13CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM CHAPTER REVIEW Blood vessels include arteries (and arterioles ) that take blood away from the heart; capillaries, where exchange of substances with the tissues occurs; and veins (and venules ) that take blood to the heart. The movement of blood in the cardiovascular system is dependent on the beat of the heart. During the cardiac cycle, the SA node ( pacemaker ) initiates the beat and causes the atria to contract. The AV node conveys the stimulus and initiates contraction of the ventricles. The heart sounds, lub-dup, are due to the closing of the atrioventricular valves, followed by the closing of the semilunar valves. Blood pressure accounts for the flow of blood in the arteries, but because blood pressure drops off after the capillaries, it cannot cause blood flow in the veins. Skeletal muscle contraction pushes blood past a venous valve, which then shuts, preventing backward flow. The velocity of blood flow is slowest in the capillaries, where exchange of nutrients and wastes takes place. The cardiovascular system is divided into the pulmonary circuit and the systemic circuit. In the pulmonary circuit, two pulmonary arteries take blood from the right ventricle to the lungs, and four pulmonary veins return it to the left atrium. To trace the path of blood in the systemic circuit, start with the aorta from the left ventricle. Follow its path until it branches to an artery going to a specific organ. It can be assumed that the artery divides into arterioles and capillaries and that the capillaries lead to venules. The vein that takes blood to the vena cava most likely has the same name as the artery that delivered blood to the organ. In the adult systemic circuit, unlike the pulmonary circuit, the arteries carry oxygenated blood and the veins carry deoxygenated blood. Blood has two main parts: plasma and cells. Plasma contains mostly water (90–92%) and proteins (7–8%), but it also contains nutrients and wastes. The red blood cells contain hemoglobin and function in oxygen transport. Defense against disease depends on the various types of white blood cells. Granular neutrophils and monocytes are phagocytic. Agranular lymphocytes are involved in the development of immunity to disease. The platelets and two plasma proteins, prothrombin and fibrinogen, function in blood clotting, an enzymatic process that results in fibrin threads. When blood reaches a capillary, water moves out at the arterial end, due to blood pressure. At the venule end, water moves in, due to osmotic pressure. In between, nutrients diffuse out and wastes diffuse in. Hypertension and atherosclerosis are two cardiovascular disorders that lead to heart attack and to stroke. Medical and surgical procedures are available to control cardiovascular disease, but the best policy is prevention by following a heart-healthy diet, getting regular exercise, maintaining a proper weight, and not smoking cigarettes. S T U DY E X E R C I S E S Study the text section by section as you answer the questions that follow. 13.1 THE BLOOD VESSELS (P . 240) • A series of vessels delivers blood from the heart to the capillaries, where exchange of substances takes place, and then another series of vessels delivers blood from the capillaries back to the heart. 101 242) • The human heart is a double pump.1. _______________________ Exchanges carbon dioxide and oxygen with tissues. e. Match the vessel in the key to the statements that follow. c. b. _______________________ Has valves. arterioles artery capillaries heart vein venules 2. Explain how it is possible to bypass capillary beds by shunting blood directly from arteriole to venule. _______________________ Nervous stimulation causes these to constrict during hemorrhaging. using the alphabetized list of terms. 102 . 4. d. from the lungs to the aorta. _______________________ Takes blood to the heart. 3.2 THE HEART (P . these also act as a blood reservoir. and the left side pumps blood the the rest of the body. a. the right side pumps blood to the lungs. 13. Key artery vein capillary a. _______________________ Has the thickest walls. Label the blood vessels in this diagram. Trace the path of blood through the heart from the vena cava to the lungs. b. f. _______________________ Takes blood away from the heart. d. b._______________ valves close. Atria d. Now the c. n. 9. How does the thickness of the walls of the ventricles relate to their functions? 7. time 0.15 sec 0. ___________________ pacemaker b. aorta aortic semilunar valve atrioventricular (mitral) valve atrioventricular (tricuspid) valve AV node chordae tendineae inferior vena cava left atrium left ventricle pulmonary artery right atrium right ventricle SA node septum superior vena cava a._______________ valves into the chambers called the b. When the atria contract. f. k l.04 seconds 103 . b. Label the parts of the heart using the alphabetized list of terms. The closing of these valves is the lub sound. g. e. the ventricles contract and force the blood into the arteries. Heart sounds. ___________________ base of right atrium near the septum d.______________________________________ 0. 6.30 sec 0. this forces blood through the a.____________________________________ T wave c.40 sec a. ___________________ contraction of ventricles c. ___________________ Purkinje fibers 10. Next. Electrocardiogram. Of what significance is each of the following? P wave _____________________________________ a. m. c._______________. Referring to Figure 13. making the dub sound. j. R QRS wave b. Match the following phrases to this key.85 seconds of one heartbeat. o.6 in the text. i.1 mV P T Q S .5. f. e. h. Ventricles 8. c. Key SA node AV node a. fill in the following table with the words systole (contraction) and diastole (relaxation) to show what happens during the 0. ___________________ Questions 13–16 are based on this diagram. Match the following actions to the divisions of the nervous system. What force accounts for blood flow in arteries? 14. Why does this force fluctuate? 15.________________ Does the adrenal gland hormone. What force accounts for blood flow in the veins? 17. epinephrine. _______________________ releases norepinephrine to speed up heart d. pressure total cross-sectional area of vessels velocity blood flow arteries capillaries arterioles venules veins 13. speed or slow the heart rate? b. What keeps blood from flowing backwards in veins? 104 . _______________________ slows heart rate 12.11. What causes the pressure and velocity to drop off? 16. Does the hormone thyroxine from the thyroid speed or slow the heart rate? a. _______________________ active under times of stress c. Key parasympathetic system sympathetic system a. _______________________ normal body functions b. d. ___________________ helps blood clot. 105 .________________. Plasma is mostly a. Name three differences between red blood cells and white blood cells. right atrium from the liver: liver c. globulin. becomes oxyhemoglobin in the tissues d. ___________________ transports cholesterol. 23. The red blood cells. scientifically called a. c. ______________________ in size than red blood cells. Trace the path of blood from the aorta to the liver: aorta a. 25.__________________. 246) • The pulmonary arteries transport blood low in oxygen to the lungs. red blood cells are destroyed in the e._______________ is characterized by an insufficient number of red blood cells or not enough hemoglobin. are made in the b. b. vena cava liver 13. and the pulmonary veins return blood high in oxygen to the heart. they do have a b. and they do not contain ________________. White blood cells.________________ and b.13._______________ and contain d._________________. After about 120 days._______________. they are biconcave disks that lack a(n) c. __________________________ __________________________ _______________________________________ digestive tract b.3 VASCULAR PATHWAYS (P . or all plasma proteins. White blood cells are a. Trace the path of blood to the lungs: right ventricle a. a._________________. 20. 249) • Blood is composed of cells and a fluid containing proteins and various other molecules and ions. left atrium 19. albumin. 22. globin contains iron c. d.________________._______________ and _________________._______________. c. are made in the b. from the legs: legs c. ___________________ helps maintain the pH and osmotic pressure of the blood. Circle the items that describe hemoglobin correctly: a. Upon maturation.4 BLOOD (P . 21. makes red blood cells red f. makes eosinophils red 24. The condition of f. becomes deoxyhemoglobin in the tissues e. scientifically called a. 18. _________________________________ _________________________________ ____________________________________ ____________________________________ lungs b. heme contains iron b. ___________________ transports bilirubin. • The systemic circuit transports blood from the left ventricle of the heart to the body and then returns it to the right atrium of the heart. • Blood clotting is a series of reactions that produces a clot—fibrin threads in which red blood cells are trapped. Place the correct plasma protein in the blank: fibrinogen. The patient becomes both anemic and incapable of fighting disease organisms. 28. 0 30 mmHg 21 mmHg 10 b. oxygen. A type of cancer called a. 20 9 30 c. ___________________ A cell with a bilobed nucleus and red-staining granules that becomes abundant during allergies and parasitic infections. cells and release histamine. water and wastes. produce antibodies and the T lymphocytes destroy cells that contain viruses. 27. net pressure in. 6 h. a.__________________ occurs when abnormally large numbers of immature b. blood pressure (two times)._________________ Which substance is the actual clot? c. b._________________ Which substances function as enzymes? b. protein a. e. Vitamin a. Explain the diagram. j. these become mast macrophage. The element b. water. 31. Why is there excess tissue fluid and what happens to it? ____________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________ 106 . ___________________ A large agranular cell that takes up residence in the tissues and differentiates into a voracious ___________________ A cell with blue-staining granules that takes up residence in the tissues.255) • Exchange of substances between blood and tissue fluid across capillary walls supplies cells with nutrients and removes wastes. f. The following shows the reactions that occur as blood clots: platelets ———————— > prothrombin activator prothrombin ——— ———— > thrombin fibrinogen ———— ———— > fibrin threads Does the left-hand side or the right-hand side list substances that are always present in the blood? a. Place the name of the correct white blood cell (neutrophil. ___________________ An agranular cell with a large._________________ 29. e. d. g. eosinophil. ________________ fill red bone marrow. round nucleus that occurs in two versions.______________ is needed for the conversion of prothrombin to thrombin. osmotic pressure (two times). basophil.________________________________________________________________________ 32. Label this diagram using these terms: arterial end of the capillary. lymphocyte. red blood cell salt Venous end of the capillary 15 mmHg d.______________ is needed for the production of prothrombin. c. venous end of the capillary. Several nutrients are necessary for clotting to occur. Capillary Exchange (p. or monocyte) next to the proper description. 21 mmHg mmHg i. The B lymphocytes ___________________ An abundant granular cell with a multilobed nucleus that phagocytizes pathogens.26. tissue fluid. and nutrients. 30. capillary blood pressure. to push blood b. 256) • Although the cardiovascular system is very efficient. 34. atrial contraction. The coronary arteries carry blood a. carry blood away from the heart. ____11. ____ 3. c. initiates the heartbeat. arteries b. ____10. ____ 4. left atrium d. Arteries a. Match the items in the key to the phrases that follow. d. arterial blood pressure. atrial relaxation. ventricular contraction. from the aorta to the heart tissues. from the heart to the brain. All of these are correct. it is still subject to degenerative disorders. the heart muscle contracting. d. join with the aorta. veins c. d. to prevent backflow c. Both are the same. venules ____ 2. the closing of the valves. Key artificial pacemaker needed dietary restriction of salt and/or cholesterol coronary bypass Clearing clogged arteries was unsuccessful. ____ 6. b. What is the function of the heart valves? a. The SA node a. d. works only when it receives a nerve impulse. d. ventricular relaxation. contraction of valves. donor heart transplant Congestive heart failure is present. 33. Which type of blood vessel allows the exchange of material between the blood and the tissues? a. 107 . have a high blood pressure. from the lungs directly to the left atrium. arterioles c. b. b. b. skeletal muscle contraction. c. d. c. right ventricle c. Which of these chambers has the thickest walls? a. capillaries d. a.5 CARDIOVASCULAR DISORDERS (P . Key thrombus and embolus atherosclerosis and hypertension stroke and heart attack weakened valves c. Blood pressure is 200/140. a. d. Both a and b are correct. b. Blood flows in veins because of a. carry blood to the right atrium. b. arteries b. Heartbeat is irregular. c. ____ 5. The heart sounds are due to a. d. blood flowing. c. b. ____ 1. Which of these vessels have the thinnest walls? a. right atrium b. The first wave (the P wave) of an ECG is due to a. c. varicose veins hemorrhoids varicose veins in rectum blood vessels narrowed by plague CHAPTER TEST OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS Do not refer to the text when taking this test. d. is located in the left atrium. The venae cavae a. c. ____ 8. c. b. veins e. left ventricle ____7. directly to the heart from the pulmonary circuit. to give support to the heart ____9. b. carry blood toward the heart. have valves. to stimulate the heart d. blood pressure in the aorta. Match the items in the key to the statements that follow.13. carry blood away from the right atrium. major arteries. All of these are correct. major veins. atria and ventricles. hepatic portal circuit. prothrombin b. the liquid portion of the blood. turn into mast cells c. coronary circuit. c. 19. maintaining osmotic pressure b. 17. hormones. U -shaped nucleus. all of these 18. become veins. Choose the best description of neutrophils. lymphocyte b. Plasma is a. d. picks up hydrogen ions. d. aorta. Which of these is not a valid contrast between red blood cells and white blood cells? red white a. neutrophil 22. b. present with allergies d. a. Hemoglobin a. red bone marrow. low hemoglobin. combines more readily with hemoglobin than oxygen does. viral infection c. b. 26. b. bilobed nucleus. Carbon monoxide is poisonous due to the fact that it a. 21. c.____12. Which of the following white blood cells has granules and is phagocytic? a. coronary artery. 108 . erythrocyte–leukocyte b. multilobed nuclei. aorta. lungs. kidney-shaped nucleus. phagocytic–motile c. pulmonary circuit. the same as tissue fluid. d. fibrinogen 27. do not take up stain b. d. b. phagocytic. present with allergies d. The major portion of the cardiovascular system is called the a. a. fighting infection d. b. pulmonary veins d. c. destroys red blood cells. transports CO 2 . c. prothrombin activator d. All of these are correct. transports O 2 . a widely used source of nutrition for the body c. c. 20. contain valves. b. phagocytic. Which of these is not a normal function of plasma proteins? a. b. or both b. congenital disease d. kidney-shaped nucleus. low red blood cell count. Plasma transports a. related to mast cells c. aorta c. pulmonary arteries. c. nutrients. Blood pressure falls off drastically in the capillaries because the capillaries a. dark blue after staining. vena cava. A heart attack is due to a blocked a. Which plasma protein becomes the threads of a clot? a. turn into macrophages 25. Choose the best description of basophils. c. d. monocyte d. b. systemic circuit. ____15. d. a. Blood flowing to the lungs leaves the heart via the _______________ and returns to the heart via the _______________. superior vena cava b. phagocytic. turn into macrophages 24. Aged red blood cells are destroyed in the a. lymph nodes. do not take up stain b. the liquid remaining after blood clots. basophil c. Systole refers to the contraction of the a. ____14. lobed nuclei. lacks nucleus–has nucleus d. dark blue after staining. thrombin c. ____13. CO 2 . pulmonary veins 16. d. destroys oxygen. destroys the body’s tissues. d. All of these are correct. phagocytic. Which of the following characterizes anemia? a. red after staining. c. c. spleen and liver. contributing to blood clotting 28. have a large cross-sectional area. b. SA node. d. aorta. numerous–less numerous 23. pulmonary artery. red after staining. superior vena cava. All of these are correct. bilobed nucleus. U -shaped nucleus. osmotic pressure of blood drawing fluid from tissues. c. oxygen is exchanged for carbon dioxide. Water reenters capillaries at their venous ends because of a. 31. How do you think lower osmotic pressure would affect capillary exchange? 32. At a capillary a. active transport from interstitial fluid. waste material carried in blood is deposited into tissues. 30. b. glucose is exchanged for amino acids. d.29. water is exchanged for proteins. b. What do you think would happen to the heartbeat if the SA node did not stimulate the AV node? Test Results: _______ number correct ÷ 32 = _________ × 100 = _______% 109 . THOUGHT QUESTIONS Answer in complete sentences. b 17. SA node d. plasma proteins 21. associated with atrial systole b. b 4. 7. In this way tissue fluid is refreshed. leukemia b. larger b. a. At the arterial end of a capillary. b 9. Therefore. The left ventricle is thicker-walled than the right ventricle because the left one must pump blood the greater distance to the entire body. capillary f. and nutrients f. artery b. a. semilunar 9. 110 . distance from heart and increase in cross-sectional area of blood vessels 16. sympathetic system c. ventricles c. artificial pacemaker needed d. coronary bypass b. blood pressure is higher than osmotic pressure. a 15. e. all plasma proteins 22. net pressure in i. erythrocytes b. pulmonary semilunar valve. right ventricle i. a. Tissue fluid would not be returned as efficiently to the venous end of the capillary. monocyte d. The ventricles would not be signaled to contract. associated with ventricular systole c. nutrients. a 10. The right ventricle only pumps the shorter distance to the lungs. septum o. diastole 8. The shunting of blood around capillary beds is possible because each bed has a thoroughfare channel that allows blood to flow directly from arteriole to venule. prothrombin activator and thrombin c. lymphocyte b. calcium 30. vena cava. fibrin threads 29. anemia 23. b 25. a 3. atrioventricular valve. b 11. hemorrhoids c. lefthand side b. atrioventricular (tricuspid) valve g. parasympathetic system 12. aorta b. ventricular systole would not take place. venules f. eosinophil 27 a. d 12. a. a 30. superior vena cava c. AV node e. a. left atrium m. a. a.ANSWER KEY STUDY EXERCISES 1. liver and spleen f. b 28. neutrophil c. aortic semilunar valve l. chordae tendineae h. artery c. a 6. a. a. globulin b. albumin d. a. d 21. blood pressure c. b 31. atrioventricular (mitral) valve n. blood pressure h. and oxygenated blood would not effectively flow to the body’s tissues. SA node b. inferior vena cava j. This system never retrieves all the water that leaves capillaries. varicose veins d. aortic semilunar valve. inferior vena cava 19. a. net pressure out d. water. vein e. aorta 5. b 23. It would remain in the tissue spaces. K b. atrioventricular valve. nucleus c. capillaries e. a. left ventricle. atherosclerosis and hypertension CHAPTER TEST 1. blood pressure 14. c 16. d 22. tissue fluid. red bone marrow c. white blood cells (leukocytes) 28. a. d. a. systole and diastole of the left ventricle of the heart 15. water b. fibrinogen c. a 5. c 2. Sphincter muscles prevent blood from flowing into the capillaries. red bone marrow 25. a. right atrium f. a. mesenteric arteries b. 32. artery d. a. systole f. hemoglobin e. a 19. basophil e. diastole e. heart b. speeds b. atrioventricular b. c 8. and edema would result. thrombus and embolus b. leukocytes b. arterioles d. lungs. iliac vein d. arterial end of capillary b. associated with ventricular recovery 11. valves 18. diastole d. AV node c. a. hepatic vein 20. d 26. c 14. and excess tissue fluid is picked up by lymphatic vessels and returned to the bloodstream. c 29. a. vein 3. Therefore water. pulmonary veins c. parasympathetic system b. nucleus d. therefore water and wastes enter a capillary. At the venous end of a capillary. a 20. osmotic pressure is higher than blood pressure. hemoglobin 26. diastole c. pulmonary veins. oxygen. systole b. left atrium. a. d 18. 4. vein c. speeds 13. right atrium. a. d 27. AV node d. dietary restriction of salt and/or cholesterol c. a 24. lungs b. osmotic pressure j. osmotic pressure e. AV node 10. 33. 32. 31. pulmonary artery k. a. left ventricle 6. donor heart transplant 34. a. skeletal muscle contraction 17. water and wastes g. pulmonary artery. c 13. and oxygen leave a capillary. a. right ventricle. hepatic portal vein c. 24. vein 2. sympathetic system d. d 7. pulmonary arteries b.