Turbine Training Courseware

March 30, 2018 | Author: ABVSAI | Category: Valve, Control Theory, Steam, Relay, Boiler


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(汽轮机专业)( Turbine part ) INDIAN OPERATION PERSONNEL TRAINING OUTLINE IN C HINA 印方来华人员培训大纲 In order to satisfy the safety in production, and operation and maintenance need of Indian WCPCL 135MW unit , the Indian operation personnel will come to China for one-month intensive training in accordance with the contract provision so as to guarantee the training effect and truly improve the capacity of independent operations and troubleshooting for operators , the training method is adopted by focusing on theoretical lectures according to actual situation. It mainly aims at the same type of domestic unit WPCPL135MW unit’s operation and maintenance for training, Site visit and study and 135MW simulator training. therefore the training programs (total: 2 working days) is as follows : 为满足印度 WCPCL135MW 机组的安全生产和运行维护需要,根 据合同规定,印方人员将来华进行集中培训。为确保培训效果,真正 提高运行人员的操作和事故处理能力,结合实际情况,主要采用集中 理论讲课、国内同类型机组现场参观学习和 135MW 仿真机培训的 方式。汽轮机专业特制定培训大纲如下(计划共计 2 个工作日): 培训内容 汽轮机概述 计划课时 第 1课 培训目标 了解 WPCPL135MW 机组设计原则,汽 轮机总体规划,热力系统流程 汽轮机主机部分介绍, 第 2 课 了解汽轮机主机部分结构,汽缸,转子 机组运行特点 、轴承及盘车 控制系统,调节保安系 第 3 课 了解汽轮机热工控制及保护部分, EH 统介绍 油系统 润滑油系统 第 4课 了解系统流程,主要设备特点 主再热蒸汽系统 第 5课 了解主再热蒸汽系统及旁路系统,疏水 系统流程 抽汽系统、轴封系统、 第 6 课 了解抽汽系统、轴封系统、真空系统流 真空系统,辅助蒸汽系 程,主要设备特点 统 凝结水系统高低压给水 第 7 课 了解系统流程,主要设备特点 系统冷却水系统 机组启停操作及事故处 第 8 课 了解汽轮机主辅机启停操作及注意事项 理 ,事故处理 备注 汽轮机运行培训内容 STEAM TURBINE OPERATION TRAINING CONTENTS  第一课 汽轮机概述  General Description of Turbine    本工程是由四台 DG440/14.29-Ⅱ10 煤粉锅炉、四台 N13513.73/537/537 汽轮机及四台 QF-135-2 型发电机组成的 4×1 35MW 燃煤汽轮发电机组。  This project (4 × 135MW coal-fired turbine-generator unit) c onsists of 4 x DG440/14.29-Ⅱ10 pulverized coal fired boiler s,4xN135-13.73/537/537turbines and 4x QF-135-2 generato rs. N135-13.7/537/537-2 型汽轮机是东方汽轮机厂制造的超高压 135MW 机 型,为一次中间再热、单轴、双缸双排汽凝汽式汽轮机。 主要技术规范: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 型号: N135-13.73/537/537-2 型 型式:超高压中间再热、单轴、双缸双排汽凝汽式汽轮机 功率: 135MW ( THA 工况) 最大功率: 143.79MW ( VWO 工况、背压 7.85KPa ) 额定蒸汽参数 新蒸汽: (高压主汽阀前) 13.73MPa/537℃ 再热蒸汽:(中压联合汽阀前) 2.304MPa/537℃ 背 压: 9.0 kPa(THA 工况 )( 设计冷却水温 32.5℃) 额定新汽流量: 409.4t/h 最大新汽流量: 440t/h 配汽方式:全电调(阀门管理) Main Technical Specifications 1 Type: N135-13.7/537/537 2 Model: super high pressure intermediate reheat, single shaft line, double casings and double exhaust condensing steam turbine. 3 Power: 135MW ( T-MCR ) 4 Maximum power: 140.96MW ( VWO conditions, back pressure 9.0KPa ) 5 Rated steam parameters Fresh steam: ( before HP main stop valve ) 13.73MPa/537℃ Reheat steam: ( before MP combined steam valve ) 2. 304MPa/537℃ Back pressure: 9.0kPa (THA conditions) (Design cooling water temperature 32.5℃) 6 Rated fresh steam flow: 409.4t/h 7 Maximum fresh steam flow: 440t/h 8 Steam distribution mode: full electronic regulating ( valve management ) 9 Rotation direction: clockwise when viewed in the direction from turbine towards generator 10 Speed: 3000r/min 11 Shaft line critical speed: ( calculated value ) r/min 1st step 1300 (generator 1st step) 2nd step 1807 (HIP rotor step) 3rd step 2559 (LP rotor step) 4th step 3485 (generator 2nd step) Note: Generator critical speed shall be the one that is provided by the generator manufacturer. 12 Number of steam passage stages: 31 stages in all, of which: HP part: 1 regulating stage + 8 pressure stages MP part: 10 pressure stages LP part: 2 x 6 pressure stages 13 Feed water heat recovery system: 2 HP heaters + 4 LP heaters + 1 deaerator 14 Steam sealing system: self-sealing system (SSR) 15 Last stage blade length: 660mm 16 Last stage moving blade circular exhaust area: 2×4.14m2 汽轮机热力系统工艺流程: Steam turbine thermodynamic system technical process : 电厂汽轮机所涉及的热力系统主要有:主再热蒸汽及旁路系统、抽汽系 统、凝结水系统、高低压给水系统、轴封系统、真空系统、循环冷却水系统 、辅助蒸汽系统。 其他系统有 润滑油及顶轴油系统、调节保安系统、仪表用压缩空气系统 、控制系统 DCS 、 DEH 、 SCS 、 BPC 、 ETS 、 TSI 等 . Steam turbine in this power plant involves that thermodynamic system mainly has : Main reheatedsteam and bypass system, extraction steam, condensate water system; HP/LP feed water system,gland seal system, vacuum system, Circulating cooling water system and auxiliary steam system. The other system has Lube oil and jacking oil system, emergency governing system, Instrument compressed air systems, control system DCS 、 DEH 、 SCS 、 BPC 、 ETS 、 TSI, etc. Steam Turbine Thermal System Process:Water through desalination fill into the condenser, and condensate pump shaft seal heater by 1, 4 low pressure heaters into the deaerator deaerator, deaerator after condensate by Electric Speed to the pump to fight into the boiler to heat up the boost, into high temperature and high pressure steam into the turbine to promote high-speed turbine rotating turbine driven through the coupling with the generator of high-speed rotation and exporting electricity. Turbine did the power of steam discharged into the condenser, circulating water cooling into a condensation of water into the deaerator by condensate pump boost. So again and again. The role of water in power plant thermal   主机概述: Outline of turbine main equipment: Host Overview: 4 WPCPL Power Plant Project 135MW steam turbine is themanufacture  of the Dongfang Steam Turbine Works. The model N135-13.73/537/537,the steam turbi ne for ultra-high pressure, a reheat, single axis, twin dual exhaustcondensing unit. End of machine blades 660mm, unit with a total length of 13.5 m. The unit speed control sys tem using the full power transfer DEH control system. This unit is the main steam and reheat steam system uses the unit system. There aresev en back to the heating, two high pressure heaters, deaerator, the four low-pressureheat ers, the unit uses two series to simplify the bypass system. Steam turbine processes: steam through the high pressure main steam valve arranged i n the unit on both sides, by high pressure steam pipes, inlet tube, into the high pressur e cylinder. The high-pressure part of the reflux, and the pressure part of the headarran gement, share a high pressure outside the cylinder, high-pressure exhaust steamre-hea t by arrangement in the pressure of the units on both sides of the joint steam valveinto  the pressure cylinder. Medium-pressure exhaust connecting pipe into the low-pressure cylinder Central by two, and move forward after the shunt, before the passage of the re ar cylinder into the condenser. The unit has a variable load and peaking ability to run, t he composite transformer operating mode. Technical and Economic Indicators and Guarantee Conditions 1 Rated output power can be obtained under the following conditions: a) Fresh steam pressure: 13.73±0.39MPa; Fresh steam and reheat steam temperature: 537℃ b) Cooling water temperature does not exceed 35 ℃ and cooling water flow is not lower than the rated value. •Heaters are put into operation as per relevant provisions •Back pressure rated value:9.0KPa 2 While turbine is under rated operation conditions, the calculated heat rate is: 8404KJ/kW.h(2007.3kcal/kW.h) This guaranteed value is subject to the following conditions: a) Fresh steam and reheat steam parameters are rated ones; b) Back pressure is not higher than the rated value; c) The heat recovery system is operating as per relevant provisions; d) Main feed water flow is equal to the main steam flow; e) Generator efficiency is not lower than 98.5% ; f) Feed water temperature satisfies the final feed water temperature value specified. 第二课 汽轮机主机部分 Part of Steam Turbine Main Equipment 汽轮机本体结构: TURBINE PROPER STRUCTURE : 高中压缸 : HP/IP CYLINDER  The high-pressure cylinder double cylinder structure of this unit, set the sandwich heating system, the four front-end of the nozzle chamber at high pressure within the cylinder. The new steam through through the outer cylinder and 4 inserted inside the cylinder nozzlech amber inlet tube and nozzle chamber into the high pressure within the cylinder. Set upthe  first paragraph of the extraction after high pressure section 7, the mouth of theexhaust ste am of paragraph 2 of extraction, 8,9 the first two partitions are fixed on the 1st partition p ut, high and medium pressure within the cylinder carved face through-holebolt. High pres sure within the outer cylinder set inside and outside the cylinder is relatively dead, in orde r to reduce the thermal expansion of the center of the stator, highpressure outside the cyli nder under catlike level carved face, the outer cylinder of thesupport structure supporting  the front bearing housing and intermediate bearing box theouter cylinder axial force and t he first box, in the box with sliding bodies and the catlikecross key pass. Reheat steam by 2 hot reheat steam pipe into the two medium-pressure combinedsteam v alve, four of Steam tube into the pressure cylinder. Medium voltage level 6,8 andthe mout h of the exhaust steam of 3,4,5 segment extraction, pressure 1, 2, 3 Class divisions in the  medium-pressure cylinder, 4,5,6-level clapboard sleeve is fixed on the 2nd partition, 7,8-le vel partition is fixed on the 3rd partition put put on the 9,10-levelpartition is fixed on the 4 th partition. 低压缸 : LP CYLINDER  Before the low pressure outside the cylinder by the three paragraphs before, the composition of the rear are welded structure, low-pressure cylinder is divided into low-pressure outer cylinder and low pressure within the cylinder. Equipped with front and rear to prevent the cylinder over-temperature water spray p rotection devices. Cylinder bearing is under catlike centerline support to ensure that the unit operation t he rotor and the cylinder centerline.Half of the low pressure outside the cylinder on top of the inlet parts of the expansion joint pipe connected with the inner cylinder inlet port and connectivity, to compensate f or the inside and outside the cylinder differential expansion and to ensure the seal. At the top is equippe d with a total aperture Ф500 valve 2, as the vacuum system of security measures. Suddenly interrupted w hen the condenser cooling water, the cylinder pressure gauge pressure to 0.118 ~ 0.137MPa large valve, 1mm thick asbestos rubber sheet rupture, so that the steam emptying, in order to protect the low-pressu re cylinder, the last stage blades and the safety of the condenser.Half around the bearing plate under low pressure outside the cylinder on the rectangular arrangement of the base rack, under the weight of the e ntire low-voltage part of the bottom row of the vapor port of the size 4.4 × 6.5m, an area of 28.6 square meters of exhaust steam.Exhaust port and condenser can be a rigid connection, may also have the flexibi lity to connect. Rigid connections, the condenser by a spring supported on the basis of the normal operat ion of the condenser water weight from the low pressure outside the cylinder to bear. The test condenser irrigation water of about 490t test requirements must be added to the auxiliary support, does not allow t his weight to be added to the low pressure on the outer cylinder. Adopt a flexible connection, the conden ser weight and water weight are the basis to bear, not the role of low pressure on the outer cylinder, but the low pressure outside the cylinder and foundation shall be exposed to atmospheric pressure. 轴承 : BEARING  The type and structure of the bearingsThis unit a total of five support bearing, includ ing three steam turbine, two generators to shaft positioning and rotor axial force to bear, and the thrust bearing of an independent structure, located in the high pressu re rotor back-end, see Figure 3 - 10-5. In order to minimize the high pressure rotor b earings at both ends of the span, the thrust bearing unit with an independent struct ure with a spherical bearing sets, and rely on the the spherical ability to ensure the t hrust pad load evenly. Work thrust pad and positioning thrust pad 11. Are located o n both sides of the front and rear of the rotor thrust plate, to bear the axial thrust, a s the shaft relative dead.       Unit during normal operation, the axial thrust backwar d, rated conditions is 45.8 kN, the maximum operating conditions up to 79.4 kN thru st in the rotor thrust disk back-end (motor side) tile to withstand. Special circumstan ces may arise instantaneous reverse thrust, watts by the positioning of thrust in the rotor thrust plate to the front end (machine cephalad) to bear.       .     1 # 4 # Support for this unit bearings are spherical bearing sets elliptical be aring. The bearing housing and the base frameBearing one of the units and the main oil pump and hydraulic adjustment Security Ministry Set in the former be aring box, 2 bearings and thrust bearing mounted in the bearing box, 3 # and 4 # bearing mounted in the bearing box. After the bearings inside to accommoda te the coupling and the rotor ring gear, the cover is installed on turning gear. P ost-bearing box is also equipped with low power coupling casing injector coolin g device, the coupling between the low power and rotor ring gear cover up, the external injection cooling, can be effective in preventing tooth ring blast fever c ausing the temperature of the bearing housing.All of the bearing housing are m ade of cast-welded construction. Before the box of the slider when using self-lu bricating slider to reduce the sliding friction force. The first bearing housing is l ocated in the front bearing housing base shelves, in the bearing housing is loca ted in the bearing housing base rack, after bearing box is located in the bearing box shelf, low-pressure cylinder around the platen bearing 10 base rack 转子 : ROTOR  Rotor: high pressure rotor, the low pressure rotor are the entire fo rging rotor. High and medium pressure rotor and a rigid coupling b etween the low pressure rotor connected to the use of semi-flexibl e coupling connection between the low-pressure rotor and generat or rotor. High pressure rotor brittle transition temperature is 121 ℃. Therefore, when the cold start is necessary to fully warm-up sp eed to the rated speed, the rotor center site must be heated to 121 ℃.High pressure rotor structure of the whole forging material 30Cr 1Mo1V, rotor length of 5940, the total weight of 14.9t (including lea ves).Low pressure rotor whole forging rotor, materials 30Cr2Ni4Mo V, and the total length of 4820mm, with a total weight (including w eight of leaves) ~ 24t. 汽缸滑销系统 : CYLINDER SLIDING PIN SYSTEM  Cylinder slide pin system: the first box with a self-lubricating slider can imp rove the expansion of the cylinder. The absolute dead center of the unit is l ocated in the bearing box. 250mm the location of the machine cephalad bi as in the # 2 bearing centerline.Rely on low-pressure cylinder front-end bef ore the low pressure inlet centerline 2445mmat another rack in the low-pre ssure cylinder on both sides of the base. Unit start-up, high pressure cylind er, front bearing housing forward expansion of the low-pressure cylinderba ckward expansion. High pressure within the cylinder is relatively dead in the high pressure inle t centerline390mm at low pressure within the cylinder is relatively dead in t he low-pressure inletcenterline. Fixed point of the stator, the rotor (as oppo sed to dead center) in the low pressure in the bearings inside the thrust be aring unit startup, the rotor from hereforward expansion. 盘车装置 TURNING GEAR DEVICE  The turning gear unit is located in the bearing housing, the turning spe ed of 4.5 rev / min.The turning gear drive turbine generator start and s top the drive shaft rotation. Theturning gear is installed between the tu rbine and generator bearings cover its basic roleas follows: A. Turning the unit shut down, so that the rotor continuous rotation to avoid due to thecylinder natural cooling caused cylinder temperature d ifference between the rotorbending. Two. The crew rushed to turn before turning the rotor continuous rota tion, to avoid thetemperature difference caused by the valve steam lea kage and steam seal aspiratedrotor bending. At the same time check w hether the rotor bending and movement part of the friction phenomen on. 3. The unit must be in the state of turning Rushes, otherwise too much friction rotor in the stationary state has been rushed to turn will lead t o bearing damage. 4. Continuous turning of a longer period of time can eliminate the nonpermanentbending of the unit long-term outage, and storage or other causes. Unit Operation Characteristics 1 Startup Conditions The startup conditions of this unit are classified based on the inner wall metal temperature of the HP inner casing upper half after regulating stage. Cold startup: less than 150℃; Warm startup: 150℃ ~ 300℃ Hot startup: 300℃ ~ 400℃; Very hot startup: ≥400℃ 2 Startup Mode This unit is started through HIP casing. 3 Operation Control Mode Operator manual mode (manual); operator auto mode (semi auto); turbine self-start mode (auto) 4 Valve Management When the unit is under stable operation, nozzle regulation mode should be taken to minimize valve loss at throttling condition. During the load fluctuation and startup process, throttling regulation mode should be used to ensure full circumferential steam admission to shorten the startup time. This means that all valves will be simultaneously opened and closed. 5 Unit Operation The unit can operate through fixed pressure mode and fixed-sliding-fixed pressure mode. It is recommended to use fixed-sliding-fixed pressure operation mode during the peak-load regulating operation. Fixed pressure operation mode should be used when the unit is running at a load of higher than 90% THA,and lower than 30% THA,sliding pressure operation mode should be used when the unit is tunning at a load range of 90%~30% THA. This operation mode can improve the economic performance and when the unit is running at varied conditions, and can reduce the difference in temperature of the admission steam and reduce the temperature change during load changing. As a result, the low frequency hot fatigue damage of the unit can be reduced. 配汽 本机组控制系统具有阀门管理功能,它能实现两种不同的进汽方式,即喷嘴配汽和 节流配汽。为减小启动过程中的热冲击,启动应采用节流配汽(全周进汽方式),以 避免汽缸及转子应力过大,保证机组顺利启动,在达到目标负荷且温度场趋于稳定后 可切换到喷嘴配汽,保证较好的经济性。 采用喷嘴配汽(部分进汽):高压部分共有 4 个调节阀,对应于 4 组喷嘴。喷嘴组 的序号及汽道数目见图 2-3-1 ,喷嘴组与调节阀序号相对应。当Ⅰ、Ⅱ号调节阀阀杆 开启到 30.24mm 时,Ⅲ号调节阀开启;当Ⅲ号调节阀阀杆行程达到 30.24mm 时,Ⅳ 号调节阀开始开启。 采用节流配汽(全周进汽):高压部分 4 个调节阀根据控制系统的指令按相同的阀 位开启,对应于 4 组喷嘴同时进汽。 再热蒸汽通过 2 个中压联合汽阀分别从汽缸中部上下半四个进汽口进入中压部分,中 压部分为全周进汽。中压联合汽阀内主汽阀和调节阀共用1个阀座,由各自独立的油动 机分别控制。调节阀口径 Ф400mm ,流量在 30 %以下时起调节作用,以维持再热器内 必要的最低压力,流量大于 30 %时,调节阀一直保持全开,仅由高压调节阀调节负荷 从汽机向发电机方向看 第三课 控制系统,调节保安系统,汽轮机电气监视保护系统 CONTROL, EMERGENCY GOVERNING AND TURBINE ELECTRIC SUPER VISORY PROTECTION SYSTEM       本期工程采用炉、机、电集中控制, 1#~4# 机组设一个集中控制室。 This project adopts boiler, turbo generator and electricity central control , 1#~4#unit is set up one Central Control Room(CCR). 辅助车间采用与 DCS 通讯集中监视方式。 The auxiliary workshop adopts DCS communication central monitoring m ode. 控制系统能适应自最低稳燃负荷以上至满负荷范围内的调节要求。可实现锅 炉从点火开始直至机组带满负荷、汽机从升速开始直至机组带满负荷的子组 级自动顺序控制。 The control system can adapt to the requirement of minimum steady com bustion load above to full load within the scope of regulation. It can be re alized that boiler starts from ignition to unit with full load, turbine starts fr om raising speed up to unit with full load sub-group level automatic sequ ence control. 单元机组控制采用分散控制系统 (DCS) 实现。其覆盖范围包括:数据采集系统 (DAS) 、模拟量控制系统 (MCS) 、顺序控制系统 (SCS) 、旁路控制系统 (BPC) 等 . 单元机组 DCS 共配置 5 个操作员站、 1 个工程师站, DCS 公用系统配置 3 个操作 员站和 1 个工程师站。 CRT 及其键盘为机组的主要监控手段,集中控制室操作台上 设置锅炉、汽机及发电机紧急跳闸硬接线按钮及热工信号按钮, UCB 盘上安装有热 工信号、电接点汽包水位计、汽包水位电视、炉膛火焰电视、 PCV 操作盘及大屏幕 ,电气 MIMIC 盘上设置灭磁开关事故、柴油发电机紧急启动硬接线按钮。 The unit plant control adopts Distributed Control System (DCS). The scope of its coverage include Data Acquisition System (DAS), Modulating Control System (MCS), Sequence Control System (SCS), Bypass Control system (BPC),the unit plant DCS configures 5 operators stations and one engineer station altogether. DCS common system configures 3 operators’ stations and one engineer station. Cathode-ray Tube (CRT) and keyboard is main monitoring unit means , the emergency trip hard wired button and I&C signal button for turbine ,boiler and generator are set up on the operating console in the centralized control room(CCR),on the UCB panel is equipped with I&C signal , electric contact drum water gauge, drum water level TV, furnace flame TV,PCV operation board and large-screen, the emergency magnetic blow-out switch and hard wired button for diesel generator emergency start up are set up on the MIMIC panel. 本工程 DCS 控制系统由 GE 新华公司提供,包括 DAS , SCS , MCS , FSSS,BPC,ECS 等部分。 汽机电液控制系统( DEH )由东方汽机厂供,带有 3 个控制机 柜。 DEH 与 DCS 采用相同的硬件,是 DCS 系统的一部分。 DCS control system including DAS , SCS , MCS , FSSS,BPC,ECS and so on will be provided by GE Xinhua company. The turbine Digital Electro-Hydraulic (DEH) control system with three control Cabinets will be provided by Dongfang turbine works. DEH and DCS use the same hardware and is a part of DCS system. 汽机紧急跳闸系统 (ETS) 由东方汽机厂供,冗余的 PLC 采用 Schneider 公司 QUANTUM 系统,带有一个控制机柜。 The turbine emergency trip system (ETS) will be provided by Dongfang turbine works, the redundant PLC with a control cabinet uses Schneider Corporation QUANTUM system. 汽机本体监视仪表 (TSI) 由东方汽机厂供,采用 epro 公司 MMS-6000 系统,带有一个控制机柜。 The turbine Supervision Instrument (TSI) will be provided by Dongfang turbine works. It uses Epro Company’s MMS-6000 system with one control cabinet.   汽轮机的调节保安系统可分为:低压保安系统、高低压接口装 置,高压抗燃油系统和汽轮机安全监视系统。调节保安系统是高 压抗燃油数字电液控制系统 (DEH) 的执行机构,它接受 DEH 发出的指令,完成挂闸、驱动阀门及遮断机组等任务。  Turbine emergency governing system: LP emergency system, HP/LP interface unit, HP fire resistant oil system and turbine supervisory instrument. The emergency governing system is an actuating mechanism of HP fire resistant oil DEH system; it accepts instructions issued by DEH, complete 挂闸 , Actuate valve and shut off unit and so on. Bearing and Shafting Safety Monitoring 1 Bearing Safety Monitoring Supporting bearings and thrust bearing pads are equipped with platinum resistance thermometer to measure the temperature of the Babbitt metal so that the bearings can work in a safe and reliable manner. During the operation, alarms will occur when the thrust bearing pad Babbitt temperature goes up to 100℃, and the unit will shut down when the temperature reaches 110 ℃. Since bearing damage is not necessarily on the Babbitt metal temperature measuring areas, monitoring the temperature of the return oil is also a means used to ensure the safe and reliable operation of the bearings. Supporting bearing end oil return tank and thrust bearing oil return ports are all installed with platinum resistance thermometers to measure the oil temperature. Drain oil pipes on various bearing housings are also provided with thermometers. The rising of return oil temperature means that the bearings are nor working properly and should be treated in a timely manner. When the temperature of the return oil is too high, it is apt to result in the aging of the oil. 2 Monitoring of the Bearing Vibrations Bearing vibration is a comprehensive examination indicator to judge the dynamic balancing situation, installation quality and operation conditions for various rotors of the shaft line. Vertical vibration sensors are installed on the bearing housing covers for bearings 1# ~5# of the shaft line so as to monitor the vibrations of the shaft line. 3 Monitoring of Shaft Vibrations 1 vibration sensor will be installed at both left and right sides of bearings 1# ~ #5 (including generator) at the 45 angle from the horizontal surface so as to measure the relative vibration of the rotor against the shaft. With phase identification impulses being added, the locus of journal center can be viewed through an oscilloscope. 4 Monitoring of Rotor Deflection MP bearing housing cover is equipped with a mechanical rotor deflection indicator. It is used to monitor the deflections of various HIP rotor sections when turning the rotor. For a newly installed unit or a unit under major maintenance, rechecks of run-out values are to be conducted before closing of the casing so as to ensure that the deflection indicator readings are taken when rotor is not bent. Such readings are to be used as the initial valves. During the startup after a major maintenance or startups thereafter, the difference between the readings of the indicators taken prior to turbine running up and the initial values should be less than 0.03mm. If the deviation is too big, analyses must be conducted to identify the reasons and problems identified must be cleared. The unit is not allowed to run up before the deviation value is brought back to the normal situation. After the above work is completed, the screws on the indicator are to be lifted so that the measuring tip is placed away from the rotor surface. In addition to the deflection indicator on the MP bearing housing, there is also an electric highly sensitive eddy current sensor installed on the front bearing box, which is used to continuously measure the eccentricity of the rotors in a non-contact measuring manner. The output signals can be sent to the recorder and computer. When the eccentricity is 0.03mm higher than its initial value, an alarm signal will be sent out. 5 Monitoring of Axial Displacement MP bearing housing is provided with 2 axial displacement sensors to measure the axial displacements of the shaft line. The output signals will be sent to the instrumentation display, recorders and computers in the central control room. In case the displacement exceeds the allowable range, alarming signals will be sent or an emergency shutdown will take place. When the thrust disc is in tight contact against the working thrust bearing pad, the displacement value is “0”; when the shaft line moves towards the generator side, the displacement value is considered positive “+”; when the shaft line moves towards the turbine head, the displacement value is considered negative “-“ When the axial displacement reaches + 0.6mm or –1.05mm, a light alarming signal will be sent; when the axial displacement reaches +1.2mm or – 1.65mm, an emergency shut down should be performed with relevant incident records being taken. Prior to the startup of the unit, the axial displacement indicator should be set to push the rotor towards the generator end. When it is confirmed that the thrust disc is in contact with the working thrust bearing pad tightly, set the signal value to “0”. Adjust the security systemThe regulation of security systems of the turbine can be divided into: low-voltage security systems, high and low voltage interface device, high pressure resistant oil system and turbine safety monitoring system. Adjust the security system is the executive body of the highpressure fire-resistant oil digital electro-hydraulic control system (DEH), it accepts the directives issued by DEH, to complete the task of hanging gates, drive valve and interdiction unit.Steam valve actuator: the location of the steam valves are controlled by the respective executive body, its implementing agencies by the motivation of a hydraulic oil, its open to closed by spring force by the high voltage resistant oil-driven oil motive fuel tank and a control block connection, equipped with solenoid valves, unloading valves, servo valve, check valve control block The anti-fuel system: the anti-fuel system function is to provide the executive body of oil motive power source, by the anti-fuel pump oil, phosphate ester fire resistant oil as working fluid, the working oil pressure 14MPa.Emergency Trip System: a mechanical flying ring critical security features, a mechanical stop solenoid valve and a field manual release three to any action by mechanical interdiction agencies leverage so that the action of the mechanical shut-off valve, vent to high pressure security of oil and the unit shut down. Addition of four high-voltage interrupter solenoid valve, composed of series and parallel, high-voltage the interdiction electromagnetic valve lost power direct vent to the high pressure safety oil and the unit shut down, in order to improve the reliability of the automatic shutdown. Control and security systems Control system (DEH) DEH Overview: The unit consists of two high-pressure main steam valve, four high-pressure regulating valve to control the high pressure inlet, two medium pressure main steam valve, two in the pressure regulating valve control pressure inlet. Described sixinlet valve to the hydraulic actuator to drive to meet the short operating time and high precision positioning requirements. The work of the turbine rotational speed 3000r/min,when the load changes in the grid, causing the turbine speed changes along with the gun part of the Steam Turbine System measured the actual speed of the turbine, and the rated speed 3000r/min compared speed changes to maintain the speed negative feedback frequency differential amplification, adjust the servo con trol and other aspects of control of high pressure regulator valve CV, the ICV opening, forming within thepredefined range. Are using high pressure turbine 10 inlet valve fuel antimotive drivenrefrigerant oil, in addition to six of the control valve CV, ICV continuous control of theservo valve and the DEH computer interface, the remaining two in the pressure of main steam valve RSV two control and two high-pressure main steam valve MSV solenoid valve with DEH interface. In order to ensure the safe operation of the turbine in the hydraulic system comes withseveral sets of redundant Protection Department: Emergency trip device and the test electromagnetic valve High and low pressure interdiction solenoid valve Speeding limit the electromagnetic valve •控制系统主要功能有: •turbine latching •auto adjusting servo system static relation valve on-line adjusting •Control before startup Auto judging hot state Select start-up mode •Speed control Raising speed: setting target, setting raising speed rate, and auto passing through Critical speed 3000/min constant speed •Load control Grid connection with initial load Generator pseudo grid connection test Raising load: setting target, setting load rate Constant pressure –sliding pressure—constant pressure raising load Main steam pressure control Load control Primary frequency modulation CCS control High load limitation Low load limitation Valve position limitation Main steam pressure limitation Runback •Switching over single valve & sequence valve •Over-speed protection (103%) Load rejection Over-speed protection (110%) •On-line test Spray oil test Over-speed test: (electric test, mechanical test) Valve movement test HP emergency tripping solenoid valve test •ATC control •Operator manual control DEH-V 控制功能简介 1) turbine latching 汽机复位(挂闸); Emergency Trip System by resetting the crisis to establish the safety of pressure and open the main valve, and prepare the crew rushed to turn.2) different according to the unit using high-pressure cylinder to start, through intermediate pressure cylinder, high / medium pressure cylinder jointly launched;DEH-V and the bypass system to match, using different inlet unit to start. General domestic unit using the high / medium pressure cylinder start3) ATC since the launch of / experience curve start / operator automatically;DEH-V provides three kinds of means to achieve the unit start-up: ATC since the startThis way, the DEHacquisition turbine steam temperature and metal temperature and stress calculation unit rotor and cylinder, and in accordance with the current operating status of the unit, and automatically generate the target and l rate, the unit brought to rated speed . Grid, ATC automatically fix l loading rate. Start and variable load, the stress of the rotor or cylinder margin target is automatically change or amend the rate of l / l loading rate to ensure that the unit stress within the allowable range. The experience curve to start this way according to the first level of the steam turbine metal temperature to determine the unit is cold, warm, hot, very hot state, according to the turbine operating procedures and operational experience to choose a different l rate, and automatically generate the target warmcomputer time, the unit brought to rated speed. After the grid automatically transferred to the automatic mode of the operator. Operator automatically in this way, by the operator to set the target speed, target load, rate of l and l load rate.4) automatically increases the speed control;DEH to control the speed of the unit according to the speed setpoint and actual speed deviation in accordance with the PID law. The actual speed of the turbine shaft speed measurement probe installed after the "2 out of 3 vote, the speed for a given value depending on the startup mode, respectively, calculated by the ATC stress, experience curve, or gives the operator. 5) The friction checks; Unit start-up process in order to ensure the unit is operating normally at low speeds, check the turbine rotation and monitoring instrumentation system is working properly.DEH designed friction checking, via buttons, DEH automatically unit impulse to 500 ~600rpm, stay five minutes later, turn off automatically to adjust the valve to run to checkunit operation situation. 6) Automatic fast too critical; Flexible rotor (rotor critical speed below the normal operating speed) of DEH automaticdetection speed is in the critical range of the shaft, once the speed to enter the critical section of DEH automatically disables the unit to stay in the region, and preset high ratepassed to prevent excessive vibration unit to ensure crew safety. 7) Warm valve / warm-up; In order to prevent the turbine rotor stress is too large, DEH precise control unit warm-upat the specified speed. DEH system with ATC stress calculation, but also to calculate the expected warm-up time. Some units also consider pre-warm the main steam valve housing, the DEH control side of the main steam valve to open about 10% to 20%,through the steam warm valve, complete, close the main steam valve, ready to Rushes.       8) valve leak test; DEH provided the main steam valve and adjust the tightness test of the valve function.Tightness test of the main steam valve, DEH close all the regulating valve, open all themain steam valve; adjust a valve tightness test, DEH turn off all main steam valve, openall the regulating valve. Tightness test of time and speed records in the trial at the same time, the calculation of the current conditions of the rigor indicators to determine theeligibility of rigor.      9) automatic synchronization control; DEH device interfaces to the same period, to accept the instructions of thesynchronization device automatically adjusts the unit speed, compatible with the grid frequency to provide a guarantee for the smooth grid.     10) with early load automatically After the unit and the network, DEH will be based on the current unit parameter, correctload target automatically with the beginning of the load to prevent reverse poweroperation. 11) electric overspeed protection test, mechanical overspeed protection test; Unit grid, and warm-up for some time, splitting the overspeed protection test. DEH control, were 103%, 107%, 110%, and mechanical emergency trip overspeed test.DEH, according to the different types of test, design appropriate control strategies. 12) the load limit; DEH in the design of high load, low limiter. 13) at constant pressure and sliding pressure operation; Grid of DEH on the unit's load regulation at constant pressure and sliding pressure in two ways, the constant pressure mode, the DEH Control regulator valve to adjust the power. Sliding pressure mode, the DEH Control to adjust the valve remains in a position to adjust the steam pressure from the boiler to control the unit load; to improve the efficiency of the unit in the sliding pressure mode, DEH also designed the valve fully open the "Run mode, when the turbine valves are throttling losses 14) automatically adjusts the unit electrical load; DEH can load open and closed loop control. Open-loop control, DEH only control the valve opening, power generating units is determined by the steam parameters. The closed-loop control, DEH were power control loop or control stage pressure loop to adjust the unit power. Since the control stage pressure reflects the faster, for applications that require load fast response situations. The power circuit is slower, but you can achieve precise adjustment of the power. Extraction Steam Turbine input thermal power decoupling control, then the "hot" power set. 15) automatically adjusts the unit heat load; Extraction Steam Turbine, DEH provides a closed loop adjustment of the heating load according to the extraction pressure, extraction control loop. If you do not put thermoelectric decoupling control, then given power "means" to heat. 16) main steam pressure control and restrictions; To help the boiler control system to maintain the stability of the vapor pressure of DEH design main steam pressure control, turbine throttle pressure is controlled at the set point. At this point, power generating units for the open-loop control. If the machine before the pressure drops to a set point, the DEH Main Steam Pressure limiter will turn off the small regulating valve to maintain the stable operation of the boiler until it reaches the pressure to return to the main steam pressure limiter set point, or to the lower limit of the pre-set valve. The main steam pressure control and limit functions were selected input. Main steam pressure controller set point and the main steam pressure limiter setpoint can also be provided by the boiler control system. 17) heat load / power load decoupling adjustment;Extraction Steam Turbine Extraction Steam load and electric load is to influence each other. DEH provides the extraction of heat load and electrical load decoupling control loop can be achieved within the allowable range of the unit operating conditions, the heat load and electric load adjusted independently without affecting each other. Decoupled manner according to the different needs and specific units, one-way or two-way decoupling control.18) valve management;DEH provides two regulating valve operation modes: a single valve and sequence valve. Single valve means to simultaneously open all the regulating valve, the order Valve refers to the successive open of each regulating valve. The startup of the unit, using a single valve, allows the nozzle group the week inlet, uniform heating unittechnology components to reduce the thermal stress; unit grid, the sequence valve, can make more than one regulator valve is only one valve in a throttled state, helps to reducethrottling losses, improve unit thermal efficiency. DEH provides two valve operation mode switching procedures. 19) valve event experience; In order to prevent the valve jam, DEH control valve full stroke valve testing. , Dependingon the unit forms of the design of the whole trip and partial stroke test, taking into account the joint between the valve open the lift force and the left and right side of themutual locking. 20) in low vacuum protection and limitations; The vacuum is too low will result in the final stage steam turbine blade overheating and damage of DEH, when the vacuum is decreased according to the requirements of the unit, DEH restricted units contribute to the protection of low-pressure cylinder last stage blades. 21) participate in the grid once FM and secondary FM; When the grid frequency changes, DEH automatically adjust the unit output frequency deviation from the compensation network load caused by the change. The one hand, DEH, depending on the size of the units ranging from rate, in proportion to adjust the valve opening, while the adjustable frequency dead zone and load under the limit, that is the first FM; the other hand, DEH can accept CCS system remote load to adjust instruction, and participate in the grid secondary FM. For the case of isolated operation unit, or the power grid caused by the accident to the machine to the electricity grid disengage, DEH In addition to the primary frequency regulation, when the frequency of more than more than the rated frequency of 0.5Hz, DEH automatically into the secondary FM DEH itself frequency regulator to maintain frequency stability 22) in conjunction with CCS systems to achieve machine furnace coordination, the AGC power generation; DEH can accept the remote control command signals of the CCS control system, under normal circumstances, the use of the Pulse interface. DEH to provide load reference volume and FM amount to the CCS system, as a compensation for feedback and power instructions. 23) Rapid Load RUNBACK The case of unit auxiliary fault, DEH can with the boiler to quickly reduce fixed power, the turbine steam consumption and boiler steam production to adapt to. There are two ways of RUNBACK way, one is open-loop control in the event of RUNBACK DEH removal of CCS remote control, removal of the DEH power control circuit of DEH in accordance with the preset rate, direct load shedding given value to the RUNBACK the corresponding load The lower limit so far. Another method is to RUNBACK occur CCS control without excision of the CCS control rate is accelerated by the DEH, the CCS under the control of fast load shedding. 24) Fast load shedding the FCB; When the generator outlet side fails to DEH quickly reduce output. The unit may become islanded operation with regional LAN or Daichang electricity, frequency instability. The main task of the DEH power conditioner into a large network operation to stabilize the frequency. This DEH-V system, specifically designed to power - load unbalance (PLU), and quadratic FM functions, OPC overspeed protection value and and network increased by 103% to 107%. Occur FCB If the output of the turbine generator load> 60%, or speed up over 107%, the PLU action to close the regulating valve. Frequency 25) the overspeed protection control the OPC;103% 110% overspeed protection control, the setpoint can be set according to the specific unit.26) Load rejection predict the LDA;Higher unit load, the occurrence of the generator outlet switch is disconnected, the DEH judgment unit is bound to excessive speeding, for which the unit speed has not reached the OPC value (103%) before they are quickly shut down in advance to adjust valve, effectively preventing the unit speeding, and greatly improve the speed of the dynamic process of adjustment.27) control the power imbalance in the PLU;Main unit of electrical failure, output and load imbalance will cause the unit speed soaring. This is also a preventive measure, the stability of the grid frequency, and to protect the safety of the grid.28) Hand / automatic bumpless switching.DEH design manual and automatic control mode are two ways to track each other, bumpless switching. DEH-V 操作面板 DEH - V 阀门控制画面 (2) security systems(a) Emergency Trip System ETSETS, namely the turbine emergency trip system. When the failure of the turbine and generator tripping, boiler fuel trip, automatically activate the shutdown circuit to quickly close the inlet valve (the main steam valve, regulating valve). The ETS by two kinds of way of the mechanical hydraulic, electrical - hydraulic composition. Fault detection can be mechanical, electrical, two kinds of ways, but the closure of the inlet valve final total depends on the hydraulic pressure to adjust the security system.(b) mechanical - hydraulic emergency tripEmergency Trip to the mechanical overspeed fault detector. When the turbine speed n ≥ 3300r/min under the centrifugal force, a ring of flying out of the emergency trip device out the gate. Emergency trip device affects the interdiction isolation valve block in the shut-off valve commutation, removal of high-pressure safety oil; a one-way valve will allow speeding limit safe oil pressure relief so that the turbine high pressure safety oil pressure relief pressure main steam hydraulic control on the unloading valve, valve and regulating valve oil motivation disappears, the unloading valve is open, so that the steam valve oil incentive to quickly shut down. Main steam valve is fully closed will be given a limit switch signals, electrical control circuit of each check valve to close.(c) electrical hydraulic emergency tripElectrical way to detect the failure of the various fault and tripping of generators, boilers, main fuel trip of the turbine, then electrical obstruction signal simultaneously to mechanical interdiction electromagnet (3YV), interdiction highpressure solenoid valve (5 ~ 8YV) as well as steam valve oil motive interdiction solenoid valve (9 ~ 14YV; 15 ~ 18YV) on. Electrical monitoring system An overview of the electrical monitoring system Turbine Generator Shaft Systems need continuous monitoring of the parameters:speed, zero speed, speeding, Hydroforming, differential expansion of medium voltage,low voltage differential expansion, axial displacement, high pressure cylinder of thermal expansion, the eccentric shaft vibration, tile vibration and turbine emergency trip hit sonhit a speed. Speed Monitoring Speed is zero speed Speed sensor 10, TSI speed and zero speed - a, corresponding to the 0 ~ 5000r/minspeed measurement range, 4 ~ 20mA DC signal output of the monitoring instrumentsent to the DAS. Zero speed relay contact signal output when the speed from highspeed reduced to2r/min, as Turbine automatically turning the start signal. Take two overspeed protection Electrical overspeed protection using three sensors, when the rotating speed n ≥3300r/min and meet three to take two logical requirements, speeding the protection ofthe output relay contacts after ETS logic processing, interdiction turbine. Displacement monitoring High pressure differential expansion A sensor monitor 4 ~ 20mA DC output; when the high pressure differential expansion of≥ 6mm or 3mm ≤-alarm relay output alarm signal. When the high pressure differential expansion of ≥ 6.2mm or ≤- Low pressure differential expansion Using a sensor, monitor 4 ~ 20mA DC output; lowvoltage differential expansion of ≥7mm or ≤6mm, monitor alarm relay output alarm signal. When the lowvoltagedifferential expansion of ≥ 7.2mm or 6.2mm ≤-monitor the risk of the relay output contact signal. Axial displacement Axial displacement monitoring using two sensors, corresponding to the -2 to +2 mmaxial displacement of the measuring range, 4 ~ 20mA DC output monitor. When theaxial displacement values  ≥ 0.6mm or 1.05mm ≤-alarm relay output alarm signal; whentwo axial displacement of ≥ 1.2mm or 1.65mm ≤hazard relay output contact signal toETS, interdiction turbine. Eccentricity and Phase The eccentric phase measurement using a sensor, corresponding to 0 ~ 100 μmeccentricity measurement range, the monitor alarm relay output alarm signal. High-pressure cylinder of thermal expansion Both sides of the turbine high-pressure cylinder, a cylinder located expansion ofmonitoring channel, used to monitor the expansion of the two-cylinder basis. High pressure and medium pressure cylinder expansion monitoring using two 35mmabsolute expan sion sensor  and two supporting the absolute expansion of the monitor.Corresponding high pressure, medium pressure cylinder expansion at 0 ~ 35mmmeasuring range, the two monitors each of the 4 ~ 20mA DC signal output; when theexpansion exceeds a set value Ⅰ, Ⅱ value, two monitors, each with two warning followingelectrical action, output alarm signal. •VibrationShaft vibrationMonitoring of the rotor relative to the radial bearing vibration, the unit 1 # 5 # support bearing has the horizontal (X direction), vertical (Y to) two-axis vibration monitoring channels, a total of 10 channels. 10 eddy current sensor, corresponding to the shaft vibration measuring range of 0 ~ 400μm, each channel of the monitor are 4 ~ 20mA DC signal output; any channel axis vibration ≥ 0.127mm, corresponding monitor channel only warning relay output alarm signal; any channel axis vibration ≥ 0.25mm, the risk of the corresponding monitor channel relay output hazard warning signal.Tile vibrationTile vibration monitoring channels in order to monitor the absolute vibration of the bearing relative to free space, unit # 5 # Bearings has a vertical direction, a total of five channels. 5 speed sensor. Tile vibration measurement range corresponds to 0 ~ 150μm, each channel of the monitor are 4 ~ 20mA DC signal output; any channel of the tile vibration ≥ 50μm, corresponding monitor channel is only a warning relay output alarm signal; any channel of the tile vibration ≥ 80μm, the risk of the corresponding monitor channel relay output hazard warning signal.Head speed of TableHead speed monitoring using a domestic CS-1 magnetic pickups and a domestic WZ-3 intelligent transient digital display tachometer. The table has two speed alarm, zero-speed alarm, fast display speed, maximum speed storage and reproduction, selftest and calibration functions. Two overspeed and zero speed alarm are relay contact output. 汽轮机及其辅机联锁保护 TURBINE AND AUXILIARY EQUIPMENT INTERLOCKING PR OTECTION  Turbine Trip Protection: A manual release: According to need, place the manual release handle  L 30 ° left self-locking position, the hand "manual release", so that the  action of the mechanical shut-off valve to vent off the pressure safety o il (HPT ), quickly turn off the main valve and adjust the valve to stop. 2 overspeed trip device: When the turbine speed to reach the rated speed of 110% to 112% (33 00 ~ 3360r/min),the emergency trip flying ring attack, combat emergen cy trip device support hook to holdthe hook release, so that the action  of mechanical shut-off valve to vent to go high pressure safety oil (HPT) , to quickly turn off the main valve and regulating valveshutdown.  (3) the unit the following exceptions to the following setting v alue, the mechanical shutdown solenoid valve (3YV), high-v oltage interrupter solenoid valve (5YV, 6YV, 7YV, 8YV) and t he oil motive interdiction solenoid valve action, vent to the hi gh pressure safety oilquickly turn off the main valve and adju st the valve to stop: 项 目 整 定 值 TSI 超速 3300 r/min DEH 超速 3300 r/min 轴向位移 +1.2mm/-1.65mm 高中压差胀 +6.2mm/-3.2mm 低压差胀 +7.2mm/-6.2mm 凝汽器真空 19.7kPa 低压缸排气温度 120℃ 润滑油压低 0.0392MPa 高压抗燃油压低 7.8 MPa 高压安全油压低 7.8 MPa #1~4 轴承箱回油温度 75℃ (手动) #1~4 任一轴瓦温度高 115℃ #1 、 #6 任一推力瓦温度 110℃ #1~#5 任一轴承盖振动大 0.08mm #1~#5 任一轴振动大 0.25mm DEH 跳闸停机 停机 发电机跳闸停机 停机 锅炉 MFT 动作停机 停机 序号 名 1 定 值 备 压力开关 PS6 、 PS7 、 PS8 7.8MPa EH 油压低,三取二停机 2 压力开关 PS9 11.2MPa EH 油压低报警 3 压力开关 PS10 、 PS11 11.2MPa EH 泵低油压自启动 4 EH 油 PT1 压力传感器 0 ~ 21MPa 传感器输出电流 4 ~ 20mA 远方报警 5 系统压力设定值 14±0.5MPa 压力开关: PS4 4.8 MPa 9 称 注 高压遮断电磁阀试验 为 7PS ) 遮断电磁阀试验完成 10 压力开关: PS5 9.6 MPa 11 压力开关: PS1 、 PS2 、 PS3 7.8 MPa HPT 油压低,三取二停机 12 EH 油泵出口溢流阀 17±0.2MPa 溢流阀动作 13 EH 油循环泵溢流阀 0.5±0.1MPa 溢流阀动作 EH 再生泵溢流阀 0.6±0.1MPa 溢流阀动作 14 EH 油高压蓄能器充氮压力 10.0±0.2MPa 15 EH 油低压蓄能器充氮压力 0.2MPa 16 EH 油泵出口滤油器压差 0.35MPa 压差大报警,联系检修清理 17 油动机滤油器压差 0.35MPa 压差大报警,联系检修清理 18 再生装置滤油器压差 0.138MPa 压差大报警,联系检修清理 19 有压回油滤网压差 0.35MPa 联系检修清理 20 冷油器出口滤网压差 0.35MPa 联系检修清理 EH 油系统设定值 (4) console "emergency stop" button Needed in the console, press the two "stop" button, mechanical stop solenoid valve(3YV), highvoltage interrupter solenoid valve (5YV, 6YV, 7YV, 8YV) and the oil motiveinterdiction solenoid valve action, vent to the high pressure security of oil, to quickly turn off the main valve and adjust the valve to shut down. (5) lateral protection Machine jump furnace protection: at least there is a highpressure valve and a pressuremain steam valve at the same time Close the valve leak test instructions, DEH issued aturbine trip command to trigger the boiler the MFT. Machine jump power protection: at least there is a highpressure valve and a pressuremain steam valve at the same time Close the valve leak test instructions, DEH issued theinstruction of turbine trip, jump generator. •Auxiliary interlock protection OPC protectionGenerator oil switch trip and the pressure cylinder exhaust steam pressure is greater than 15% of the rated pressure (load ≥ 15% rated load), speed limit electromagnetic valve and interdiction solenoid valve regulating valve oil motive action at the same time, drain off the speeding limit oil (OPC), each regulating valve in the valve manipulation of the role of the spring force in steam pressure to quickly turn off until after the reset period (2s), the solenoid valves, and then re-open the regulating valve to maintain the turbine 3000r / min.Speed up to 103% rated speed, speeding limit solenoid valve and regulating valve oil motive interdiction solenoid valve simultaneously, to vent out the speeding limit oil (OPC), each regulating valve manipulation in the valve seat spring force and vapor pressure quick closing speed to 3090r/min, the solenoid valve is reset, and then re-open each regulating valve to maintain the turbine 3000r/min. When the turbine speed up the acceleration is greater than 5r/min, speeding limit electromagnetic valve and the regulator valve oil motive interdiction solenoid valve action, at the same time to vent out the speeding limit oil (OPC), each regulating valve in the valve manipulation quickly turn off the seat spring force and the role of the vapor pressure to be speed up when the acceleration is less than 5r/min solenoid valves, and then re-open each regulating valve to maintain the turbine 3000r/min 。 第四课 润滑油系统 LESSON FOUR -- LUBE OIL SYSTEM  The role of the lubricating oil system  Lube oil system function To provide lubricant to the bearing of the unit and to the se curity system to providepressure oil, oil supply and also to  the barring gear and jacking device. Cooling unit bearing.     : Introduction of equipment: This system uses the traditional steam turbine rotor to directly drive main oil pump------oil injector system, the primary pressu re oil of the emergency system will be provided by oil injector, t he oil used for bearing is also supplied by oil injector and but t he oil injection power oil is provided by main oil pump. The main pump oil leading to a shot of oil. Shoot oil has two, a n oil lubrication system, an imported oil to the main oil pump. The main oil pump leaves oil to oil injector. There are two oil in jectors. One supplies oil for Lube oil system, the other supplies oil for inlet of main oil pump.  The oil system of the unit assembled tank. The top of the assembled tank is equi pped with an AC lube oil pump, a DC emergency oil pump and two exhaust fan. The oil system of this unit uses the packaging fuel tank. One AC Lube oil pump, o ne DC emergency oil pump and two oil fume exhaust fans is equipped on the top of tank Jacking oil pump using two piston pump, a computer running a stand The jacking oil pump uses two displacement pumps, one is in operation and the other is standby. Two 100% capacity oil cooler (one run, one spare) Two 100% capacity oil coolers (one is in operation and the other is standby). 流程(附系统图) FLOW PROCESS ( ATTACHED SYSTEM DRAWING) BR010 10MA V43 BR010 10MA V14 BR01 0 10MAV15 BR010 10MA V42 BR010 10MAV41 10MA V50 AA010 10MAV50 AA01 1 BR01 0 10MA V33 10MA V50 AN010 10MA V50 AN011 M BR010 10MAV12 10MA V16 BR010 M 10MAV50 AT010 BR010 10MAV32 10MAV50 BR01 0 10MAV10 BB01 0 10MAV13 BR010 10MAV10 BN002 10MA V31 BR010 10MAV11 AP010 10MA V10 BN001 10MAV10 AC002 10MA V20 AP002 BR010 10MAV11 10MAV21 AA010 10MA V10 AC001 10MAV20 BR010 10MAV10 BR01 0 10MA V21 BR010 10MAV22 BR01 0 10MA V23 BR010 10MAV10 AP001 10MA V20 AA010 10MA V10 AA010 10MA V20 AA01 1 10MA V10 AA011 Oil purification equipment:UseQYJB type oil purification equipment mainly used for purification or clarification of the steam turbine, gas turbine and hydropower mineral oil lubricants. Play the role of lubrication, cooling, surface protection, sealing, lubricating oil on the turbine in the turbine. Any kind of failure, these features of the lubricant will cause the cost of power generation increased or reduced efficiency, even lead to turbine downtime. Therefore, we must ensure that the quality of lubricating oil in the run.The main factors affecting the quality of lubricating oil is produced in the steam turbine is running dirt. Turbine lube oil system is a closed loop system, the main pollutants in the lubricating oil from the system itself. Due to changes in temperature, the condensed water in the lubricating oil system or fuel tank, through the bearing into the system water vapor, the bearings or the oil cooler leak caused the water to oil pollution, which is the main pollution factors. Metal wear or erosion in the operation of the system to produce small particles formed solid impurities contaminants. Of course, outside the system of impurities, like dust in the air, dirt also through the bearing into the system. Causing lubricants pollution. In the lubricating oil system of the washing solution or emulsion, their lubricants: oil emulsion, accelerated corrosion, reduce the stability of the oil consumption of the additives reduce the lubrication value.Pollutants of solid impurities 10MAU13 AA010 20MAU13 AA010 20MAU10 AA010 10MAU10 AA010 10MAU20 BR010 20MAU20 BR010 10MAU10 BR010 10MAU23 BR010 10MAV10 BB010 20MAU10 BR010 20MAU23 BR010 20MAV10 BB010 20MAU20 AA011 10MAU20 AA010 20MAU10 BB010 10MAU21 BR010 20MAU21 AA010 10MAU14 BR010 20MAU21 BR010 20MAU14 BR010 20MAU20 AA010 10MAU13 BR010 20MAU13 BR010 10MAU20 AA011 10MAU10 BB010 10MAU21 AA010 20MAU11 AA012 20MAU14 AA010 20MAU16 AA010 10MAU14 AA010 20MAU11 AA013 20MAU11 AA010 10MAU11 AA012 20MAU12 BR010 20MAU12 AA010 20MAU12 AA011 20MAU13 AA011 10MAU11 AA013 10MAU11 AA010 10MAU31 BR010 10MAU40 AA010 10MAU40 BR010 10MAU40 AP010 10MAU30 AA011 10MAU30 AA010 10MAU30 BR010 20MAU11 BR010 10MAU40 AA012 10MAU40 AA011 10MAU34 AA010 10MAU11 AA011 10MAU10 BB011 10MAU32 AA010 10MAU33 AA010 10MAU32 AA011 10MAU33 AA011 10MAU11 BR010 10MAU31 AA010 10MAU30 BR010 10MAU16 AA010 10MAU12 BR010 10MAU12 AA010 10MAU12 AA011 10MAU13 AA011 tanks, one-way valve, the solenoid valve in situ measurement control equipmentand automatic control boxes and other components. The main components function as follows: Strainer: to protect the pump will not be damaged by large particles of impurities,reduce the failure rate of the device; Coalescence separator: separator coalescence coalescing filter is made  by theappropriate combination of specially treated glass fiber and composite materials, withgood hydrophilicity. Filter out mechanical impurities, and the dual role of thecoalescence of water. The innermost high-precision filter first to filter out mechanical impurities in the oil demulsification coalescence of the outside layer of tin y water droplets in the oil gather to form large drops. Larger drops of water will depend on the weight of their settlement to the set of sink. Smaller drops of water was too latesettlement of the oil folder with the flow of separation filter. Separation filter made by the special treatment of the composite has a good water repellency. When the oil flowing through the separation filter from the outside inward, thesmall droplets are effectively blocked out of the filter so that only the oil through, let the water through, so as to further separate the water. Heater: When the device in a vacuum separation, if the oil temperature lower than 00C,start the heater, automatic thermostat, control the oil temperat ure is not higher than600C. Used to reduce the viscosity of the oil to facilitate the separation of water. Main parts and function QYJB type oil purifier device compose of filling valve, coarse filter, coalescing separator, feed oil pump, oil drain pump, heater, vacuum separate tank, condenser, vacuum pump, supply liquid pump, fine filter, sample valve, delivery valve, return oil valve, water tank, check valve, magnet valve in-place measure control equipment and automatic control cabinet and so on. Function of main parts as follows: Coarse filter: protect oil pump avoiding big grain impurity, reduce malfunction rate of device. coalescing separator: coalescing filter element in coalescing separator is made of special treatment glass fibre and its composite material after appropriate combination , possess good hydrophilicity. Filter mechanical impurity and coalesce moisture. Innermost layer’s high precision filter material firstly filter mechanical impurity in oil liquid, outside demulsification coalescence layer coalesce tiny bead into big bead. Bigger size bead will subside to water channel by gravity. Smaller size bead will flow to separate filter element with oil liquid. Separate element is made of composite material after special treatment, possess good water resistance. When oil liquid through separate element from outside, small bead be cut effectively outside the filter element, only oil liquid can pass, water can not pass it, separate bead further. Heater: when equipment under vacuum separate mode, if oil liquid temperature lower than 00C, start heater, through automatic constant temperature controller, control oil temperature not higher than 600C. reduce oil viscosity, convenient for bead separation. feed oil pump, oil drain pump: transport oil liquid. Pressure meter: display fine filter pressure, when pressure more than 0.5Mpa, it’s a terrible clogging, wash the filter element. At this moment, close oil drain pump, Exhaust heater, fine filter, pre-filter’s oil liquid, take out inner filter element, wash it and install again. pressure differential controller: display pressure difference endured by coalescing separator inner filter element , when it reach to 0.1Mpa, alarm and stop. At this moment, take out coalescence filter element (coalescence filter element is white), install new coalescence filter element. Take out separation filter element (dark-green one), wipe external surface by clean and soft cloth, clean it and install again. electrical contact pressure meter: when pressure exceed 0.3Mpa, it’s a terrible clogging, take out and clean it or change it. QYJB type oil purifier device have two modes of separation: vacuum separation mode and coalescence separation mode. Separation mode different from steamer oil under different state. 1. vacuum separation mode when steamer needs to add new oil or steamer unit launch into use newly, please adopt vacuum separation mode(see working element drawing). At this moment, filling valve, coarse filter, heater, magnet valve, vacuum separate tank, condenser, vacuum pump, oil drain pump, check valve, fine filter, delivery valve work. 2.coalescence separation mode after a period of vacuum separation mode operation, test oil sample from sampling valve, when oil sample’s test result satisfy steamer’ s operation requirement, stop vacuum separation mode operation. Use coalescence separation mode operation. At this moment, filling valve, coarse filter, magnet valve, feed oil pump, coalescing separator, drain valve, check valve, fine filter, delivery valve work. When equipment online operation, please use coalescence separation mode. 主油箱 出油 进油 5 10 8 9 23 15 ≥1500 A1 24 17 25 16 1 6 7 11 18 19 2 20 23 21 26 13 22 12 14 A1.流量控制阀 1.进油阀2.粗滤器3.加热器4.恒温控制器5.电磁阀6.液位控制器7.真空脱气罐8.充气阀9.冷凝器10. 真空表11.放液阀12.真空泵13.排油泵14.单向阀15.电磁阀16.进油泵17.聚结分离器18.存水罐19.放液阀e20.单向 阀21.精过滤器22.电接点压力表23.取样阀 24.出油阀25.回油电磁阀26.水泵 control counter-board vacuum switch and stop switch. Staff to open a total inlet valve and outlet valve. Start the vacuum switch, first open the vacuum pump, vacuum (into, out of the oil solenoid valve to open) by the delay of 20 seconds or so, the degree of vacuum is gradually increased to 0.08MPa, the vacuum into the oil solenoid valve to open into the oil through the heaterwithin the vacuum tank, when the oil level reaches the position of the Lower central hole (about 1 minute), automatic start oil drain pump oil discharge. System into the normal vacuum oil filter state, if the stop switch on the rotating panel to stop the vacuum system. Note: When the vacuum system will not start oil subsystems. Subsystems work in the oil is to start no vacuum system and manual oil return system. (The vacuum system and oil subsystems with each other since the lock). Oil return system The system is essentially the difference between the vacuum system design, want equipment within oil subsystems or vacuum system failure need to overhaul oil emptying all, you can start the oil return system operation. Panel to manually back to the oil switch to open the oil return system automatically, open the vacuum pump outlet valve open, about 1 minute delay to start the oil drain pump and the oil return solenoid valve is open at the same time, is worth noting that the oil solenoid valve and vacuum into the oil solenoid valve does not open. Oil in the vacuum tank row of endless, you can manually start the oil drain pump oil discharge Coarse and fine filter clogging alarm differential Coalescing separation and vacuum separation system can automatically there are 3 parts of this control system •coalescence separation system operator open chief filling valve and delivery valve. Feed oil pump and filling oil magnet valve controlled by PLC. Open oil content valve on control cabinet panel, start feed oil pump at same time. •vacuum separation system this system compose of vacuum pump, vacuum feeding oil magnet valve, oil drain pump and vacuum system. Automatically controlled by vacuum switch and stop switch on control cabinet panel through PLC. operator open chief filling valve and delivery valve. Start vacuum switch, firstly, system open vacuum pump, pump vacuum(in and out oil magnet valve open at the same time), after 20 seconds, vacuum degrade rise to around 0.08Mpa, then vacuum filling oil magnet valve open and enter oil, through heater enter into vacuum tank, when oil level arrive at middle position of lower sight hole(about 1 minute), oil drain pump start automatically. System enter into normal vacuum filter oil state, if rotate stop switch on panel, vacuum system can stop working. Notice: when vacuum system is working, oil content system can not be start. When oil content system is working, vacuum system and manually return oil system can not be start (vacuum system and oil content system are interlocked) •return oil system the design differences between this system and vacuum system are: when oil content system or vacuum system appear malfunction, discharge the oil in equipment totally, then can start return oil system. Delivery valve open, open manual return oil switch on panel, return oil system will work automatically, open vacuum pump, after 1 minute, start oil drain pump, return oil magnet valve open at the same time, notice: oil content magnet valve and vacuum filling oil magnet not open. If oil in vacuum tank can not be discharge totally, please start oil drain pump manually. •coarse and fine filter clogging differential pressure alarm after this alarm, coalescence separation and vacuum separation system stop working automatically. Open coarse and fine filter, take out filter element, wash it in coal oil and install again. •after complete oil purification, stop this machine, discharge water at the bottom of coalescing separator. •special notice: before operation, do open delivery valve. This device is full automatic control mode, please according to electric operation instruction 第五课 主再热蒸汽及旁路系统 LESSON FIVE — MAIN REHEATED STEAM AND BYPASS SYS TEM 蒸汽流程: Steam flow: The new steam through the high pressure main steam valve arranged in the unit on both sides of the high pressure main steam pipe, inlet pipe, into the high pressure cylinder.The high-pressure part of the reflux, and the pressure part of the head arrangement,share a high pressure outside the cylinder, high-pressure exhaust steam reheat byarrangement in the pressure of the units on both sides of the joint steam valve into thepressure cylinder. Mediumpressure exhaust connecting pipe into the low-pressure cylinder Central by two, and move forward after the shunt, before the passage of the rearcylinder into the condenser. The unit has a variable load and peaking ability to run, the composite transformer operating mode. The unit has 70% of the rated capacity of two series bypass To heavy oil atomization Cold reheat steam pipe LP by-pass valve From steam turbine cyliner warm piping Drain to drain flash tank HP by-pass valve To #2 HP heater To gland steam To H.P.process steam To heavy oil atomization Drain to drain flash tank To HP by-pass To H.P.process steam Superheater outlet header Reheater inlet header Reheater outlet header From steam turbine cyliner warm piping To #2 HP heater Cold reheat steam pipe Hot reheat steam pipe Main steam pipe HP Main steam pipe Hot reheat steam pipe IP Condenser valve and the main steam valve in the valve shell triangle shape, compact structure. The left side of unit 1 #, 4 # valve, the right side for 2 #, 3 # valve. The main steam valve with the diameter of Φ170 1 # 2 # valve with a diameter of Φ120, 3 #, 4 # adjust the valves meet the diameter of Φ100. In order to reduce the valve lifting force, the main steam valve and control valve with pre-Kai valve. The four control valve to control the high pressure within the tank corresponding to the four nozzles, control valve is controlled by the independent oil motive.The main steam valve at the inlet is equipped with a temperature galvanic, in order to monitor the temperature difference between the valve housing, reducing the thermal stress. The main steam valve stem has a conical sealing surface, the main steam valve is fully open, the stem cone close to the sleeve sealing surface to prevent stem leakage steam.The main steam valve equipped with a temporary filter (breakdown) and power plant during the trial operation period, the end of the trial run, put on a permanent filter (coarse mesh).Buckling combined with steam valve 2Have about the two buckling combined with steam valve, respectively, placed pressure on both sides of the part of the high and medium pressure cylinder. Share in the joint steam valve of main steam valve and control valve the valve housing and valve seat. With the surface in a different section of the seat. The main steam valve with diameter Φ320 motivation driven by the oil at the bottom of the joint steam valve, the valve with a diameter Φ400 driven by the oil motive in the joint the top of the steam valve. In order to reduce the lifting force of the valve, the upper part of the main steam valve and control valve with pre-Kai valve.Medium pressure main steam valve and adjust the valve stem has a conical sealing surface of the valve in fully open position, the valve stem cone close to the sleeve sealing surface to prevent stem leak.Temporary filter (breakdown), the power plant used during the test run, in the interior of the main Valves and Piping 1 HP Main Steam Control Valve This unit has 2 HP main steam stop & control valves that are arranged at the two sides of the turbine. Each HP main steam stop & control valve consists of 1 main stop valve and two control valves. The control valves and main stop valve are arranged in a triangle manner inside the valve casing, which is characterized by a compact structure. Located at the left side are the control valves 1# and 4#. Control valves 2# and 3# are located at the right side. The mating diameter of the main stop valve is Φ170.Mating diameter of control valves 1# and 2# is Φ120 whereas that of control valves 3# and 4# is Φ100. In order to reduce the lifting force of the valve, the main stop valves and control valves are all equipped with pre-start valves. The 4 control valves control the 4 corresponding nozzles groups inside the HP inner casing respectively. The control valves are controlled by their respective servomotors. The main stop valves inlets are provided with thermocouples so as to monitor the differential temperature of the valve casing to reduce the thermal stress. The main stop valve stem is provided with taper sealing surface. When the main stop valve is fully opened, the valve stem taper surface goes against the bushing sealing surface tightly so as to prevent steam leakage from the valve stem. Temporary screens (fine) are installed inside the main stop valves and are used during the commissioning phase of the power plant. Following the completion of the commissioning, the temporary screens will be replaced with permanent screens (coarse). 2. MP Combined Steam Valves This unit is provided with 2 MP combined steam valves on the left and right sides. They are located at both sides of the HIP casing in the middle. Within the combined steam valves, the stop valve and control valve will share a common valve casing and valve seat. The joining faces are located at different sections of the valve seat. The main stop valve has a mating diameter of Φ320 and is driven by the servomotor located below the combined steam valve. The control valve has a mating diameter of Φ400 and is driven by the servomotor located on the top of the combined valve. In order to reduce the lifting force of the valve, main stop valves and control valves are provided with pre-start valves. MP main stop valve’s and control valve’s valve stems are provided with taper sealing surface. When the valve is fully opened, the valve stem taper surface goes against the bushing sealing surface tightly to prevent steam leakage from the valve stem. Temporary screens (fine) are installed inside the main stop valves and are used during the commissioning phase of the power plant. Following the completion of the commissioning, the temporary screens will be replaced with permanent screens (coarse). 疏水系统介绍 INTRODUCTION TO DRAIN WATER SYSTEM  Drain system: steam turbine startup, shutdown, low load operation or low-parameters at run time, Turbine valves, main steam pipe and reheat steam pipe, steam extractionpiping, steam  marshaling the steam and the extraction tube and so may be condensedcondensate. Conde nsate must be catharsis out, or may cause the turbine inlet, causingthe water impact, resulti ng in damage to the machine. Rational arrangement of the drain system piping and timely hy drophobic is the guarantee the Turbine safe operation of thenecessary conditions. Steam Turbine, main steam valve, control valve, high pressure main steam pipes,medium pr essure main steam pipe, heat recovery steam extraction piping (extractioncheck valve), hydr ophobic, constitute the Steam Turbine and pipe drain system. The pressure of the drains should be pressure on the level of order in order to importhigh,  medium and low voltage sparse water pipe, the import of hydrophobic expansionby pooling.  After the expansion of the steam into the condenser by the expansion of thesteam pipes, co ndensation hydrophobic introduction of the condenser hot well. Thishydrophobic way valve  centralized, easy to control, maintain, and easy maintenance, but also because of the moistu re separator, to avoid the soft impact of the thermal wells. The system of drainage pipe pressure in descending order, followed by sparse jellyfishtube c onnected to smooth interest hydrophobic. Pneumatic trap in the drain system by the control system to achieve automatic control functi ons. 第六课抽汽系统、轴封系统、真空气系统 LESSON SIX –STEAM EXTRACTION, GLAND SEAL AND VACUUM SYSTEM  Exhaust system: The unit is 7 exhaust, two high pressure heaters, de aerator, four low-pressure heaters. The exhaust check valve: use of pneumatic. Avoid the shortcomings ofthe corrosion of hydraulic jam , and the reaction time hydraulic fast, better able to adapt tothe safe operation of the unit. The gas source is compressed air system.    Steam extraction system: this unit has 7 stages steam extraction, tw o HP heaters, one deaerator and four LP heaters. The Steam extracti on non return valve is adopted by pneumatic method in order to av oid the corrosion and jam fault by hydraulic control and the reactio n time is more faster than hydraulic control so as to be able to adap t to the safe operation of generating units. the gas source will be pr ovided by compressed air system. 自密封汽封系统: SELF SEALING GLAD SEAL SYSTEM              汽轮机汽封系统的主要作用是利用该系统供给的蒸汽封住高、中压缸的蒸汽不向外泄漏,并防止空气沿 轴端进入低压缸破坏凝汽器真空。 1 轴端汽封 本机组高中压缸和低压缸共有五组汽封。高中压前、后轴端汽封采用高、低齿“尖齿”汽封,采用软态铁 素体镶片结构;低压汽封采用光轴尖齿结构的铜汽封,见图 2-5-1 。 高、中压间汽封有两段,目的是减小高压缸蒸汽的泄漏。 高压缸后汽封共有四段,一段漏汽导入除氧器( CY ),二段漏汽为自密封系统接口( SSR ),三段漏 汽导入汽封加热器( CF )。 中压缸后汽封共有三段,一段漏汽为自密封系统接口( SSR ),二段漏汽导入汽封加热器( CF )。 低压缸前后汽封各有三段,一段供汽为自密封系统接口( SSR ),二段漏汽导入汽封加热器( CF )。 2 自密封汽封系统见图 (2-5-2) 高、中、低压汽封的自密封接口用管子与汽封压力控制站相连接。压力控制站由辅助汽源站及蒸汽溢流 站组成。在启动或低负荷时,由辅助汽源站向高、中、低压汽封供汽。在高负荷时,由高中压汽封漏汽 提供给低压汽封供汽,其蒸汽流量足以满足低压汽封密封要求,在这种情况,压力控制站的溢流调节阀 投入工作,维持自密封系统压力。系统正常压力是 0.13MPa 。 3 汽封回汽管路系统 高、中、低压最末段汽封都用管子与汽封加热器相连接。该系统主要由一台汽封加热器和两台轴封风机 组成,用于抽出最末段轴封腔室的汽-气混合物,维持该腔室微负压 -6.3kPa (即压力 95kPa )。 4 低压汽封蒸汽温度控制站 在低压汽封供汽管路上设置了一个蒸汽温度控制站,目的是维持低压轴封供汽温度。温度控制站主要由 喷水减温器和温度调节站组成,自动维持低压汽封供汽温度不超过 150℃ 。 The main function of the turbine steam seal system is to use the steam supplied by the system to seal the steam of the HP and IP casings from leaking out and prevent air from entering the LP casing through the shaft ends to break the condenser vacuum. This unit is provided with a total of five groups of steam seals on the HIP and LP casings. HIP casing front and rear gland seals use high and low “sharp” seal strips which are of soft ferrite structure. LP steam seals use bare shaft sharp strips made of copper. HIP intermediate steal seal has two sections, whose purpose is to reduce the steam leakage from the HP casing. HP casing real steam seal has four sections. The first section’s bleeding steam is directed to the deaerator (CY); the second section’s bleeding steam is used as selfsealing system connection (SSR); and the third section’s bleeding steam is directed to seal steam heater (CF). IP casing rear steam seal has three sections. The first section’s bleeding steam is used as self-sealing system connection (SSR); the second section’s bleeding steam is directed to seal steam heater (CF). LP casing front and rear steam seals each have three sections. The first section supplied steam is used as self-sealing system connection (SSR); the second section’s bleeding steam is directed to seal steam heater (CF). Self-Sealing System see the “Turbine Self-Sealing System Instruction ”.   The vacuum system: condenser, condensate pump, vac uum pump and air ejector. Its role is to maintain the tu rbine to run in a certain back pressure, while the conde nsate back to the boiler to participate in the thermody namic cycle.  Vacuum system consists of condenser, condensate pu mp, vacuum pump and air extractor. Its function is to maintain steam turbine in operation under the certain operating back pressure, at the same time, the conden sate water is fed back to the boiler to participate in the thermal cycle. 汽轮机中的真空系统由凝汽器、凝结泵和抽气器组成。其作用 是维持汽轮机在一定的工作背压下运行,同时把凝结水送回锅炉 参加热力循环。每台低压加热器中的不凝结气体,应单独接至凝 汽器,最后在凝汽器中由抽气器抽出排入大气。 机械真空泵系统 包括机械真空泵、凝汽器、凝结水泵及所属的阀门与管道。 真空系统中的空气由二部分组成。一部分是蒸汽中含有的少量 空气,这部分空气的含量取决于机组的除氧效果。另一部分是大 气中的空气从机组真空部分的不严密处漏入。空气吸入量的多 少,取决于机组的真空严密性,因此机组在电厂安装时,必须对 真空系统所有焊缝和法兰接口作严密性检查,确认无泄漏。 机组投运后真空严密性试验每月一次,要求关闭抽气器后真空 度下降速度不超过 270Pa/min 。 PI PI 10MAJ10CP501 10MAJ10CP501 TI TI 10MAJ10CT501 10MAJ10CT501 PI PI 10MAJ10CP001 10MAJ10CP001 PI PI 10MAJ14CP501 10MAJ14CP501 ** PI PI 10MAG10CP501 10MAG10CP501 PSH,LL PSH,LL 10MAJ14CP101 10MAJ14CP101 PI PI 10MAJ15CP501 10MAJ15CP501 ** ** PSH,LL PSH,LL 10MAJ15CP101 10MAJ15CP101 ** ** PIC PIC 10MAG10CP001 10MAG10CP001 B B PIC PIC 10MAG10CP002 10MAG10CP002 TIA TIA 10MAJ14CT051 10MAJ14CT051 PIC PIC 10MAG10CP003 10MAG10CP003 PSL PSL 10MAJ14CP102 10MAJ14CP102 ** TIA TIA 10MAJ15CT051 10MAJ15CT051 ** PSL PSL 10MAJ15CP102 10MAJ15CP102 ** PI PI 10MAJ15CP502 10MAJ15CP502 ** ** ** ** ** PAL PAL 10MAG10CP201 10MAG10CP201 PI PI 10MAJ14CP502 10MAJ14CP502 ** To To Atm. Atm. ** PZLL PZLL 10MAG10CP102 10MAG10CP102 To To Atm. Atm. ** PZLL PZLL 10MAG10CP103 10MAG10CP103 TI TI 10MAJ14CT502 10MAJ14CT502 ** PI PI 10MAJ15CP504 10MAJ15CP504 ** TI TI 10MAJ15CT502 10MAJ15CT502 TI TI 10MAJ14CT503 10MAJ14CT503 ** ** Heat Heat Exchanger Exchanger K S K K S K ? ? ? ? ? ? B? B? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 10MAJ10GH002 10MAJ10GH002 Separator Separator ** ** TI TI 10MAJ15CT503 10MAJ15CT503 ** ?? ?? WW PP CC PP LL 44 xx 11 33 55 MM WW ?? ?? ?? ?? Power from knowledge Power from knowledge ? ? ? ? ? ? A? A? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 10MAJ10GH001 10MAJ10GH001 ** ** Heat Heat Exchanger Exchanger ** PI PI 10MAJ14CP504 10MAJ14CP504 S S ** LSL LSL 10MAJ15CL101 10MAJ15CL101 ** PSL PSL 10MAG10CP107 10MAG10CP107 ** ** LSL LSL 10MAJ14CL101 10MAJ14CL101 ** PSL PSL 10MAG10CP106 10MAG10CP106 Separator Separator LI LI 10MAJ14CL501 10MAJ14CL501 ** PASL PASL 10MAG10CP105 10MAG10CP105 ** S S LI LI 10MAJ15CL501 10MAJ15CL501 ** PZLL PZLL 10MAG10CP104 10MAG10CP104 ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? 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DD RR GG NN OO 第七课凝结水系统、高低压给水系统、冷却水系统 LESSON SEVEN – CONDENSATE WATER, HP/LP FEED WATER AND COOLING WATER S Y STEM   凝结水系统: Condensate system 凝结水系统:汽轮机作完功后的蒸汽排入凝汽器扩容,经过 循环水冷却,凝结成凝结水,由凝结水泵打出,经过轴封加 热器和 #7 、 #6 、 #5 、 #4 低加将凝结水进行加热,送至除 氧器进行除氧。轴加和 #7 低加疏水经过 U 型水封进入凝汽 器, #4 、 #5 、 #6 低加疏水逐级自流经低加疏水泵送至低 加出口凝结水管道。为防止凝结水泵憋出力及为轴封加热器 冷却,在轴加后凝结水管道有再循环回凝汽器。作用是回收 工质,加热凝结水,将凝结水升压打到除氧器 10LAB7 0 AA101 10LAB71 AA 201 10LAB35 BR505 10LAB70 BR010 10LAB60 BR010 10LAB70 BP3 01 10LAD10 AC010 10LAB60 AA201 10 LAB 71 AA101 10LAB35 BR511 10LAB25 10LAB27 AA507 1 0LAB27 AA508 10 LA B25 AA506 1 0LAB25 AA507 10LAB31 BR010 10LAB32 BR010 10LAB35 BR502 10LAB35 BR504 10LAB50 BR010 BR504 10LAB27 10LAB75 A A502 1 0LAB27 AA505 1 0LAB27 AA506 BR506 1 0LAB51 AA401 10LAB 25 AA508 BR503 BR010 10LAB72 10LAB26 BR502 10LAB72 AA010 10LAB27 10LAB72 AA0 11 10LAB25 AA510 BR507 10LAB25 AA509 10LAB25 BR509 10L AB71 AA102 10LAB35 BR506 10LAB70 AA201 10 LAB35 AA540 10 LAB35 AA 53 9 10LA B35 AA542 10LAB35 AA 54 1 BR010 10LAB70 AA102 10LAB70 AA010 10LAB71 10LA B35 AA544 10 LAB35 AA543 10LAB25 10LAB35 AA538 10LA B35 AA537 10LAB35 AA 53 4 10LA B35 AA 53 3 10LAB20 BR0 10 10LAB25 B R502 10LAB25 AA502 10 LA B25 AA505 10LAB 30 AA 201 10LAB25 BR505 10LAD20 AC010 10LAB40 BR010 10LAB20 A A101 10LAB30 BR010 1 0LAB35 AA532 1 0LAB25 AA531 10LAB25 AA501 1 0LAB10 AA010 10LAC10 A P010 10LAB10 A A101 10 LA B25 AA503 10L AB10 BR010 10LAB25 BR503 10LAB25 BR501 10 LAB26 AA501 10LAB35 BR503 BR501 10LAB25 BR504 10LAB26 10 LA B25 AA504 10 LA B35 AA536 10LAB35 AA535 BR502 1 0LAB 27 10L AB27 AA5 02 AA501 10LAB27 BR501 10LAB27 10LAF21 BR010 10LAB2 7 AA503 10LAB27 AA504 10LAE20 BR010 10LAE10 BR0 10 10LAB35 BR510 1 0LAB20 AA010 10LAC20 A P010 10LAB35 BR501 10LAB35 BR507 1 0LAH 10 B R010 10LAB35 AA514 1 0LAB35 AA515 1 0LAB35 AA516 10LAB35 AA517 冷却水系统:包括循环水系统和工业水系统    冷却水系统包括循环水系统和工业水系统: Cooling water system: including CW system and industrial water system The main role of the circulating cooling water system with a mechanical draft co oling tower to provide cooling water to the condenser. The system can also provi de someauxiliary to the main plant cooling water, such as oil cooler, air cooler. Circulating cooling water process is as follows: The circulating pump → Pressure Piping → turbine pressure drain pipes of the c ondenser and the auxiliary cooler → → mechanical draft cooling tower → sump  → noflow in circular ditch → circulation pump water wells → circulating pump. This project uses the circulating cooling water system with a mechanical draft co oling tower. With vertical mixed flow pump for circulating water pump, 5 × 50% capacity circ ulating pump per two units configuration, 4 computer running a stand. T O C .W P U M P F O R S E A L IN G W A T E R ?? ? ? ?? ?? C a p a c ity s w it c h D N 25 ? ? ? ? D N 50 D N 50 ?? ? ? ? ? ? D N 25 F IL T E R F R O M S E R V IC E W A T E R S U P P L Y S Y S T E M D N 50 T O M O T O R F O R C O O L IN G W A T E R ? ? ? D 108X4 ?? ? ? ?? ?? D 108X4 G E N E R A L S P E C IF IC A T IO N & M A IN D R A W IN G S F O R W A T E R S U P P L Y C IR C U L A T IN G W A T E R S Y S T E M D IA G R A M ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? Industrial water is used to cool equipment, bearings, primarily for feed pumps, condensate pumps, plus the drain pump, EH oil installations, such as cooling water.Water from industrial pumps, a total of three, two of them run a backup.Return to the circulating water return pipe. Industrial water is used to cool equipment, bearings, primarily for feed pumps, condensate pumps, plus the drain pump, EH oil installations, such as cooling water.Water from industrial pumps, a total of three, two of them run a backup.Return to the circulating water return pipe. 第八课 机组启停操作及事故处理 LESSON EIGHT—UNIT START UP AND SHUTDOW N OPERATION AND TROUBLESHOOTING   Start state of divided: Turbine Start state, divide d by high pressure within the cylinder toadjust t he level at half the inner wall temperature: Cold state: below 150 ° C State temperature: 150 ~ 300 ℃ Thermal state: 300 ~ 400 ℃ Very Hot: more than 400 ℃ Are briefly described below unit commitment steps and deal wit h the accident: 冷态滑参数启动: Cold sliding parameter start up The turbine startup is prohibitted when it is found that one of the following conditions : The eccentric centre of turbine rotor exceeds the original value by 30m (the original value is measured after overhaul). The emergency governor movement is abnormal or overspeed protection cannot act reliably. There is jam fault for one of HP/LP main stop valve,governing valve,extraction check valve and HP cylinder exhaust check valve,which can not be closed tightly. The governing system of the steam turbine cannot maintain the idling operation or cannot control the rotational speed to cause the emergency governor movement after load rejection. The rotational parts of the steam turbine and generator have an obvious friction sounds or the turning gear current increases obviously and swings with the vast scale. The up and down temperature difference of HP inner casing is more than 35℃ , The up and down temperature difference of HP outer casing IP cylinder is more than 50℃. The turbine differential expansion is up to the limit value. mal 8.the monitoring function of main parameters loss( such as rotational speed, vibration, axial displacement, differential expansion, HP turbine oil pressure, lube oil pressure,lube oil temperature, fire resistant oil pressure, bearing metal temperature, bearing oil drain temperature, thrust pad temperature, main steam pressure and temperature, reheat steam pressure and temperature, condenser vacuum, Security system pressure switch, metal temperature of main cylinders, water level and oil level,etc.). 9.Any safety device or system malfunction , the working value of unit protection does not conform to the stipulation. 10.Any one of AC/DC lube oil pump,jacking oil pump,turning gear and EH oil pump goes wrong or The corresponding interlock protection test is not qualified. 11 The oil level of lube oil tank and fire resistant oil tank is less than ultimate value or the oil quality and cleanliness are unqualified, the inlet oil temperature of bearing is less than 35℃ or the scavenge oil temperature is more than 65℃. 12 Turbine water seepage 13 The water and steam quality does not meet the requirement. 14 The unit heat insulation is imperfect. 15 The other supplementary equipment of power plant or the system work is Before the start of preparatory work The units interlock protection test and boot before the test well: (a) static test of the steam turbine governing system; (b) turbine ETS test; c. large unit interlock test; (d) Turbine AC lube oil pump, DC lube oil pump interlock test, jacking oil pump, mainfuel tank exhaust fan interlock test; (e) to the pump interlock test; (f) circulating water pump interlock test; (g) vacuum pump interlock test; h condensate pump interlock test; i.EH pump interlock test; high and low pressure heater and deaerator protection test; k. electric doors, pneumatic door switch test. l high-and low-bypass device linkage test m, the cooling water pump interlock test. n rotating machinery segment test switch to normal. 2. Industrial water systems have been put into operation, and normal3 auxiliary rotating part jam, bearing lubricants, cooling water, seal water system is(4) cooling tower, vacuum pump separators have been added to the normal water level, put into operation the circulating water system5 turbine fuel tank, EH tank oil level is normal, good oil circulation, oil qualified. Various power equipment oil level is normal6. Instrument air compression system has been put into operation, and normal7 Press to activate the state ready to start the operation order8 to start the circulation pump, check the system properly.Start circulating water boost pump, check the system is operating normally.10 confirm the auxiliary steam system is operating normally.11 into the lubricating oil system: Start AC lube oil pump, jacking oil pump and turning device12 operation of EH oil system13 put into operation in the condensate system, deaerator replenishment14 investment and operation and auxiliary steam system, deaerator heating system water15 may be needed to start electric feed pump, Boiler16 drain system put into operation, open the steam turbine ministries hydrophobic17 Start the vacuum pump18 into the shaft seal system19 boiler ignition, boost heating20 According to the boiler need to invest, low side21 required to put in the relevant protection The inspection and preparation before the unit startup 1.All maintenance works are over , The work ticket has been taken back completely , and has the detailed overhaul records. 2.The site is clean, the road is unimpeded and the illumination is good ; 3.The unit interlock protection test and test brforce starting up are all right ; 4.The rotational parts of Various auxiliary equipment don’t have seizure phenomenon, the bearing lube oil,cooling water and seal water sytem are normal ; 5.All nilometers and oil level indicators are put into operation ; 6.The cooling tower and the segregator of vacuum pump have been fed up to the normal water level ; 7.The oil level of main oil tank of turbine and EH oil tank is normal , the oil circulation is all right and the oil quality is qualified.the oil level of various power equipment is normal ; 8.The industrial water system has been put into operation and works normally ; 9.The preliminary operation of rotation machinery subsection is normal ; 10.The instrument compressed air system has been put into operation and works normally ; 11.Check the feed water system is normal , start up the auxiliary oil pump and A /B feed water pump operation ; 12.Check the valve position conforms to the contents of inspection card according to valve inspection card 1.The preparatory work before starting up : 1.Prepare the operation ticket according to starting up condition. 2.Prepare all instruments and tools used for operation 2.Test before startup of turbine ( after the major and minor repair of unit ) 1.The static test of turbine governing system ; 2.Turbine ETS test ; 3.The big interlock test of unit ; 4.The interlock test of AC lubricating oil pump, DC lubricating oil pump ,jacking oil pump and smoke exhaust fan of main fuel tank ; 5.The interlock test of feed water pump ; 6.The interlock test of circulating water pump ; 7.The interlock test of vacuum pump ; 8.The interlock test of condensate pump ; 9.The interlock test of EH oil pump ; 10.Protection test of HP/LP heater and deaerator ; 11.Switch test of each electrically operated valve and pneumatic valve. 12.The interlock test of the HP/LP bypass device 13The interlock test of cooling water pump Startting up of unit auxiliary systems and equipment 1.Confirm the compressed-air system works normally. 2.Start up the circulating water pump and check the system is normal, 3.Start up the CW booster pump and check the system works normally. 4.Confirm the auxiliary steam system works normally. 5.The lube oil system is put into operation : 6.Start up AC lube oil pump , slowly open the outlet valve to fill oil in the oil system , check the lubrication pressure 0.1 ~ 0.15Mpa. it is noticed that the electric current,pressure,vibration and sound should be normal , check whether there is oil leak phenomenon in the system , the various bearing shell oil drain should be normal, start up the smoke exhaust fan. 7.Start up the jacking oil pump : 1.The lube oil pressure is not less than 0.08MPa , the oil temperatur eis not less than 25℃ , check the jacking oil filling valve of various bearings should be opened. 2.Open the jacking oil filling valve , start up the jacking oil pump, the interlock of jacking oil pump is put into service. Check the jacking oil pressure of every bearing , the jacking oil pressure of main pipe is not less than 10 ~ 14Mpa, confirm the large shaft or the macro-axis has been jacked. 8. Check the turning gear. The protection control power source is normal, the interlock test of the low oil pressure is normal and put into service , start up the turning gear and the Continuous turning gear is put into service. After the Turning Gear is started up , check the difference between rotor eccentricity and the original value is not more than 30m. Listen attentively to steam turbine, generator and various bearings sound should be normal. 9. EH oil system is put into operation. Cooperate to do the valve static relation setting test with I&C and turbine personnel. 10. the condensate system is put into operation : Contact the person for chemistry discipline to fill water in the makeup water tank till the water level is normal. To fill water in the condenser till the water level is normal. Beforce the condenser makeup water, refill water to the condenser again after the storage water in the condensate system should be drained out. Check each emptying conduit of condensate system is closed, the inlet and outlet valves of LP heater are opened and the bypass valve is closed. Start up the condensate pump , adjust the recirculating valve to the condenser, the outlet main pipe pressure of condensate booster pump maintains at 1.5 ~ 2.0Mpa. Open the makeup water valve for boiler cold state to fill water to boiler according to condition. Open the makeup water valve to fill water to deaerator till the water level is normal. During starting up , adjust the emptying conduit in the front of outlet valve of No#4 LP heater beforce the condensate water is qualified , fill the make up water to the condenser again after the water level of condenser will be discharged to the low water level in order to reduce the time and quantity of replacement unqualified water,but it is noticed that the water level of condenser and deaerator is in the normal range. 11. The heating and water generation of deaerator : 1.The auxiliary steam has been ready for steam supply conditions , the water level of the deaerator water tank is normal , the water level instruction in the CRT is correct. 2.The water level of deaerator is made up to the normal level. 3.Open the electrically operated valve from auxiliary steam to deaerator and reboiling valve of deaerator for heating. The deaerator pressure is 0.05MPa , the water temperature is about 110℃ , maintain the parameters of operation , the deaerator pressure should not exceed 0.2Mpa before the condensate water is recycled. 12.Open the inlet valve of feed water pump and fill water in it. Check the feed water pump conforms to startup condition, start up the electrically driven feed pump to feed water to boiler according to demands. Pay attention to closing the HP/LP communicating valve for makeup water in the cold state before starting up of feed water pump. 14.The protection and the interlock of the steam turbine is put into opearion and relief according to the following regulations: No Item Input Remove 1 AC lube oilpump interlock For operation and overhaul DC lube oilpump interlock For standby use For standby use 2 3 EH oil pump interlock For standby use For operation and overhaul 4 low lube oil pressure protection Before impulse starting 5 axial displacement protection 6 Low EH oil pressure protection Before impulse starting Before impulse starting After shutdown After shutdown Thrust-pad high temperature Before impulse starting After shutdown Before impulse starting After shutdown After synchronization Before impulse starting After step-out After shutdown After synchronization After step-out Before impulse starting After shutdown Shaft vibration protection Before impulse starting After shutdown LP exhaust cylinder automatic water Before impulse starting After shutdown For standby use For operation and overhaul 7 Differential expansion protection 9 low vacuum protection 10 overspeed protection 12 13 14 15 After shutdown protection 8 11 For operation and overhaul Main protection operation trip (MPOT) MFT protection injection pump interlock 1.Steam Turbine slip parameters Cold Start up 1.After the ignition command is received from the unit leader , Inform various posts to prepare for it. 2.Start up vacuum pump for vacuumization 3.Start up the shaft gland heater fan , open the inlet valve of the shaft gland heater fan , the shaft gland extraction system is put into operation , the negative pressure of the shaft gland heater maintains -3.5kPa. 4.Open the master valve of the gland seal auxiliary steam source , the lowtemperature auxiliary steam source attemperator is put in the “Automatic” control mode , the steam supply temperature is 180 ~ 250℃. 5.Open the valve of the low temperature gland seal auxiliary steam source , the steam inlet valve of the low-pressure gland sea,master valve of gland seal steam exhaust and drain valve of gland seal system , the gland seal delivers steam for pipe warming , the gland seal auxiliary steam source steam supply station, the overflow station and the low-pressure gland seal desuperheating station automation are put into operation and send steam to the gland seal , the steam supply pressure maintains at 0.128MPa , the LP gland seal steam temperature is 120 ~ 180℃ , which makes the end of various gland seals has no steam emittance and inspiration phenomenon. The drain and pipe warming is over , close all the drain valve , but the drain valves behind the low temperature auxiliary steam desuperheater,the low temperature auxiliary steam non return valve and the high temperature auxiliary steam non-return valve should be opened slightly. 6. It is notified that the boiler can be ignited. 7. Open all the drain valve of turbine according to requirement. 8. Adjust the jaw opening of HP/LP bypass according to boiler needs , the LP bypass desuperheating water is put into operation , it is guaranteed that the outlet temperature of LP byass primary desuperheater is not more than 160℃ , the LP bypass secondary desuperheating water is put into operation ahead of time , it is noticed that the reheater is not overpressure and the steam turbine rotor is not impulsive. 9. In the process of pressure rising , the attention should be paid to check the temperature behind the HP automatic main stop valve and intercept valve , HP/IP automatic main stop valve and HP exhaust non- return valve are closed tightly , the turning gear operation is normal. if the turning gear exits , the Steam turbine speed rises , the HP byass valve should be closed down a bit and the LP bypass valve opened widely , the reheater pressure maintains not to exceed 0.2Mpa. 10. The heating header of HP cylinder is warmed up.it should be fully drained. 11. In the process of pressure rises, adjust timely all the drain valve , the drain flash tank proper pressure maintains not to exceed 0.05Mpa. 12. The relevent protections are put into service according to regulations. 13.According to exhaust temperature rising , open the water spray valve of LP cylinder in time, close it after the exhaust temperature is normal. 1 unit red turn conditions1.1 start the high-voltage AC pumps, high pressure jacking oil pump, lubricating oil systems in normal working condition.1.2 cast plate, and to ensure continuous disk before Rushes car for more than two hours.1.3 the establishment of condenser vacuum condenser pressure reaches 20kPa below.In confirmation of the steam pipe anhydrous steam seal, put the steam seal system, auxiliary steam source. Requirements of the steam seal Pipe Pressure 0.128 MPa, temperature 120 ℃ ~ 180 ℃.1.4 piping and body of each hydrophobic gate fully open.Rushes or speed, with load2.1 to determine the red switch to steam parametersMain steam pressure of 1.0MPaMain steam temperature 280 ° C ± 10 ° C (above 50 ℃ superheat)          Reheat steam temperature of 220 ° C2.2 open the high pressure governor valve unit rushed to turn after turning gear should automatically disengage, otherwise should immediately hit the gate shut down.Rushes also throw in a sandwich heating device.100r/min/min the l rate to turbine speed increased to 500r/min, the speed of the unit to conduct a comprehensive inspection, static and dynamic part of the main check whether friction, high row of the check valve is fully open state, but the residence time may not more than 5min. The cold impulse starting condition of the steam turbine 1.The main steam pressure is 1.0MPa , the main steam temperature is 270 ~ 290℃ , the reheat steam temperature is 220℃ above , the main steam and reheat steam at least sjhould have 50 ℃ degree of overheating. 2.The condenser vacuum is -80 ~ -88kPa , adjust it by vacuum breaking valve. 3.The lube oil pressure and bearing oil flow are normal , the outlet oil temperature of the oil cooler is 38 ~ 45℃. 4.The EH oil pressure is normal and Ehoil temperature is 40±5 ℃. 5.The turning gear is for more than 2 hours continuous operation, there is no abnormal sound inside the cylinder and at the gland seal position. 6.The others conform to starting up condition Make sure the unit as usual 100r/min/min l rate to enhance the speed to 1100r/min speed, medium-speed warm-up 10min.Unit up Process, below the first critical speed bearing cap vibration greater than 0.03mm, gate downtime should be playing, to identify the cause to eliminate failure and then restart.The end of the medium-speed warm-up of 100 150r/min/min l rates l speed to 2300r/min (l speed to 1200r/min stop jacking oil pump), high-speed warm-up in this speed 10 minutes.After the end of the high-speed warmup, continue to be a 100 ~ 150r/min/min l rate rose to 3000r/min constant speed. Empty load speed warm-up 30min. The back of the fixed speed greater than 80 ° C steam temperature, low-pressure cylinder sprinkler system should be automatically put into, or else manually input, condenser pressure should be less than 12kPa, otherwise investment and low vacuum protection.Conduct a comprehensive inspection on the constant speed unit, make sure everything is functioning properly in accordance with the relevant requirements of the trials, after passing the test grid with a load. 做危急遮断器提升转速试验之前,应使机组带 20% 额定负荷进行暖机运行 ,不少于 3 小时。 并网后,由控制系统自动带 3% 额定负荷,按冷态滑参数启动曲线 (见图 2-1-1 )以 1MW/min 升负荷率升负荷至 10MW ,并在该负荷 下暖机 60 分钟。然后锅炉升温升压,开大调节阀,继续以 1.3MW/min 升负荷至 40MW ,在该负荷下暖机 60 分钟。 2.11  锅炉继续升温、升压,继续以 1.3MW/min 升负荷率加负荷至额定 负荷。 在升速过程中,应保持汽轮机蒸汽和金属温度限制值及各监控仪表的限 制值在规 定范围内,同时应注意低压缸喷水装置的投入情况。当高中压外缸下半 高压进汽口处外壁金属温度超过 350℃ ,高中压胀差在允许范围以内,可 停用汽缸法兰、夹层加热系统。 注意在升速过程中机组迅速、平稳地通过临界转速,此时轴承盖振动值 不应大于 0.10mm (峰 - 峰值),轴振不应大于 0.25mm (峰 - 峰值),否则 打闸停机。 在升速或加负荷过程中,如出现异常振动应立即打闸停机,或者稍降转 速,或稍减负荷,直至振动正常为止。 2.15 当机组负荷达 25% 额定负荷时,分别关闭各段疏水门 汽机滑参数启动曲线 机组启动、运行的限制值                    1 蒸汽参数和汽缸金属温升控制。 a   主蒸汽温升率小于 1.5℃/min ,再热蒸汽温升率小于 2℃/min ; b   高中压外缸和高压内缸内、外壁温差均小于 50℃ ; c   高压主汽阀壳内、外壁温差小于 55℃ ; d   高中压外缸外壁上、下半温差小于 50℃ ; e   高中压外缸法兰内、外壁温差小于 80℃ ; f   高中压外缸上半左、右法兰温差小于 10℃ ; g   高压内缸外壁上、下半温差小于 35℃ h 低压缸排汽温度: 报警值: 80 ℃ (投喷水) 停机值: 120℃ 2 胀差(转子以工作瓦定位) 报警值: 高压 +6mm -3mm 低压 +7mm -6mm   停机值: 高压 +6.2mm -3.2mm 低压 +7.2mm -6.2mm   3 轴向位移控制值(转子以工作瓦定位,转子朝发电机方向位移为正,反之为负):   报警值   +0.6 -1.05mm   停机值  +1.2 -1.65mm 4   振动控制值 4.1 轴承盖振动控制值(峰 - 峰值)   正常值  ≤ 0.03mm   报警值   0.05mm   停机值   0.08mm (手动) 4.2 轴振动控制值(峰 - 峰值)   正常值  ≤ 0.076mm   报警值   0.127mm   停机值   0.25mm (手动) 5   油压控制值 a  主油泵出口油压正常值:  1.8MPa ( 17.7kgf/cm2 )  b 润滑油压: 正常值  0.0785 ~ 0.147MPa ( 0.8 ~ 1.5kgf/cm2 ) 报警值  0.049MPa ( 0.5kgf/cm2 )自动启动交流润滑油泵 停机值  0.0392MPa ( 0.4kgf/cm2 ) 自动启动直流事故油泵 停盘车值   0.03MPa ( 0.31kgf/cm2 ) 6 油温控制值   轴承进油正常值    40 ~ 45℃   轴承箱回油正常值 < 65℃ 轴承箱回油报警值 65℃   轴承箱回油停机值 75℃ (手动) 轴承钨金温度 支持轴承钨金温度 报警值 105℃ 停机值 115℃ (手动) b 推力轴承钨金温度 报警值 100℃ 停机值 110℃ (手动) 8 油箱油位(油位指示器指示值) 最高油位 +250 最低油位 -180 低油位报警值 -180 低油位停机值 -230 9  凝汽器压力   a   正常值   0.009MPa ( 0.098kgf/cm2 ) b   报警值 > 0.0147MPa ( 0.15kgf/cm2 ) c   停机值 0.0196MPa ( 0.20kgf/cm2 ) 7 a 机组允许在 30 %~ 100 %的负荷下长期运行。机组甩负荷后带厂用电运行时间不 应超过 10 分钟,每年不超过 1 次。此种运行方式对机组寿命损耗很大,除非绝对必 要,尽量不要采用。机组甩负荷后空负荷运行时间不应超过 10min, 每年不超过 1 次。机组一般不允许电动机状态运行,万不得已时,在背压低于 0.012MPa ,排汽 缸温度低于 80℃ 时,每年可运行 1 次,每次不得超过 1min 。正常情况下,机组能 在周波 48.5 ~ 50.5Hz 内持续稳定运行 异常运行 汽轮机运行时,当与 3-2 节中的限制值有一项或几项已超限进入报警, 但没有一项达到停机值,而此时电厂又不希望立即停机,这种状态下的短时 运行称为异常运行。 异常运行时,应密切注意各超限变化趋势,尽快查找出引起超限的原 因,采取适当措施予以消除。一旦超限值进入停机值应立即打闸停机。 下表列出部分限制值进入报警时应检查的内容: 1 2 超限项目 轴向位移大 1 主要检查内容 检查主蒸汽和再热蒸汽参数及真空是否有大幅度波动 胀差大 2 1 检查推力轴承瓦温、排油温度,确认乌金是否磨损。 高中压胀差大 a ) 确认胀差方向,(正胀差增大或负胀差增大) b ) 保持机组负荷,减小主蒸汽温度的波动。检查高压排汽温度 c )如发现正胀差增大,应降低主蒸汽温度或逐渐降低机组负荷 d ) 如发现负胀差增大,应提高主蒸汽温度或逐渐提升机组负荷。或 采取其它措施提高汽缸温度。 1. 低压缸胀差大(只有正胀差限制值) a ) 保持机组负荷,减小再热蒸汽温度波动。检查低压缸排汽温度。 B ) 降低再热蒸汽温度或逐渐降低机组负荷。 3 振动大 注意每一轴承的振动趋势,判明振动类型。 检查下列指示值是否正常 a ) 轴承乌金温度及进、回油温度; b ) 各瓦油膜压力; c ) 主蒸汽和再热蒸汽温度与汽缸金属温度不匹配量是否太大; d ) 凝汽器压力,低压排汽温度; e ) 高中压缸金属温差; f ) 汽缸膨胀量与胀差; g ) 停机时检查大轴弯曲值; h ) 测量振动频谱和轴心轨迹等。 3 如果在汽轮机启动期间发生振动过大,不应让机组运行在临界转速 区。如振动过大发生在加载期,应停止加载而维持汽轮机原负荷运行, 待查出原因并消除后再加载。如在升速期振动超限,应停机检查,不得 降速运行。 1 2 备注 4 润滑油压低 1 2 3 5 支持轴承瓦温 1. 及回油温度高 2. 3. 4. 6 止推轴承瓦温 1. 及回油温度高 2. 3. 7 主油箱油位高 1 或低 2 8 凝汽器真空变 1 低 2 3 4 5 检查主油箱油位; 检查润滑油系统有无泄漏; 检查主油泵和射油器运行是否正常。 检查轴承油膜压力; 检查润滑油质,确认油中是否有杂质; 检查进油温度是否正常; 检查汽封漏汽是否严重。 检查轴向位移是否过大; 检查润滑油质,确认油中是否有杂质; 检查进油温度是否正常。 当主油箱油位低时: 查明润滑油系统中是否有泄漏。 当主油箱油位高时: 查明冷油器是否漏水,或主油箱内是否积水过多。 检查低压排汽温度是否正常; 检查真空破坏阀、事故排放阀是否关严; 检查低压前后汽封送汽压力是否正常; 检查凝汽器循环水温和凝汽器水位是否正常; 如处在低压喷水状态,检查喷水是否正常。 停机: 汽轮机的停机分为滑参数停机、额定参数停机和紧急停机。 滑参数停机:主要是为了使停机后的汽缸金属温度降到较低的温度水平 ,一般用于小修,大修等计划停机。 额定参数停机:主要是为了短时间消缺处理后能及时启动,希望机组的 汽缸金属维持较高的温度水平,缩短机组的启动时间。 紧急停机:主要用于机组发生事故,危及人身设备安全运行和突然发生 不可抗拒的自然灾害。 滑参数停机和额定参数停机前的准备工作: 1 试验交、直流润滑油泵及盘车电机,均应工作正常。 2  主汽阀、抽汽止回阀应灵活,无卡涩。 3   做好轴封辅助汽源、除氧器、夹层加热系统备用汽源的暖管工作 滑参数停机: SLIDING PARAMETER SHUTDOWN             1 汽机跟随锅炉按滑压曲线(见图滑参数停机曲线)减压减负荷,调节阀保持 近全开状态。 滑停过程中参数控制如下: a )主、再热蒸汽温降速度≤ 1℃/min ; b )主、再热蒸汽压力下降速度≤ 0.07MPa/min ; c )高压汽缸金属温度下降速度≤ 1 ℃/min ; d) 主、再热蒸汽过热度:> 50℃ 2 当主蒸汽温度下降 30℃ 时 , 稳定运行 10min 后再降温 , 目的是控制主蒸汽与 再热蒸汽的温差,以及汽轮机的热膨胀和胀差。 当调节级后蒸汽温度低于高压内缸法兰内壁温度 30℃ 时应暂停降温,可投入 夹层 3 加热装置,实现转子与汽缸温降同步,控制负胀差。该装置投入前应进行充 分疏 水,以防冷水带入汽缸中。 5 减负荷过程中应注意轴封、除氧器汽源的切换。 6 开启凝结水再循环门,以保证凝结水泵正常工作和凝汽器水位正常。 7 减负荷过程中应注意胀差的变化。当高中压胀差达 -1mm 时暂停减负荷、 稳定运行 20min 后再减负荷,此时可投入轴封高温汽源。若负胀差继续增大 ,采取措施无效而影响机组安全时,应快速减负荷到零。 滑参数停机曲线 8 当负荷减至额定负荷的 25% 时,由 DEH 提供信号经辅机连锁装置,自 动开启汽机本体所有疏水门。 9 减负荷过程中应注意后汽缸排汽温度,必要时投入喷水冷却装置。 10 负荷减至额定负荷 5% 时,发电机解列,打闸停机,电动主汽阀、自动 主汽阀、调 节阀、各抽汽止回阀应全部关闭。根据汽缸法兰的温度、胀差情况停夹层加 热装 置。 停轴封高温辅助汽源,切除各种保护装置(低油压保护除外),启动交流润 滑油泵。 12 机组惰走至 1200r/min 时启动顶轴油泵。主轴静止后投入盘车装置,测 量转子弯曲 值并作好记录。 13 转速到零,真空到零后,停轴封供汽,停抽汽器。 14 盘车装置应连续运行,直到汽缸调节级处下半内壁温度低于 150℃ 时方 可停止连续盘车。若此时轴承钨金温度高于 90℃ ,则顶轴油泵,交流润滑 油泵还需继续运行。停连续盘车后,应根据转子挠度变化情况,采用间断盘 车,直至转子挠度值不再变化为止。 15 减负荷过程中,应严密监视机组振动情况,发生异常振动时应停止降温、 降压,必要时打闸停机。 16 在盘车时如果有磨擦声或其他不正常情况时,应停止连续盘车而改为 间断盘车。 若转子产生热弯曲时应用定期盘车的方式消除,随后还需连续盘车 4 小 时以上。 17 停机后确信主油箱中无油烟时才可停排烟风机。 18 停机后应严密监视并采取措施防止冷水、冷汽倒灌汽缸引起大轴弯曲 。 19 电动主汽阀压力降至零后可开启防腐阀门。 20 在初次停机过程中,应记录、绘制机组惰走曲线,以作为以后停机惰 走的依据。 1 .汽轮机发生下列情况之一时,应破坏真空,紧急停机: 1 .汽轮机转速上升至 3360r/min ,电气超速保护和危急保安器不 动作。 2 .汽轮机内部发生明显的金属摩擦或撞击响声。 3 .机组发生强烈振动,振幅达到 0.10mm 以上。 4 .汽轮机发生水冲击,或汽温 10 分钟内急剧下降 50℃ ,或伴有 蒸汽管道或抽汽管道发生强烈振动和水击声,轴向位移增大。 5 .汽轮发电机组任何一个支持轴承温度急剧上升至 115℃ 或推力 轴承温度上升至 110℃ 或轴承排油温度上升至 75℃ 。 6 .轴封或挡油环严重摩擦冒火花。 7 .轴承润滑油压下降至 0.039MPa 。 8 .润滑油箱油位下降至极限值。 9 .轴向位移达极限值 (+1.2/-1.65mm) 。 1 0 .差胀达极限值。 1 1 .油系统着火且不能尽快扑灭,严重威胁机组安全运行。 1 2 .发电机或励磁机冒烟着火 紧急停机操作步骤: 1 .就地手打“手动脱扣器”或在集控室同时按下两个“紧急停机”按钮, 确认高、中压自动主汽门、调节汽门、高排逆止门、抽汽逆止门、抽 汽电动门关闭,负荷到“ 0” 。 2 .检查发电机解列后注意汽机转速应下降。 3 .启动交流润滑油泵。 4 .开启真空破坏门,停止真空泵运行 ( 故障停机此项酌情处理 ) 。 5 .关闭各段抽汽电动门。 6 .倒高低加疏水,及时调整凝汽器、除氧器水位。 7 .开启集一、集二、集三管疏水。 8 .检查轴封汽源自动切换良好,轴封母管压力正常,真空到 0 ,停用 轴封汽和减温水。 9 .循环水中断紧急停机时,禁止向凝汽器排汽、排水。 1 0 .转速降至 1200r/min 时启动顶轴油泵。 1 1 .转子惰走期间应倾听机组内部声音。 1 2 .转子静止后,记录惰走时间,确认动静部分没有摩擦声音后投入电 动连续盘车。 13. 其他操作与正常停机相同。 1 .一般安全规程 对于运行操作人员,在操作过程中,除了遵循电力安全标准和规程,当地政 府及行业主管部门制定的安全法律、规定以外,应遵循以下顺序原则以保证 安全:首先要保证人身安全,其次再保设备安全,最后保电网安全 . 2. 潜在危险和危险区 汽轮机及附属设备多数在高温高压环境下运行,所以具有潜在危险(对运行 人员和设备)。首先,应采取一切必要和可行的措施,防止发生人身伤亡事 故,其次要防范设备损坏事故的发生,一般来说,汽机润滑油系统和抗燃油 系统应注意防火。压力容器(高低压加热器、除氧器等)有爆破的危险,应 做好防范措施,汽轮机具有高速旋转兼有高温高压的特征,应防范超速、轴 系断裂、汽轮机大轴弯曲、轴瓦烧损事故的发生,其他还应做好防范分散控 制系统失灵、热工保护拒动事故以及全厂停电事故的发生。 3. 电厂运行人员须知 运行人员应熟悉系统、设备性能和本手册内容,确保机组正常运行和事故情 况下的正确操作。定期进行事故预想和反事故演习,提高运行人员的技术水 平和事故处理能力。 1 .运行和维护人员指南 1. 运行值班人员应严格遵守调度纪律、值班纪律。严格执行操作票、工作票制度和交接班 制度、巡回检查和设备定期切换制度。 2. 认真监视,调整各参数在规定范围,发现偏离正常值要分析原因,做出相应处理 . 3. 运行值班人员巡视设备时,如发现异常或发生事故,应立即与相关人员联系,将详细情 况汇报值长,听候命令进行处理。如果事故威胁人身和设备安全者应立即进行处理后再汇 报。 2. 汽轮机操作运行理念和惯例 以下操作应填写操作票,并遵循操作监护制度: 2 .主机的启动、停运 3 .电泵的启动、停运 4 .循环水泵的启停及切换 5.EH 油泵的切换 6 .凝结水泵的切换 7 .真空泵的切换 8 .低加疏水的切换 9 .循环水升压泵的切换 1 0 .冷油器的投停及切换 1 1 .正常运行中高、低压加热器的投停 1 2 .电泵低油压试验 1 3 .交、直流润滑油泵低油压联动试验 1 4 .主汽门、调门严密性试验 1 5 .超速试验 1 6 .喷油试验 16 凝汽器的半边隔离、投运
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