) resource usage calendar. D 18 Predecessor WBS ID A) Activity A B) Activity B C) Activity C D) Activity D Answer: D Diff: 2 Section: 12. B) resource leveling. C.AACSB Tag: Reflective 10) The process that addresses the complex challenges of project constraints is known as: A) TOC.E. C) A common approach to analyzing resource-leveling problems is to apply heurist ics.3 Resource Leveling Skill: Analytical AACSB Tag: Analytic Skills 13) The project described in the table uses the same resource for activities A. C) constraint scheduling.3 Resource Leveling Skill: Conceptual AACSB Tag: Reflective 12) The project described in the table uses the same resource for activities A. and D. Which activity gets first use of this resource if we assign the res ource based on the activity with the shortest duration? Activity W 4 A 3 B 4 C 5 Duration -12 W 16 W 15 W 13 Predecessor WBS ID . Answer: C Diff: 2 Section: 12. Answer: B Diff: 2 Section: 12.3 Resource Leveling Skill: Definition AACSB Tag: Reflective 11) Which of these statements about resource management is best? A) A mathematically optimal solution is almost always attainable and should be p ursued. D) resource scheduling. C. Which activity gets first use of this resource if we assign the res ource based on the activity with the smallest amount of slack? Activity W 4 A 3 B 4 C 5 D 6 E 1 Z 7 Duration -12 W 16 W 15 W 13 W 14 B 17 A. B) The project manager should level resources as to maximize fluctuations from t ime period to time period. B.C. combinatorial problem. B. D) Resource management is usually a univariate. and D. E.3 Resource Leveling Skill: Analytical AACSB Tag: Analytic Skills 14) The project described in the table uses the same resource for activities A.C. Which activity gets first use of this resource if we assign the res ource based on the activity with the greatest number of successor tasks? Activity W 4 A 3 B 4 C 5 D 6 E 1 Z 7 Duration -12 W 16 W 15 W 13 W 14 B 17 A.D 18 A) Activity A B) Activity B C) Activity C D) Activity D Answer: A Diff: 1 Section: 12.C.D 18 Predecessor WBS ID A) Activity A B) Activity B C) Activity C D) Activity D Answer: B Diff: 1 Section: 12.E.3 Resource Leveling Skill: Analytical AACSB Tag: Analytic Skills .D 18 Predecessor WBS ID A) Activity A B) Activity B C) Activity C D) Activity D Answer: C Diff: 1 Section: 12. B.C.3 Resource Leveling Skill: Analytical AACSB Tag: Analytic Skills 15) The project described in the table uses the same resource for activities A. Which activity gets first use of this resource if we assign the res ource based on the activity with the lowest activity identification number? Activity W 4 A 3 B 4 C 5 D 6 E 1 Z 7 Duration -12 W 16 W 15 W 13 W 14 B 17 A. C. and D. C. B. and D.D E Z 6 1 7 W 14 B 17 A.E. Activity A 5 B 4 C 5 D 6 E 6 F 6 days days days days days days Duration -A A B C.16) Use the project described in the table to determine the total resources requ ired for activity D if a worker is expected to work half-time (four hours per da y) on this project. Activity A 5 B 4 C 5 D 6 E 6 F 6 days days days days days days Duration -A A B C. Activity A 5 B 4 C 5 D 6 E 6 F 6 A) B) C) D) 4 2 8 6 days days days days days days Duration -A A B C.D E Predecessor hours hours hours hours .3 Resource Leveling Skill: Analytical AACSB Tag: Analytic Skills 18) Use the project described in the table to determine the total resources requ ired for this project on day 2 if a worker is expected to devote half-time (four hours per day) to this project.D E Predecessor A) 36 hours B) 40 hours C) 64 hours D) 128 hours Answer: D Diff: 2 Section: 12.3 Resource Leveling Skill: Analytical AACSB Tag: Analytic Skills 17) Use the project described in the table to determine the total resources requ ired for this project if a worker is expected to devote half-time (four hours pe r day) to this project.D E Predecessor A) 6 hours B) 40 hours C) 24 hours D) 48 hours Answer: C Diff: 1 Section: 12. Assume that the project work is conducted on a 5-day-per-week basis.3 Resource Leveling Skill: Analytical AACSB Tag: Analytic Skills 19) Use the project described in the table to determine the total resources requ ired for this project during week 1 if a worker is expected to devote half-time (four hours per day) to this project. Activity A 5 B 4 C 5 D 6 E 6 F 6 days days days days days days Duration -A A B C.D E Predecessor A) 30 hours B) 20 hours C) 40 hours D) 36 hours Answer: C Diff: 2 Section: 12. Activity A 5 B 4 C 5 D 6 E 6 F 6 days days days days days days Duration -A A B C.Answer: A Diff: 1 Section: 12.3 Resource Leveling Skill: Analytical AACSB Tag: Analytic Skills 21) Use the project described in the table to determine the total resources requ ired for this project on day 10 if a worker is expected to devote half-time (fou r hours per day) to this project. Assume that the project work is conducted on a 5-day-per-week basis.3 Resource Leveling Skill: Analytical AACSB Tag: Analytic Skills 20) Use the project described in the table to determine the total resources requ ired for this project during week 2 if a worker is expected to devote half-time (four hours per day) to this project.D E Predecessor A) 40 hours B) 20 hours C) 28 hours D) 36 hours Answer: B Diff: 1 Section: 12. Activity Duration A 5 days -B 4 days A Predecessor . Assume that the project work is conducted on a 5-day-per-week basis. 3 Resource Leveling Skill: Analytical AACSB Tag: Analytic Skills 23) Use the information in the table and assume that a worker is expected to dev ote half-time (four hours per day) to this project with work taking place on a 5 -day-per-week basis. Which week has the lowest resource usage? Activity A 5 B 4 C 5 D 6 E 6 F 6 days days days days days days Duration -A A B C.C D E F 5 6 6 6 days days days days A B C.D E Predecessor A) week 6 B) week 2 C) week 4 D) week 3 Answer: B Diff: 2 Section: 12.D E A) 5 hours B) 10 hours C) 4 hours D) 8 hours Answer: D Diff: 2 Section: 12.D E Predecessor A) week 6 B) week 2 C) week 4 D) week 3 Answer: A Diff: 2 Section: 12. Which week has the highest resource usage? Activity A 5 B 4 C 5 D 6 E 6 F 6 days days days days days days Duration -A A B C.3 Resource Leveling Skill: Analytical AACSB Tag: Analytic Skills .3 Resource Leveling Skill: Analytical AACSB Tag: Analytic Skills 22) Use the information in the table and assume that a worker is expected to dev ote half-time (four hours per day) to this project with work taking place on a 5 -day-per-week basis. H K J Predecessor 4 6 4 11 5 5 4 6 4 6 6 3 8 11 8 8 3 10 6 4 Hours per Day Time (Days) A) week 3 B) week 2 C) week 9 D) week 8 Answer: D Diff: 3 Section: 12.H K J Predecessor 4 6 4 11 5 5 4 6 4 6 6 3 8 11 8 8 3 10 6 4 Hours per Day Time (Days) A) week 4 B) week 5 C) week 6 D) week 7 Answer: C Diff: 3 Section: 12.24) Use the information in the table and assume that a worker is expected to dev ote half-time (four hours per day) to this project with work taking place on a 5 -day-per-week basis. Which week has the highest resource usage? Activity A -B A C A D B E B F B G C.D H E.F J G.3 Resource Leveling Skill: Analytical AACSB Tag: Analytic Skills 26) Use the information in the table and assume that a worker is expected to dev ote half-time (four hours per day) to this project with work taking place on a 5 -day-per-week basis. Which week has the lowest resource usage? Activity A -B A C A D B E B F B G C.F J G. What is the total resource requirement for the project? Activity A -B A C A Predecessor 4 6 4 11 5 5 Hours per Day Time (Days) .D H E.3 Resource Leveling Skill: Analytical AACSB Tag: Analytic Skills 25) Use the information in the table and assume that a worker is expected to dev ote half-time (four hours per day) to this project with work taking place on a 5 day per week basis. H Predecessor 4 6 4 11 5 5 4 6 4 6 6 3 8 11 8 8 3 10 Hours per Day Time (Days) .H K J Predecessor 4 6 4 11 5 5 4 6 4 6 6 3 8 11 8 8 3 10 6 4 Hours per Day Time (Days) A) 22 hours B) 88 hours C) 44 hours D) 132 hours Answer: B Diff: 1 Section: 12.H J 4 4 6 8 8 3 6 6 6 3 11 8 10 4 A) 365 hours B) 335 hours C) 320 hours D) 310 hours Answer: A Diff: 3 Section: 12.D E. If the project manager is told that the total number of hou rs per week cannot exceed 48.F G.D H E. what is the first week that some resource leveling must occur? Activity A -B A C A D B E B F B G C.D H E.3 Resource Leveling Skill: Analytical AACSB Tag: Analytic Skills 27) Use the information in the table and assume that a worker is expected to dev ote half-time (four hours per day) to this project with work taking place on a 5 -day-per-week basis.D E F G H J K B B B C.F J G.F J G.3 Resource Leveling Skill: Analytical AACSB Tag: Analytic Skills 28) Use the information in the table and assume that a worker is expected to dev ote half-time (four hours per day) to this project with work taking place on a 5 -day-per-week basis. What is the total resource requirement for activity G? Activity A -B A C A D B E B F B G C. There is a limit of 12 hours time spent on this project for any given day. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 19 A B 4 C D 4 E 4 F 6 10 20 4 4 4 4 6 11 21 4 4 4 4 6 12 4 4 4 4 13 4 4 4 4 14 4 4 5 4 4 15 4 5 16 4 5 17 4 5 18 4 5 A) Activities A. Which activity should be left alone if at all possible in the ad justment process among the candidates? Act. 1 2 3 4 5 . and D C) Activities C. What activities are involved in the first resource problem in th is schedule? Act.3 Resource Leveling Skill: Analytical AACSB Tag: Analytic Skills 30) A project consisting of six activities is represented in the resource loadin g table shown below. and E D) Activities D.3 Resource Leveling Skill: Analytical AACSB Tag: Analytic Skills 29) A project consisting of six activities is represented in the resource loadin g table shown below. D. There is a limit of 12 hours time spent on this project for any given day. and C B) Activities B. E. and F Answer: D Diff: 1 Section: 12.K J 6 4 A) week 2 B) week 6 C) week 4 D) week 5 Answer: C Diff: 3 Section: 12. B. C. Answer: C Diff: 2 Section: 12. D) breaking each non-critical activity into two or more components and subdividi ng the resources they use by a similar divisor. interrupting it to use a resource elsewhere. B) the amount of resources required as a function of time. C) starting an activity. B) assigning the work to two or more days.3 Resource Leveling Skill: Analytical AACSB Tag: Analytic Skills 31) A resource loading chart displays: A) the amount of time needed as a function of resource limits. A) Activity B) Activity C) Activity D) Activity Answer: D Diff: 2 A B C D . D) the amount of resources needed as a function of money.4 Resource Loading Charts Skill: Definition AACSB Tag: Reflective 32) Splitting activities refers to: A) assigning the work to two or more workers. Answer: B Diff: 2 Section: 12.6 7 8 9 19 A B 4 C D 4 E 4 F 6 10 20 4 4 4 4 6 11 21 4 4 4 4 6 12 4 4 4 4 13 4 4 4 4 14 4 4 5 4 15 4 5 16 4 5 17 4 5 18 4 5 A) Activity D B) Activity C C) Activity F D) Activity E Answer: A Diff: 2 Section: 12. C) the amount of time needed as a function of money. and then r eturning to work on the activity.4 Resource Loading Charts Skill: Analytical AACSB Tag: Analytic Skills 33) Use this resource load chart to determine which activity uses the fewest res ources. 4 Resource Loading Charts Skill: Analytical AACSB Tag: Analytic Skills 37) The project represented by this resource load chart has a maximum limit of 6 units of resource activity in any day. A) Activity A B) Activity B C) Activity C D) Activity D Answer: B Diff: 1 Section: 12.4 Resource Loading Charts Skill: Analytical AACSB Tag: Analytic Skills 34) Use this resource load chart to determine which activity uses the greatest n umber of resources.4 Resource Loading Charts Skill: Analytical AACSB Tag: Analytic Skills 36) The project represented by this resource load chart has a maximum limit of 6 units of resource activity in any day.Section: 12. A) Activity A B) Activity B C) Activity C D) Activity D Answer: A Diff: 2 Section: 12.4 Resource Loading Charts Skill: Analytical AACSB Tag: Analytic Skills 35) Use this resource load chart to determine which activity is the longest in d uration. The first activities that are strong can didates for shifting are: A) Activity A B) Activities B and C C) Activities D and E D) Activity E and F Answer: C Diff: 2 Section: 12. Which activity could be split to help th e project team finish on time and meet the resource cap? A) Activity A B) Activities B and C C) Activities D and E D) Activity E and F Answer: D Diff: 2 Section: 12.4 Resource Loading Charts Skill: Analytical AACSB Tag: Analytic Skills 38) Penalty clauses for schedule slippage are sometimes referred to as: . 5 Managing Resources in Multiproject Environments Skill: Factual AACSB Tag: Reflective 41) Consider the portfolio of projects described in the table. C) temporal assessments. C) resource underutilization. C) C.5 Managing Resources in Multiproject Environments Skill: Definition AACSB Tag: Reflective 40) Excessive in-process inventory is often caused by: A) schedule slippage. D) D. The resource requ irements are in numbers of labor hours. B) over-ordering supplies. D) late fees. The Greatest Resource Demand rule would begin work with project: Project Date Rec'd 3 Date Due Resource 1 Resource 2 Resource . D) efficiency.5 Managing Resources in Multiproject Environments Skill: Definition AACSB Tag: Reflective 39) The amount of work waiting to be completed but delayed due to unavailable re sources is known as: A) resource utilization. The First in Line rule would begin work with project: Project 3 A B C D Date Rec'd Apr Feb Mar Jan 2006 2006 2006 2006 Date Due Oct Sep Aug Nov 2006 2006 2006 2006 Resource 1 125 200 100 150 200 350 650 250 Resource 2 100 400 200 350 Resource A) A.A) liquidated damages. Answer: A Diff: 2 Section: 12. C) lack of available resources. B) in-process inventory. Answer: C Diff: 2 Section: 12. Answer: A Diff: 1 Section: 12. B) punitive damages.5 Managing Resources in Multiproject Environments Skill: Analytical AACSB Tag: Analytic Skills 42) Consider the portfolio of projects described in the table. D) too much labor. The resource requ irements are in numbers of labor hours. B) B. Answer: B Diff: 2 Section: 12. 5 Managing Resources in Multiproject Environments Skill: Conceptual AACSB Tag: Reflective . Answer: B Diff: 2 Section: 12.A B C D Apr Feb Mar Jan 2006 2006 2006 2006 Oct Sep Aug Nov 2006 2006 2006 2006 200 125 100 150 350 200 650 250 400 100 200 350 A) A. D) D.5 Managing Resources in Multiproject Environments Skill: Analytical AACSB Tag: Analytic Skills 43) Consider the portfolio of projects described in the table. B) resource substitution. The Greatest Resource Utilization rule w ould begin work with project: Project 3 A B C D Date Rec'd Apr Feb Mar Jan 2006 2006 2006 2006 Date Due Oct Sep Aug Nov 2006 2006 2006 2006 Resource 1 200 150 0 150 0 200 250 100 Resource 2 400 170 200 0 Resource A) A. C) C. C) C.5 Managing Resources in Multiproject Environments Skill: Definition AACSB Tag: Reflective 45) Mathematical programming is sometimes used to generate optimal solutions to resource constrained problems in a multi-project setting but suffers from: A) an inability to model project and activity due dates. Answer: A Diff: 2 Section: 12. Answer: D Diff: 2 Section: 12. D) the latest late finishers are scheduled first. D) problem complexity. C) the earliest late finishers are scheduled first. The resource requ irements are in numbers of labor hours. B) the latest early finishers are scheduled first. B) B. B) B. C) resource constraints. Answer: C Diff: 1 Section: 12.5 Managing Resources in Multiproject Environments Skill: Analytical AACSB Tag: Analytic Skills 44) The Minimum Late Finish Time rule stipulates that: A) the earliest late finishers are scheduled last. D) D. Resource constraints may be addressed by leveling a p roject or extending the time available.1 The Basics of Resource Constraints Skill: Factual AACSB Tag: Reflective 2) Use this activity precedence table to create a resource loading profile. Activity A 2 B 3 C 6 D 5 E 3 F 2 G 2 Time A B A C D E. The mixed-constraint project is primarily resource constrained b ut may contain some activities or work package elements that are time constraine d to a greater degree. resource constraints. or date. In the time-constrained project. the work must not exceed some predetermined level of resource use within the organizatio n.4 Essay 1) What are the three types of constraints that projects face. as efficiently as possible. speed is not the ultimate goal. provide examples and suggest ways to address these constraints? Answer: The three main types of constraints that a project manager faces are ti me constraints. and mixed constraints. Time constraints can be addressed by increasing the percentage of worked time un til the due date by working overtime or on weekends and holidays. In the resource-constrained project. buying more powerful or efficient equipment. Acti vity lengths are given in days and an 8-hour day is assumed. or improving work methods can al l help speed up a project. the work must be finished by a certain time. While the project is to be completed as rapidly as possible.12. . Diff: 2 Section: 12. Examples of each wi ll vary. Increasing the labor pool through dedicated personnel or subcontractors or automating processe s.F Predecessor Answer: The loading chart is as follows: Task 10 A B C 8 D E 8 F G 8 Total 8 1 11 8 8 8 8 8 16 8 8 8 16 8 16 8 16 8 16 8 16 8 16 16 8 16 8 8 8 8 2 12 8 3 13 8 4 14 8 5 15 8 8 8 8 8 6 16 7 8 9 The loading profile shows the number of hours required for each of the 14 days o f the project. Mixed constraints can be addressed by so me combination of these techniques. Repeat the fourth step as often as necessary to eliminate the source of resour ce conflicts. There may be any number of individual circumstances why one rule is more appealing than another. Resource leveling has two objectives: . and total float available. . the activity durations. .activities requiring the most resources. . Activities listed in the table are mea sured in the number of eight-hour days. .to allow each activity to be scheduled with the smoothest possible transition across usage levels.activities with the most successor tasks. and . With resource leveling we are required to develop proced ures that minimize the effects of resource demands across the project's life cyc le. create a table showing the resources required for each acti vity.to determine the resource requirements so that they will be available at the r ight time.From this diagram.Diff: 2 Section: 12. . .3 Resource Leveling Skill: Conceptual AACSB Tag: Reflective 5) Create a resource loading table and perform resource leveling on the project composed of the activities in this table.Develop a time-phased resource loading table that shows the resources required to complete each activity. These decision rules can be applied more easily than searching for an optimal or near optimal solution given the complexity of a typical resource management pro blem. . prioritizing activities with the smallest slack has some s upport for resulting in the smallest overall schedule slippage.Identify any resource conflicts and begin to smooth the loading table using on e or more of the heuristics for prioritizing resource assignment across activiti es. The maximum amount of time used per day .2 Resource Loading Skill: Analytical AACSB Tag: Analytic Skills 3) Describe resource levelingî its objectives and the basic five-step technique to pe rform it. The first rule. Diff: 2 Section: 12. Diff: 2 Section: 12. .3 Resource Leveling Skill: Conceptual AACSB Tag: Reflective 4) What are any four heuristics for prioritizing resource allocation to activiti es? Why would a project manager choose one above another? Answer: The decision rules for prioritizing resource allocation discussed in th e text are: . The basic steps necessary to produce a resource-leveled project schedule include the following: . and late finish times. the activity early starts. The fourth rule allows for completing the greatest number of tasks once the activity in question has been completed.Create a project activity network diagram. Answer: Resource leveling is the process that addresses the complex challenges of project constraints.activities with the smallest duration.activities with the lowest identification number.activities with the smallest amount of slack. H J. Activities G. D E E F F G. H has 1 day slack. G has no slack. H. but activities B and D both have plenty of slack. Activity B has a late start of 5 and D has a late start of 4.is 16 hours. and J has 4 days slack. K L Predecessor Answer: The initial resource loading table with early starts is shown below: Act 10 20 A B C D E F 8 G 8 H 8 J 8 K 8 L 8 M 8 Tot. Move J back to a Day 15 start time to resolve this constraint and the new loading table appears below: Act 10 20 A B C D E 1 11 21 8 8 2 12 22 8 8 3 13 23 8 8 4 14 24 8 8 5 15 25 8 8 8 6 16 26 8 7 17 8 18 9 19 8 8 . 16 8 1 11 21 8 8 8 2 12 22 8 8 3 13 23 8 8 4 14 24 8 8 8 5 15 25 8 6 16 26 8 7 17 8 18 9 19 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 24 24 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 16 24 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 16 24 8 8 16 24 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 Day 1 is problematic. B -C. and J combine for 24 hours on Days 11-14. Activity A 6 B 1 C 2 D 4 E 1 F 1 G 6 H 4 J 4 K 3 L 5 M 3 Time --A. Starting D on Day 2 change s the schedule the least and keeps the project under 16 hours per day until Day 11. The total pr oject. The total resource time in any day cannot exceed 16 hours.3 Resource Leveling Skill: Analytical AACSB Tag: Analytic Skills 6) Sam and Dave have identified 9 activities that are required to complete their next project and developed a snazzy resource loading table. Times indicated in the t able are in hours. Activity flo at times are indicated by bracketed cells in the table. and R back to their late start times accomplis hes the objective of finishing on time and at less than 16 hours of labor each d ay. T. they need your help to perform resource leveling on their proje ct such that they can finish it by the close of business on Day 24. Activity 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 . 10 20 Z Y X ] W ] V 6] T ] S 8 R ] P 6 Total 6 6 1 11 21 6 8 8 2 12 22 6 8 8 3 13 23 6 8 8 4 14 24 ] 8 8 5 5 15 8 5 6 16 8 5 7 17 8 5 8 18 8] 5 5 6 6 8 8 8 8 8 6 8 6 8] 4 6 22 8 6 6 22 8 6 6 22 8 6 6 21 8 6 6] 19 8 9 19 19 8 19 8 17 8 11 6 Answer: Pushing activities X. Since they each wor k 8 hours a day. the top row shows the day number of the project.F 8 G 8 H 8 J 8 K 8 L 8 M 8 Tot 16 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 16 16 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 16 16 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 16 16 8 8 16 16 8 16 16 8 8 16 8 8 16 8 16 8 8 Diff: 3 Section: 12. Activity er Day A 9 B 8 C 13 D 11 E 6 F 9 G 9 H 9 M 9 J 4 K 1 L 11 Activity Length Predecessor --A B B C D E F. Worker Days Lisa 1-9 10-14 15-22 23 24-31 32-35 36-52 1 0 6 Loading . J K Lisa Nathan Jake Nathan Jake Lisa Jake Lisa Nathan Lisa Nathan Jake 1 7 6 6 4 4 5 6 7 2 6 7 Resource Resource Hours P Answer: Resource loadings are summarized in the table. Jake on days 10-14 and again on days 20-22.9 19 Z Y X 8 W V 6 T 6 S 8 R 4 P 6 Total 14 6 10 20 6 8 8 11 21 6 8 8 12 22 6 8 8 13 23 8 5 14 24 8 5 15 8 5 16 8 5 17 8 5 18 5 6 6 8 6 8 8 8 8 8 8 6 14 16 6 6 14 16 6 6 14 16 6 6 13 14 6 6 13 14 13 14 13 12 13 8 11 6 Diff: 3 Section: 12. Each worker is avai lable for 8 hours per day. H M.3 Resource Leveling Skill: Analytical AACSB Tag: Analytic Skills 7) What resources have been initially over-allocated in the project described by the table? Assume that all activities will begin at their early start times and require the number of hours per day indicated in the table. G F. Do not level this project. Over-allocations occur w ith Lisa on day 23. G E H. Activity A 14 B 2 C 4 D 9 E 8 Time 0 0 14 2 18 Early Start 4 0 5 6 5 0 4 6 5 0 Resources Slack . K Predecessor 4 5 5 4 5 3 2 4 3 4 Task Answer: The early start times appear in this table. Activity A 14 B 2 C 4 D 9 E 8 F 2 G 3 H 5 K 1 L 13 Time --A B C C D F.10 4 2 0 Nathan 9-19 20-31 32-40 41 42-52 6 0 7 6 0 Jake 9 10-14 15-19 20-22 23-28 29-41 42-52 4 10 6 11 5 0 7 1-8 7 1-8 0 Diff: 2 Section: 12.3 Resource Leveling Skill: Analytical AACSB Tag: Analytic Skills 8) Create a resource loading chart using early start times for the project descr ibed by this table. G 52 Predecessors 15 24 20 30 41 52 50 60 10 5 10 12 6 5 4 2.F G H K L 2 3 5 1 13 18 11 20 26 27 3 2 4 3 4 2 6 2 0 0 Diff: 3 Section: 12. C. E G 9 E H 8 F. F. E 41 G 9 E 41 H 8 F. activity A lines up neatly with major tic marks.4 Resource Loading Charts Skill: Analytical AACSB Tag: Analytic Skills 10) Use this resource loading chart and the information in the table to fill in the rest of the table as completely as possible. Diff: 3 Section: 12. and G must total 30. B. All activities in the chart are shown with early start times. Activity Duration Start Early Finish Resources Slack A 15 -0 B 9 A 15 C 5 A 15 D 6 B 24 E 11 D 30 F 11 C. Answer: Activities R and W gerrymander a bit and are indicated by shaded polygo ns. Resource use is open to some interpretation. Activities A. and F all l ine up with major tick marks. Activity Duration Start Early Finish Resources Slack A -B 9 A C 5 A D B E 11 D F C. the remainder of the activities can be guesstimate d. G Predecessors Early Answer: Regarding durations.5 Early 0 0 21 0 0 0 2 0 .4 Resource Loading Charts Skill: Analytical AACSB Tag: Analytic Skills 9) Create a resource loading chart for the project described by this network. A ctivities B and D must total 15 in length and activities E. and mathemat ical programming. 3 7 3 3 2. indicating which activities have been adjusted. Activities R and M both have 5 days of slack. This is the easiest heuristic to follow. . project completion time is 20 days but the combination of activities R and G and activities M and D exceed the 8-hour-per-day threshold. Diff: 1 Section: 12. Show your new resource loading c hart. resource utilization. Diff: 3 Section: 12. Answer: The heuristics discussed in the text are first in line.The greatest resource demand decision rule determines which projects in the co mpany's portfolio will pose the greatest demand on available resources. . The assumption being made is that projects that are more consumptive of resources ar . and i n-process inventory for a project manager in a multi-project environment? Answer: Schedule slippage is a negative consequence on time performance for a p roject. Resource utilization can be increa sed by deploying all available resources as fully as possible. 2 2 2 5 3 4 1. but it can defy comm on sense in favor of ease of use. 3 6 2 Resource Time/Day Resource Answer: The initial resource loading chart is below.4 Resource Loading Charts Skill: Analytical AACSB Tag: Analytic Skills 12) What are the trade-offs among schedule slippage. W K Predecessor 5 1 3 1. M must be delayed until D is completed. greatest resour ce demand.The first in line heuristic allocates resources based upon which project enter s the queue first.4 Resource Loading Charts Skill: Analytical AACSB Tag: Analytic Skills 11) Create a resource loading chart for the project described by this table and then adjust activities by splitting them or delaying them in order to meet the r esource constraints of 8 hours of work per day.5 Managing Resources in Multiproject Environments Skill: Conceptual AACSB Tag: Reflective 13) What are any three common heuristics that can be used to schedule resources in a multi-project environment? Comment on their advantages and disadvantages. these pr ojects are allocated resources first and then other projects are scheduled. minimum late finish time. What is the change in proj ect completion dates? Activity G 5 F 2 D 4 R 3 W 5 M 4 K 4 Z 2 Time --G F D R M. it will begin then and be completed on day 8. greatest resource utilization. Resource utilization is the degree to which available resources are depl oyed and in-process inventory represents the amount of work waiting to be comple ted but delayed due to unavailable resources. if activity R is delayed until day 5.Diff: 2 Section: 12. which will then delay the project's completion by 4 days. so these activities should be accommodated firs t and the rest of the system subordinated to the bottlenecks' needs. Diff: 1 Section: 12. If other projects are added to the company portfolio while the first project is st ill viable. . While mathematical programming can achieve an optimal solution to these proble ms. resulting in good performance on the utilization performance measure. the problem set up and solution can be extraordinarily complex. Projects with more slack can wait a while for the resources without becoming late.5 Managing Resources in Multiproject Environments Skill: Conceptual AACSB Tag: Reflective . The constraints of limited resources. how can it be applied to resource decision s. opportunities for activity splitting. and what are the advantages and disadvantages of doing so? Answer: Math programming is sometimes used to generate optimal solutions to res ource-constrained problems in the multi-project setting. due dates. and resource substitution limit our ability to achieve the aforementioned goals . the large number of computational variables. and the time necessary to generate a sufficiently smal l set of options. its use is limited due to the complexity of the problem. . The common goals of minimizing total development time a nd lateness and maximizing resource utilization across all projects can all be a ddressed by mathematical programming. the utilization of resources may remain high when the new projects a re considered with the existing projects. in effec t keeping them as close as possible to on schedule.Greatest resource utilization is a slight variation on the greatest resource d emand heuristic. .Mathematical programming can generate optimal decisions to resource constraine d problems. prec edence relationships among activities and projects. Projects with high levels of resource utilization are scheduled first.e likely sources of bottlenecks. While solutions are optimal. just as it can be emplo yed for single projects. The danger is that resour ce starvation of projects with seemingly abundant slack may result in every proj ect in the portfolio being delivered late.The minimum late finish time prioritizes projects with minimal slack.5 Managing Resources in Multiproject Environments Skill: Conceptual AACSB Tag: Reflective 14) What is mathematical programming. Diff: 2 Section: 12. This rule a nd the greatest resource utilization rule may result in dedicating too many reso urces to a project that simply isn't profitable or has poor margins when compare d with projects that may represent low hanging fruit. concurrent and otherwise activity performance requirements.
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