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April 3, 2018 | Author: Onkar Ashok Kelji | Category: V Mware, Virtual Machine, Bios, Secure Shell, Operating System


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VMware vSphere 5 TrainingGetting Started with VMware vSphere 5 Training Course VMware vSphere 5 Training Instructors: David Davis and Elias Khnaser Getting Started with VMware vSphere 5 Training Course VMware vSphere 5 Training In This Lesson:     About Your Instructors Who Should Watch this Course? What is VMware vSphere? What We Cover in the Course Getting Started with VMware vSphere 5 Training Course VMware vSphere 5 Training About Your Instructor – David Davis • 18+ years of IT experience • Implemented VMware products in the real-world • Worked with performance since 1990s, starting with Unix performance tuning • Spoke at VMworld – North America – Europe Getting Started with VMware vSphere 5 Training Course VMware vSphere 5 Training About Your Instructor – David Davis • Author of hundreds of vSphere articles on the web including Virtualization Review magazine • Author of numerous TrainSignal’s video training courses including: – vSphere 4 and Pro Series – vSphere Troubleshooting – vSphere Performance • Obtained a number of certifications and awards Getting Started with VMware vSphere 5 Training Course VMware vSphere 5 Training About Your Instructor – Elias Khnaser • Technology Officer for Sigma Solutions • I advise clients on – Server, desktop, and application virtualization technologies – Cloud computing strategies – Automation of highly virtualized data centers • I LOVE technical training • I’ve been doing it for years – Technical author with many books and CBTs sold to my credit [email protected] Twitter: @ekhnaser Linkedin.com/in/eliaskhnaser Getting Started with VMware vSphere 5 Training Course VMware vSphere 5 Training About Your Instructor – Elias Khnaser • Virtualize Everything! – I’ve been working with Citrix technologies and teaching them for 10+ years – Authored CBTs for Citrix MetaFrame XP, VMware Infrastructure 3, 3.5 and vSphere 4 – Awarded VMware vExpert – Frequent speaker at industry conferences and user groups – Contributor and blogger for VirtualizationReview.com, InformationWeek, Forbes.com, and EliasKhnaser.com – Author and co-author of several books including: Getting Started with VMware vSphere 5 Training Course VMware vSphere 5 Training DA Books! Getting Started with VMware vSphere 5 Training Course VMware vSphere 5 Training Who Should Watch this Course? • Anyone who wants to learn vSphere 5 • Server admins interested in using VMware virtualization in their datacenter • Anyone who wants to see new vSphere 5 features in action • No vSphere experience is required and Alarms Getting Started with VMware vSphere 5 Training Course VMware vSphere 5 Training What We Cover in the Course Virtual Storage 101 and Storage Terminology vSphere Storage Appliance (VSA) Creating a Free iSCSI SAN with OpenFiler Administering VMware ESXi Server Security vSphere Virtual Networking Using the vSphere Distributed Virtual Switch (dvswitch) Moving Virtual Machines with vMotion Moving Virtual Storage with svMotion Performance Optimization with Distributed Resource Scheduler (DRS) • Implementing High Availability with VMware HA (VMHA) • Super High Availability with VMware Fault Tolerance (FT) • • • • • • • • • .Getting Started with VMware vSphere 5 Training Course VMware vSphere 5 Training What is VMware vSphere? • The most advanced virtualization platform available • The server virtualization solution that is going to a save your company money • The platform that makes you look like a hero! • The foundation for cloud computing Getting Started with VMware vSphere 5 Training Course VMware vSphere 5 Training What We Cover in the Course • • • • • • • • • • • Overview of VMware vSphere 5 Installing VMware ESXi 5 Installing vCenter 5 Installing vCenter 5 as a Linux Appliance (vCSA) Using the vSphere 5 Web Client What's New in vSphere 5 Navigating vSphere Using the vSphere Client vCenter 5 – Configuring Your New Virtual Infrastructure Creating and Modifying Virtual Guest Machines Installing and Configuring VMware Tools Understanding and Using Tasks. Events. Getting Started with VMware vSphere 5 Training Course VMware vSphere 5 Training What We Cover in the Course • • • • • • • • • • • Upgrading from VMware vSphere 4 to vSphere 5 vSphere Command Line Interface (CLI) Options vSphere Auto Deploy Storage DRS Policy-Driven Storage Understanding the New vSphere 5 vRAM Pooled Pricing Network I/O Control (NIOC) Storage I/O Control (SIOC) ESXi Firewall VMware Data Recovery (VDR) 2 Administering vSphere Using an iPad Getting Started with VMware vSphere 5 Training Course VMware vSphere 5 Training Lab Setup VMware vSphere 5 Training Instructors: David Davis and Elias Khnaser . Physical Virtualization Lab Lab Setup VMware vSphere 5 Training Limitations to a Virtual Lab • • • • • Required 64-bit CPU with Intel VT or AMD-V Min 4GB of RAM May not power on a 64-bit VM Fault Tolerance (FT) won’t work Performance may suffer . Virtual Virtualization Lab 2. first hand Prove that it works “as advertised” Prove that it works for your company’s applications Prepare for a certification Lab Setup VMware vSphere 5 Training Two Ways to Build a Virtualization Lab 1.Lab Setup VMware vSphere 5 Training Why Build a Lab? • • • • Learn virtualization. Lab Setup VMware vSphere 5 Training Importance of Shared Storage • Required to use and test vSphere’s advanced features • Likely not needed with just one ESXi host • Shared storage – Low-end SAN/NAS – Server turned into a NAS – Virtual Storage Appliance (VSA) Lab Setup VMware vSphere 5 Training Running vSphere in Workstation • • • • • Workstation 7 and ESXi 5 Windows 7 Intel 64-bit CPU with VT enabled i7-2630QM @ 2Ghz 6GB of RAM Note: VMware Workstation 7 supports running ESX/ESXi as a VM and editing VM configuration files is no longer necessary Lab Setup VMware vSphere 5 Training vSphere 5 Lab Setup • Multiple labs were used in the creation of this course Lab #1 – Two Dell T610 Servers with 8GB of RAM and Xeon 5500 series CPUs + Iomega ix4-200D . Lab Setup VMware vSphere 5 Training vSphere 5 Lab Setup Lab #2 – Samsung i7 Laptop with 6GB of RAM running VMware Workstation Lab Setup VMware vSphere 5 Training vSphere 5 Lab Setup Lab #3 – Fujitsu blade servers Lab Setup VMware vSphere 5 Training What We Covered  Build a vSphere lab to learn vSphere or to create a vSphere proof of concept (POC) for your company  There are multiple ways to build a vSphere lab  Virtual vSphere labs are the least expensive and most portable but also the least functional and more prone to performance issues  Physical vSphere labs vary greatly in cost but offer the most opportunity to test advanced features without potential performance issues . Course Scenario VMware vSphere 5 Training Instructors: David Davis and Elias Khnaser Course Scenario VMware vSphere 5 Training Our Scenario • Who is the “Wired Brain Coffee Company”? – Multiple datacenters – Uses vSphere for server consolidation – Usually managed by one vCenter Server – A simple virtual infrastructure • Why do we use a scenario? – Useful for scenarios – Scenarios help you remember – Remembering means you retain what you learn so you can use it later  Overview of VMware vSphere 5 VMware vSphere 5 Training Instructors: David Davis and Elias Khnaser . Overview of VMware vSphere 5 VMware vSphere 5 Training In This Lesson:  vSphere 5 Overview  vSphere 5 Components  Packaging and Versions  Cloud Computing  Ecosystem Overview of VMware vSphere 5 VMware vSphere 5 Training vSphere 5 Overview • • • • • Virtualization hypervisor and associated suite of products vSphere includes ESXi and is sold in kits and per-socket licenses vCenter is sold separately but is required No more ESX Server ESXi is a type 1 hypervisor Overview of VMware vSphere 5 VMware vSphere 5 Training vSphere 5 Components • • • • • • • • • • ESXi vCenter vSphere Client vMotion svMotion Distributed Resource Scheduler (DRS) Storage DRS DPM VMHA Fault Tolerance (FT) • • • • • • • • • • vShield Zones Data Recovery Hot Add Distributed Switch VMFS Thin Provisioning Update Manager Storage I/O Control (SIOC) Network I/O Control (NIOC) Host Profiles . html Overview of VMware vSphere 5 VMware vSphere 5 Training Cloud Computing • VMware vCloud products • vCloud Director (vCD) • vCloud Datacenter providers • vCloud Express • vCloud Request Manager • vCloud API Image by VMware.com Overview of VMware vSphere 5 VMware vSphere 5 Training Packaging and Versions • vSphere breaks down into these options: – vSphere Hypervisor – FREE – vSphere Essentials Kit and Essentials Plus Kit – vSphere Acceleration Kits – Std.com . Ent+ – vSphere – per CPU socket & vRAM entitlement • Standard • Enterprise • Enterprise Plus • Note: advanced is no longer available – PLUS vCenter • Foundations (up to 3 hosts) • Standard • See: http://www.com/products/vsphere/pricing.vmware.Graphic Thanks to VMware. Ent. Overview of VMware vSphere 5 VMware vSphere 5 Training Ecosystem • VMware Partner Network • The VMware Ecosystem is strong • It includes: – Hardware vendors – Consulting companies – VMware View partners – Virtual appliance partners – Third-party software companies – Bloggers and community members – Book authors – Training providers Image by VMware.com Overview of VMware vSphere 5 VMware vSphere 5 Training What We Covered  vSphere 5 Overview  vSphere 5 Components  Packaging and Versions  Cloud Computing  Ecosystem Installing VMware ESXi 5 VMware vSphere 5 Training Instructors: David Davis and Elias Khnaser . CD-ROM drives.vmware. or USB media.0 supports booting ESXi hosts from the Unified Extensible Firmware Interface (UEFI). With UEFI you can boot systems from hard drives.Installing VMware ESXi 5 VMware vSphere 5 Training In This Lesson:  ESXi Installation Requirements  What Happened to ESX Server?  Downloading VMware ESXi 5  Installing VMware ESXi 5  ESXi Initial Configuration  Installing the vSphere Client Installing VMware ESXi 5 VMware vSphere 5 Training ESXi Installation Requirements • VMware ESXi – Runs directly on your hardware – It is “the operating system” – Talks directly to your hardware including NIC and storage controller • Requirements: – 64-bit CPU with Intel VT or AMD-V enabled – 2098MB of RAM is the minimum but likely you’ll want 8GB+ – Gig-E or 10Gig-Ethernet controller Installing VMware ESXi 5 VMware vSphere 5 Training ESXi Installation Requirements • vSphere 5. • Check hardware compatibility (HCL/HCG) at www.com/go/hcl • For testing purposes only. it is possible to run ESXi in Workstation or Fusion • VMware Fault Tolerance (FT) has more specific hardware requirements • vSphere storage has it’s own set of requirements . • ESXi can boot from a disk larger than 2TB provided that the system firmware and the firmware on any addin card that you are using supports it. vmware. 5. Burn ISO to CD and put in drive Make sure VT is enabled in server BIOS Boot the CD Answer installation questions. reboot.com/tryvmware • Or. 2. 3. just download the ISO from www. 4.vmware. if you have a registered license. 6. and you are ready to use ESXi 5 Perform initial configuration (recommended) Connect with vSphere Client! .com/download • ESXi is a 321MB CD ISO Installing VMware ESXi 5 VMware vSphere 5 Training Installing VMware ESXi 5 1.Installing VMware ESXi 5 VMware vSphere 5 Training What Happened to ESX Server? • ESX Server has been deprecated/discontinued – Redhat Linux-based service console required more frequent updates and had a larger attack surface – Maintaining two platforms didn’t make sense – Took longer to install and boot – Used more resources • ESXi type-1 hypervisor – Thinner – Less updates – More secure – Still has a very thin local CLI – Loads and installs super-fast – Performs all the advanced features of ESX Installing VMware ESXi 5 VMware vSphere 5 Training Downloading VMware ESXi 5 • vSphere (with ESXi) is available with 60 day evaluation from www. hostname. SM. and domain 3. the root password is set at installation time Installing VMware ESXi 5 VMware vSphere 5 Training Installing the vSphere Client • Available in either a Windows version or a new web-based version • Only Windows version offers 100% of features today • vSphere Client is now downloaded from VMware. Login with F2 and root password Configure IP address. Add to your DNS server 4.NET client • Web-based version requires that you install Adobe Flash Installing VMware ESXi 5 VMware vSphere 5 Training What We Covered  ESXi Installation Requirements  What Happened to ESX Server?  Downloading VMware ESXi 5  Installing VMware ESXi 5  ESXi Initial Configuration  Installing the vSphere Client . Add to vCenter by DNS name 5.Installing VMware ESXi 5 VMware vSphere 5 Training ESXi Initial Configuration 1. DNS servers. DG.com • An ESXi host or vCenter server will direct you • vSphere Client is also found on vCenter installation media • Hardware requirements to run the Windows vSphere Client are low • Windows version requires that you install the . 2. Optional: – Configure NTP on the ESXi server – Connect ESXi server to SAN – Configure lockdown mode – Enable tech support mode and remote tech support mode Note: New in ESXi 5. Installing vCenter 5 VMware vSphere 5 Training Instructors: David Davis and Elias Khnaser Installing vCenter 5 VMware vSphere 5 Training In This Lesson:  What is vCenter Server?  vCenter Server Blueprint  vCenter Server Physical or Virtual?  vCenter Server Features  HW and SW Requirements  Database Requirements  Port Requirements  How to Evaluate vCenter 5? Installing vCenter 5 VMware vSphere 5 Training What is vCenter Server? • vCenter is a centralized management application and framework that serves as a proxy for managing ESXi hosts and their virtual machines • vCenter is a requirement for enterprise features like: – VMware vMotion – VMware High Availability (HA) – VMware Distributed Resource Scheduler (DRS) – VMware Update Manager (UM) – And more… . Task Scheduler. Statistics and Logging Features like vMotion. HA and DRS Plugins like Update Manager. vApp. Alarms and Events. vShield Zones. Host and VM Configuration. Hardware and Service Status Database connectivity ESXi host management Active Directory integration SDK for developers Distributed Services Additional Services Database Interface ESXi Host Management Active Directory Interface vSphere API Installing vCenter 5 VMware vSphere 5 Training vCenter Server Physical or Virtual? • • • • • • • vCenter Server can be physical or virtual Physical requires a dedicated machine Physical is not at risk of vSphere outages Virtual can be backed with other VMs Virtual does not waste an entire server on VC Virtual can participate in HA and be vMotioned Virtual is at risk of vSphere outages Installing vCenter 5 VMware vSphere 5 Training vCenter Server Pre-installation vCenter needs to be part of a domain Assign static IP and hostname Create the back-end database Determine licensing options Correct time and date Server must be registered in DNS and you must be able to resolve it from all ESXi hosts • vCenter should not be a domain controller • Account you are installing under should have: – Member of administrator group – Act as part of operating system – Log on as a service • • • • • • . Storage Monitoring.Installing vCenter 5 VMware vSphere 5 Training vCenter Server Blueprint Core Services VM provisioning. Data Recovery. Orchestrator. Events Logging. Inventory. NET 3.5 and 9. Ent and Datacenter 64-bit SP2 • Windows Server 2008 R2 Std.5 (If using SQL 2008 R2 Express) Installing vCenter 5 VMware vSphere 5 Training Database Requirements Supported Databases: • IBM DB2 9.Installing vCenter 5 VMware vSphere 5 Training vCenter Server Features ESXi Management Access Control VM Management vCenter Update Manager Templates Converter Enterprise Installing vCenter 5 VMware vSphere 5 Training HW and SW Requirements Hardware Requirements: • CPU 2 64-bit CPU or 1 64-bit dual-core CPU (2GHX or better) • Memory 4GB or more if DB running on vCenter Server • Storage a minimum of 4GB is needed.5 SP1 Framework • Microsoft Windows Installer 4. Ent or Datacenter 64-bit SP2 • Windows Server 2003 R2 Std. more if DB installed • Networking a 1GB or better Software Requirements: • Windows Server 2003 Std. Ent and Datacenter 64-bit • Microsoft .7 • Microsoft SQL Server 2008 R2 Express • Microsoft SQL Server 2005 • Microsoft SQL Server 2008 and 2008 R2 • Oracle 10g R2 and 11g Default DB: • Microsoft SQL Server 2008 R2 Express • Can be used in production for small environments of up to 5 hosts and 50 VMs • Ideal for demos and eval . Ent or Datacenter 64-bit SP1 • Windows Server 2008 Std. com/tryvmware • Or. 1025 – 65535 60099 Web service change service notification port 10443 vCenter Inventory Service HTTPS 10109 vCenter Inventory Service Management 10111 vCenter Inventory Service Linked Mode Communications Installing vCenter 5 VMware vSphere 5 Training How to Evaluate vCenter 5? • 60 day evaluation at www. VMs. 1025 to 65535 636 for vCenter Linked Mode. just download the ISO from www.com/download • Available as an ISO or ZIP file . and amount of statics required • It is an estimator and no changes are made to the DB Installing vCenter 5 VMware vSphere 5 Training Port Requirements • • • • • • • • • 80/443 for Web access 902 for heartbeat.Installing vCenter 5 VMware vSphere 5 Training Database Space Calculator • Built-in DB calculator • Estimates disk space required based on number of hosts. can be changed. with registered license.vmware. ESXi management and VM console 8080 / 8443 for Web services and HTTPS Web Services 389 for LDAP. can be changed.vmware. Installing vCenter 5 VMware vSphere 5 Training What We Covered  What is vCenter Server?   vCenter Server Blueprint   vCenter Server Physical or Virtual?  vCenter Server Features   HW and SW Requirements   Database Requirements   Port Requirements  How to Evaluate vCenter 5?  Installing vCenter 5 as a Linux Appliance (vCSA) VMware vSphere 5 Training Instructors: David Davis and Elias Khnaser Installing vCenter 5 as a Linux Appliance (vCSA) VMware vSphere 5 Training In This Lesson:  What is the vCenter Server Appliance?  Pros and Cons to Using vCenter as an Appliance  Deploying the vCenter Server 5 Appliance (vCSA)  Testing vCSA with the vSphere Client . host profiles.com – . optimized for running vCenter Server • No knowledge of Linux is required • No installation has to be performed • Fastest way to get vSphere 5 up and running • There is no additional cost to using this method (a vCenter license is required) Installing vCenter 5 as a Linux Appliance (vCSA) VMware vSphere 5 Training Pros and Cons to Using vCenter as an Appliance • Pros – Supports all traditional vCenter features like DRS. HA. – No Windows license is required – No Windows install has to be done – No vCenter install has to be done – Deployment is simple & FAST • Cons – Doesn’t support SQL as an external database – vCenter Server linked mode doesn’t work – vCenter Server heartbeat doesn’t work – No single-sign on using Windows session credentials – vSphere Storage Appliance (VSA) isn’t compatible Installing vCenter 5 as a Linux Appliance (vCSA) VMware vSphere 5 Training Deploying the vCenter Server 5 Appliance (vCSA) • Will need an already installed ESXi server and the vSphere Client • Download files from VMware. etc. dvSwitch.OVF files – Appliance data disk – Appliance system disk – about 4 GB • Use the “Deploy OVF” option in the vSphere Client • Once up and running the default credentials are: – root/vmware • You can perform network and timezone configuration using the text menu on the console • You will want vCSA to have a static IP address and DNS host record on your DNS server . SDRS.Installing vCenter 5 as a Linux Appliance (vCSA) VMware vSphere 5 Training What is the vCenter Server Appliance? • A new option in vSphere 5 for deploying vCenter Server • A Linux-based virtual machine. Installing vCenter 5 as a Linux Appliance (vCSA) VMware vSphere 5 Training Deploying the vCenter Server 5 Appliance (vCSA) • The only steps absolutely required to use vCSA is: – Test and Save the vCenter database settings (the vCenter Inventory Service. recommended configurations are: – Set a static IP – Set the timezone – Change the root password – Configure Windows AD authentication – Size the embedded database for your vSphere infrastructure – Then restart the vCSA VM Installing vCenter 5 as a Linux Appliance (vCSA) VMware vSphere 5 Training What We Covered  What is the vCenter Server Appliance?  Pros and Cons to Using vCenter as an Appliance  Deploying the vCenter Server 5 Appliance (vCSA)  Testing vCSA with the vSphere Client Using the vSphere 5 Web Client VMware vSphere 5 Training Instructors: David Davis and Elias Khnaser . on the console) – Start vCenter Services on the vCSA VM • However. 0 or later to be installed in your browser • Also requires Adobe Flash to be installed on the server side where you are authorizing the web client Using the vSphere 5 Web Client VMware vSphere 5 Training vSphere 5 Web Client Overview • No plugins work with the web-client (yet) • The web-client is not required by or related to the vCenter Server Appliance (vCSA) • The web client (server) is required to view the vRAM pool utilization report in the regular vSphere client • Installation of the vSphere client (server) is done from the vCenter media • It can be installed on any system that meets the requirements but I typically put it on the Windows vCenter Server .6 • Requires: Adobe Flash Player version 10.1.5 and 3. built in C# will go away one day • Offers nice “recent tasks” and “work in progress” windows • Requires: Microsoft Internet Explorer 7 and 8 or Mozilla Firefox 3.Using the vSphere 5 Web Client VMware vSphere 5 Training In This Lesson:  vSphere 5 Web Client Overview  Installing the Server for the Web Client  Authorizing the Web Client Server  Using the vSphere 5 Web Client Using the vSphere 5 Web Client VMware vSphere 5 Training vSphere 5 Web Client Overview • A web-based version of the vSphere Client • Built with Adobe Flex (currently in use with VMware View Administration tools) • The web-client is the future of vSphere administration • The current vSphere Client. 0 .5  vShield 5.0  The New High Availability – HA  vCenter Site Recovery Manager 5  vCloud Director 1.Using the vSphere 5 Web Client VMware vSphere 5 Training What We Covered  vSphere 5 Web Client Overview  Installing the Server for the Web Client  Authorizing the Web Client Server  Using the vSphere 5 Web Client What’s New in vSphere 5 VMware vSphere 5 Training Instructors: David Davis and Elias Khnaser What’s New in vSphere 5 VMware vSphere 5 Training In This Lesson:  vSphere 5 Platform Enhancements  vSphere Storage  vSphere Networking  vCenter 5. 6 “Snow Leopard” guest OS support on Apple HW Improved SNMP Support What’s New in vSphere 5 VMware vSphere 5 Training vSphere Storage • • • • • • • • • • • Storage DRS (SDRS) Profile Driven Storage VMFS-5 vSphere APIs for Storage Awareness – VASA vSphere APIs for Array Integration – VAAI vSphere Storage Appliance – VSA iSCSI UI support Storage I/O Control NFS support Swap to SSD Storage vMotion Snapshot support VMware View Accelerator What’s New in vSphere 5 VMware vSphere 5 Training vSphere Networking • Enhanced network I/O control • vNetwork Distributed Switch improvements • ESXi firewall .What’s New in vSphere 5 VMware vSphere 5 Training vSphere 5 Platform Enhancements • • • • • • • • • • Convergence Auto deploy and image builder Unified CLI VM enhanced capabilities Support for up to 160 Logical CPUs Up to 2TB physical RAM Up to 512 VMs per host with a max of 2048 vCPUs Host UEFI BIOS Mac OS X 10. What’s New in vSphere 5 VMware vSphere 5 Training vCenter 5.6 “Snow Leopard” guest OS support on Apple HW What’s New in vSphere 5 VMware vSphere 5 Training Auto Deploy and Image Builder • • • • Centrally manage stateless hardware PXE boots / streams image into local memory Host configuration provided by answer file and / or host profiles Image builder streamlines the creation of customized installation media vCenter Server with Auto Deploy Image Profiles Host Profiles .0 • Traditional install • vCenter Linux Appliance • Solution installation and management • vSphere full client • vSphere web client • Enhanced logging support What’s New in vSphere 5 VMware vSphere 5 Training VM Enhanced Capabilities • • • • • • • • • • • • VM Hardware Version 8 Up to 32 vCPUs including multi-core support Up to 1TB of vRAM Up to 1 million IOPS Support for client connected USB USB 3 Non Hardware Accelerated 3D Graphics support UEFI Virtual BIOS Smart Card Readers VMware Tools versions support matrix GUI configuration of multicore vCPUs Mac OS X 10. What’s New in vSphere 5 VMware vSphere 5 Training Storage DRS • Enabled with Storage vMotion • Initial VM placement • Automated load balancing – Storage space utilization – Lowest latency • Affinity rules – VMDK Affinity – VMDK Anti-affinity – VM Anti-affinity 2TB datastore cluster 500GB 500GB 500GB 500GB datastores What’s New in vSphere 5 VMware vSphere 5 Training Profile Driven Storage • Matches storage capabilities to VM storage requirements to meet SLAs • Leverages VASA – Storage APIs – Array Awareness • Ideally leverage SDRS and Profile Drive Storage to reduce OpEx while meeting SLAs VMFS-5 Feature 2TB+ VMFS volumes Support for 2TB+ physical RDMs Unified block size (1MB) Atomic test and set enhancements (part of VAAI. locking mechanism) Sub-blocks for space efficiency Small file support Space reclamation on thin provisioned LUNs Monitoring of space when using thin provisioning VMFS-3 Yes (using extents) No No No 64KB (max ~3k) No No (manual) No VMFS-5 Yes (64TB) Yes Yes Yes 8KB (max ~30k) 1KB Yes (enhanced VAAI) Yes (enhanced VAAI) . What’s New in vSphere 5 VMware vSphere 5 Training VMware View Accelerator • Server Virtualization is about consolidation. but significant OpEx savings VMware vSphere What’s New in vSphere 5 VMware vSphere 5 Training The New High Availability – HA • Fault Domain Manager – FDM • Failure detection – Management Network and Storage Communications • One log file per server – /etc/opt/vmware/fdm • No reliance on DNS • Eliminate common issues • IPv6 support Resource Pool • Enhanced UI VMware VMware VMware • Enhanced deployment ESX ESX ESXi Operating Server Failed Server Operating Server What’s New in vSphere 5 VMware vSphere 5 Training vCenter Site Recovery Manager 5 • vSphere replication – Hypervisor based replication – Bundled with SRM – File-level consistency (except planned migration) • Support for storage based replication • Automated failback • Planned migration – Application-consistent migration – New workflow applied to any plan • IPv6 Servers Servers Site A (Primary) VMware vCenter Server Site Recover y Manager Site B (Recovery) VMware vCenter Server Site Recover y Manager VMware vSphere VMware vSphere . containment and availability • Desktop Virtualization is about standardization and customization • Desktops will always have exceptions • Not much CapEx savings. 5  vShield 5.0   The New High Availability – HA   vCenter Site Recovery Manager 5   vCloud Director 1.5 Most Agile Access to Cloud Infrastructure • Fast Provisioning (Linked Clones) • vApp Custom Guest Properties • 3rd party distributed switch support • vCloud Messages • Microsoft SQL Server Support • Expanded vCloud API and SDK • vSphere 5 support Secure Isolation and Simple Management The Only Hybrid Cloud Infrastructure • vShield Edge VPN Integration What’s New in vSphere 5 VMware vSphere 5 Training vShield 5 vShield Edge Edge vShield App with Data Security Security Zone vShield Endpoint Endpoint = VM Secure the edge of the virtual datacenter • Create segmentation between silos of workloads • Sensitive Data Discovery Offload anti-virus processing DMZ Application 1 Application 2 vShield Manager Endpoint = VM Centralized Management What’s New in vSphere 5 VMware vSphere 5 Training What We Covered  vSphere 5 Platform Enhancements   vSphere Storage   vSphere Networking   vCenter 5.0  .What’s New in vSphere 5 VMware vSphere 5 Training vCloud Director 1. Navigating vSphere Using the vSphere Client VMware vSphere 5 Training Instructors: David Davis and Elias Khnaser Navigating vSphere Using the vSphere Client VMware vSphere 5 Training In This Lesson:  vSphere Terminology (Lingo)  Using the vSphere Client  Performing VM Guest Remote Control  Navigating the vSphere Client with Hotkeys  Searching the Virtual Infrastructure  Sorting and Filtering in the vSphere Client  Exporting Data  Running Reports Navigating vSphere Using the vSphere Client VMware vSphere 5 Training vSphere Terminology (Lingo) • • • • • • • • • • • • vCenter Server vSphere Client ESXi vMA (Virtual) Data Center VM (Virtual Machine) Host / Guest Datastore Folder Resource Pool Cluster Networks (virtual networks) . Navigating vSphere Using the vSphere Client VMware vSphere 5 Training Using the vSphere Client Has a HOME screen Only displays what you have licensed Different views when connected to vCenter vs ESXi host Remembers last connection view • “Back” functionality – Like a web browser • • • • Using the vSphere Client Navigating vSphere Using the vSphere Client VMware vSphere 5 Training Performing VM Guest Remote Control • Make sure you install the VMware Tools • Console tab or pop-up window • Hot Keys – Ctrl-Alt = release mouse (no VMware Tools) – Ctrl-Alt-Ins = Ctrl-Alt-Del – Ctrl-Alt-Enter = to switch back and forth to full screen . datastores. networks.Navigating the vSphere Client with Hotkeys Navigating vSphere Using the vSphere Client VMware vSphere 5 Training Searching the Virtual Infrastructure • • • • • “Google” for your VI From the Home Screen or any vSphere client window Search for VMs. hosts. and folders Linked mode is supported Simple and advanced searching Navigating vSphere Using the vSphere Client VMware vSphere 5 Training Sorting and Filtering in the vSphere Client • Sort lists by clicking on column headings • Filter a list by keyword • You can also export a list in a variety of formats . CSV. XLS. Events. HTML with CSS.Navigating vSphere Using the vSphere Client VMware vSphere 5 Training Exporting Data • List Export – HTML. or XML • OVF File. Maps. and System Logs Navigating vSphere Using the vSphere Client VMware vSphere 5 Training Running Reports • Host Summary • Performance . Navigating vSphere Using the vSphere Client VMware vSphere 5 Training What We Covered  vSphere Terminology (Lingo)  Using the vSphere Client  Performing VM Guest Remote Control  Navigating the vSphere Client with Hotkeys  Searching the Virtual Infrastructure  Sorting and Filtering in the vSphere Client  Exporting Data  Running Reports vCenter 5 – Configuring Your New Virtual Infrastructure VMware vSphere 5 Training Instructors: David Davis and Elias Khnaser . and Service Status  Monitoring ESXi Host Health Hardware Status vCenter 5 – Configuring Your New Virtual Infrastructure VMware vSphere 5 Training Planning the Virtual Infrastructure • Proper naming and organization of the virtual infrastructure is critical • This structure will be used to delegate permissions to users and groups • Develop a standard naming convention for ESXi hosts and guest VMs • Organize by – Physical site – Company division – Purpose of infrastructure – Or other system that makes sense in your organization vCenter 5 – Configuring Your New Virtual Infrastructure VMware vSphere 5 Training Planning the Virtual Infrastructure • vCenter inventory can contain: – Folder – Datacenter • Folder can contain: – Folder – Datacenter • Datacenter can contain: – Folder – Cluster – Host – Virtual Machine .vCenter 5 – Configuring Your New Virtual Infrastructure VMware vSphere 5 Training In This Lesson:  Planning the Virtual Infrastructure  Adding Datacenters. vCenter Sessions. and Hosts  Configuring vSphere Licensing  Removing “Getting Started” Tabs  Configuring the ESXi Server Clock and NTP  vCenter Server Settings and Plugins  Reviewing System Logs. Folders. Virtual server.– required delimiter to signify the end of the header portion • Variable portion: AAA – function / service / purpose BBB – application • Unique ID: ## – 2 digit sequence # vCenter 5 – Configuring Your New Virtual Infrastructure VMware vSphere 5 Training Naming Convention Examples • CHEV-DC01 Chicago Datacenter. sequence #1 • CHEP-ESX01 Chicago Datacenter. Microsoft Exchange. SC . Physical server. sequence #1 • CHEV-FS01 Chicago Datacenter. out of business etc… T – type . OR Dallas.vCenter 5 – Configuring Your New Virtual Infrastructure VMware vSphere 5 Training Naming Convention • GGLT-AAABBB## • Header portion: GG – geographical location L – location should be generic and not vendor or building specific to facilitate moves. Virtual server. sequence #1 • CHEV-EXH01 Chicago Datacenter. VMware ESXi. building name changes due to mergers. Domain Controller.??? vSphere Network Virtualization Diagram Bandon. Virtual server. TX Hilton Head. File Server. sequence #1 • CHTV-CTXJDE01 . vCenter Sessions. and Service Status   Monitoring ESXi Host Health Hardware Status  Creating and Modifying Virtual Guest Machines VMware vSphere 5 Training Instructors: David Davis and Elias Khnaser Creating and Modifying Virtual Guest Machines VMware vSphere 5 Training In This Lesson:  Three Ways to Create Virtual Machines  Downloading VMs from Virtual Appliance Marketplace  VMware Guest OS Install Guide  Changing BIOS Settings in a Guest VM  Creating ISO Images of CD/DVD Install Media  Creating a Library of ISO Installation Media  Using the vSphere Datastore Browser  Using Secure Copy Protocol (SCP) with vSphere  Accessing ESXi Using SSH  Creating a New Virtual Machine with a Fresh OS Install  vSphere 5 EFI Firmware Option . and Hosts   Configuring vSphere Licensing   Removing “Getting Started” Tabs   Configuring the ESXi Server Clock and NTP   vCenter Server Settings and Plugins   Reviewing System Logs.vCenter 5 – Configuring Your New Virtual Infrastructure VMware vSphere 5 Training What We Covered  Planning the Virtual Infrastructure   Adding Datacenters. Folders. vmware.com/appliances • Thousands of VMs available • Some are unlimited free use where others are limited trials • Once downloaded.pdf • Another excellent tool is the vSphere 5 Virtual Machine Administration Guide . Download and deploy (import) a virtual appliance 3.com/pdf/GuestOS_guide. simply deploy them in the vSphere Client Creating and Modifying Virtual Guest Machines VMware vSphere 5 Training VMware Guest OS Install Guide • vSphere 5 supports more guest OSs than any other virtualization product • Best resource for learning guest OS “gotchas” is the VMware Guest OS Install Guide found at http://www.vmware. P2V conversion Creating and Modifying Virtual Guest Machines VMware vSphere 5 Training Downloading VMs from Virtual Appliance Marketplace • http://www. Fresh OS install 2.Creating and Modifying Virtual Guest Machines VMware vSphere 5 Training Three Ways to Create Virtual Machines 1. com/freeware.alexfeinman. VMware calls it “firmware” and you can select between the standard BIOS and the new EFI firmware option Creating and Modifying Virtual Guest Machines VMware vSphere 5 Training Creating ISO Images of CD/DVD Install Media • You can create an ISO with most CD/DVD authoring applications • For a quick and easy ISO authoring app.Creating and Modifying Virtual Guest Machines VMware vSphere 5 Training Changing BIOS Settings in a Guest VM • A VM has a virtual BIOS. I recommend: – LC ISO Creator http://www.com/W7.htm Creating and Modifying Virtual Guest Machines VMware vSphere 5 Training Creating a Library of ISO Installation Media • Important to have an ISO library of commonly used OS and App CD/DVD media • Benefits: – No media to worry about – No physical access to servers – No slow network transfers or mounts • Store this on your SAN so that all ESXi hosts can access it .php – FREE ISO Recorder (XP and Vista/7 versions) http://isorecorder. just like a physical server has a real BIOS on the motherboard • Telling the BIOS to boot a guest OS Install CD/DVD can be tricky • To enter the Phoenix BIOS press F2 before the guest OS begins booting • To boot an a CD/DVD.lucersoft. press ESC for the boot menu • In the BIOS you can set the boot order (CD then HD) • Note: while we typically call this “BIOS”. you can access the ESXi server via SSH with a SSH client like PuTTY • This will give you access to manipulate files in the VMFS datastores .Creating and Modifying Virtual Guest Machines VMware vSphere 5 Training Using the vSphere Datastore Browser • Datastore browser allows you to access files that the ESXi server can see in the VMFS • Access the datastore browser via: – Web browser directly to the ESXi server – vSphere Client Creating and Modifying Virtual Guest Machines VMware vSphere 5 Training Using Secure Copy Protocol (SCP) with vSphere • ESXi doesn’t support FTP • You can use SCP to copy files to and from an ESXi server • There are lots of free SCP tools available on the web • I am a fan of Veeam’s free FastSCP Creating and Modifying Virtual Guest Machines VMware vSphere 5 Training Accessing ESXi Using SSH • ESXi doesn’t support telnet (it uses clear text authentication) • Enabling remote tech support mode on the ESXi server enables a SSH server • From there. Creating and Modifying Virtual Guest Machines VMware vSphere 5 Training Creating a New Virtual Machine with a Fresh OS • Creating a new VM is easy but keep in mind the consequences of doing so: – Cost of software license – Management overhead – Documentation – Training of junior administrators and support staff – Backups must be performed – 3rd party software licenses based on # of servers Creating and Modifying Virtual Guest Machines VMware vSphere 5 Training Creating a New Virtual Machine with a Fresh OS • To create a new VM. you can choose from traditional BIOS firmware or new EFI firmware • New EFI firmware doesn’t: – Work with Windows – Work with any kind of network boot • New EFI firmware does: – Allow you to use Mac OSX (on a ESXi host running on an Apple platform) – Offers built in drivers for HW and a shell • Note that. and USB devices . also new in vSphere 5. allowing ESXi servers to be booted from hard drives. you need to know: – Name of the VM (recommend a standard) – Server and datastore to place the VM in – Operating system (32 or 64-bit) – Number of vCPUs – RAM – Disk size and type • You need to have the ISO file available in: – Local VMFS datastore on the server or SAN – Physical media on the server – Client device – ISO file on your local computer or a network share Creating and Modifying Virtual Guest Machines VMware vSphere 5 Training vSphere 5 EFI Firmware Option • With vSphere 5. ESXi servers can be booted on systems that are using the EFI firmware. CD drives. Creating and Modifying Virtual Guest Machines VMware vSphere 5 Training What We Covered  Three Ways to Create Virtual Machines   Downloading VMs from Virtual Appliance Marketplace   VMware Guest OS Install Guide  Changing BIOS Settings in a Guest VM  Creating ISO Images of CD/DVD Install Media  Creating a Library of ISO Installation Media   Using the vSphere Datastore Browser   Using Secure Copy Protocol (SCP) with vSphere   Accessing ESXi Using SSH   Creating a New Virtual Machine with a Fresh OS Install   vSphere 5 EFI Firmware Option  Installing and Configuring VMware Tools VMware vSphere 5 Training Instructors: David Davis and Elias Khnaser Installing and Configuring VMware Tools VMware vSphere 5 Training In This Lesson:  Why You Need VMware Tools  Installing VMware Tools in Windows  Configuring VMware Tools with VMware Toolbox  Installing VMware Tools in Linux  Searching and Sorting to Check VMware Status  Updating VMware Tools Installing and Configuring VMware Tools VMware vSphere 5 Training Why You Need VMware Tools • VMware Tools are a set of drivers installed in each VM Guest OS • VMware’s documentation says: “Installing VMware Tools in the guest operating system is vital. Although the guest operating system can run without VMware Tools, you lose important functionality and convenience.” • To the novice, VMware Tools appear as a simple application • The VMware Tools service/daemon – Windows – VMwareService.exe – Linux and Solaris – vmware-guestd Installing and Configuring VMware Tools VMware vSphere 5 Training Why You Need VMware Tools • VMware Tools provides: – Time sync between host and guest – Windows – controls grabbing/releasing mouse – Contains the following drivers: • SVGA • vmxnet network driver for some guest OSs • BusLogic SCSI for some guests • Memory control driver for efficient memory allocation between VMs • Sync driver to quiescence IO for backup • VMware mouse driver Installing and Configuring VMware Tools VMware vSphere 5 Training Why You Need VMware Tools • VMware Tools provides: – VMware Tools Control Panel – modifies settings, shrinks virtual disks, and connects/disconnects virtual devices – Scripts – can run when the power state of the VM changes if you configure them – VMware User Process – enables copy and paste of text between guest and host • Windows – VMwareUser.exe • Linux/Solaris – vmware-user – VMware Tools Installers – ISO images, installed when ESXi is installed – Without VMware Tools the guest shutdown and restart options in the vSphere Client do not work Installing and Configuring VMware Tools VMware vSphere 5 Training Installing the VMware Tools in Windows • Simple and easy… • Make sure you read the VMware Guest Install Guide for info on your specific Windows OS Installing and Configuring VMware Tools VMware vSphere 5 Training Installing the VMware Tools in Linux • USE SUPPORTED LINUX GUEST OS • Use the RPM or TAR installer – RPM is preferred – For TAR file, run vmware-install.pl • Run vmware-config-tools.pl located in /usr/bin. • Tools are installed in /usr/lib/vmware-tools • Configuration files are in /etc/vmware-tools • Executables are in /usr/bin • To start the VMware Tools Toolbox, run vmware-toolbox Searching and Sorting to Check VMware Status Events. and Alarms VMware vSphere 5 Training Instructors: David Davis and Elias Khnaser .Updating VMware Tools Installing and Configuring VMware Tools VMware vSphere 5 Training What We Covered  Why You Need VMware Tools  Installing VMware Tools in Windows  Configuring VMware Tools with VMware Toolbox  Installing VMware Tools in Linux  Searching and Sorting to Check VMware Status  Updating VMware Tools Understanding and Using Tasks. Events. and Alarms VMware vSphere 5 Training Understanding Tasks and Events • Tasks are initiated by you (or in some cases by “system”) • Events record Tasks and events that occur on the system – Alarm condition reached – Datastore out of space.Understanding and Using Tasks. and Alarms VMware vSphere 5 Training Configuring SNMP and SMTP Email in vCenter • Different types of SNMP in vSphere: – Outbound traps – Inbound statistics gathering • Here. we are talking about sending outbound traps to a network mgmt station • Like SNMP. and Alarms VMware vSphere 5 Training In This Lesson:  Understanding Tasks and Events  Configuring SNMP and SMTP Email in vCenter  Alerting You with vCenter Alarms Understanding and Using Tasks. etc • Tasks and Events are available at just about every level of the inventory and on every type of object • You can filter and sort Tasks and Events • You can export Events • Checkout the “Events Home” • You can create Scheduled Tasks Understanding and Using Tasks. not the ESXi Server • Very simple SMTP configuration in vCenter • vCenter offers only the configuration of the SMTP server and username . SMTP is used as an alarm trigger • vCenter does the sending. Events. Events. and Alarms VMware vSphere 5 Training What We Covered  Understanding Tasks and Events    Configuring SNMP and SMTP Email in vCenter  Alerting You with vCenter Alarms  Virtual Storage 101 and Storage Terminology VMware vSphere 5 Training Instructors: David Davis and Elias Khnaser . Events.Understanding and Using Tasks. Events. and Alarms VMware vSphere 5 Training Alerting You with vCenter Alarms • Alarms can alert you or take action on one of hundreds of potential conditions in the VI • You could: – Receive SNMP trap – Receive SMTP Email – Start/Stop a VM – Execute a script – And more • You can also configure alarms based on Thin Provisioning and the vNetwork Distributed Switch (vDS)! Understanding and Using Tasks. or FC • Centralized Storage is required for advanced features of vSphere like vMotion. FT. VMHA.” – VMware FC Documentation VM’s not aware VM uses virtual disks VDs can be managed easier VMs use virtual SCSI controllers to see VD • • • • Virtual Storage 101 and Storage Terminology VMware vSphere 5 Training Storage 101 – Virtual Disks and VMFS • Each VM. a specialized virtualization clustered FS – providing distributed locking • VM’s VDs are stored in VMFS datastores • VMFS could be local. which logically abstracts the physical storage layer from virtual machines. or raw disk (RDM) • VMFS is the VMware File System. can access VMFS datastore. and DRS • Most of the time. through the SCSI controller. NFS datastore. that centralized storage is a SAN . iSCSI.Virtual Storage 101 and Storage Terminology VMware vSphere 5 Training In This Lesson:  Storage 101 – Virtual Disks and VMFS  Data Transfer  Comparing Storage Technologies  Storage Area Network (SAN) 101  Fiber Channel SAN Components  Addressing FC SAN LUNs  Understanding iSCSI Storage  Why You Need a SAN  Storage Terms You Must Know  What is in a Datastore?  ESXi Server Storage Options  VMFS Specs and Maximums Virtual Storage 101 and Storage Terminology VMware vSphere 5 Training Storage 101 – Virtual Disks and VMFS • “vSphere provides host-level storage virtualization. Storage 101 – Virtual Disks and VMFS Graphic thanks to VMware. a Windows host that has been presented a unit of storage from a storage area network identifies the storage as if it were a local disk and the host is permitted to format the disk • File Level Transfer – Presentation of storage that has been formatted and is managed from the host presenting the storage – For example. a Windows host with a mapped drive to a shared directory does not have the ability to format the associated drive letter allocation Data Transfer Fiber Channel iSCSI NFS .com Virtual Storage 101 and Storage Terminology VMware vSphere 5 Training Data Transfer • Block Level Transfer – Presentation of storage that can be formatted and managed as local drive – For example. 4 or 8 Gbps) Data Transfer File level Performance Rating Low to High Medium to High High Cost Low $ Medium $$ High $$$ NAS iSCSI Fibre Channel Block level Block level Virtual Storage 101 and Storage Terminology VMware vSphere 5 Training Storage Area Network (SAN) 101 SAN could be iSCSI or Fiber Channel (FC) FC SAN packages SCSI commands into FC frames Servers connect to the SAN using HBA HBA connect to FC switch “Fabric” FC switch connects to Storage Processor (SP) Zones configured in the FC switch define what HBA can connect to what SP and what LUN • ESXi fully support SAN multipathing • • • • • • Fiber Channel SAN Components ESXi Host FC Host Bus Adapter (HBA) FC Cables FC Switch “Fabric” Storage Processor Logical Unit Numbers (LUNs) .Comparing Storage Technologies Type Communication SMB/NFS over TCP/IP via standard NIC (1Gbps or 10Gbs) SCSI over TCP/IP via standard NIC or iSCSI HBA (1Gbps or 10Gbps) SCSI over Fibre Channel via Fibre Channel HBA (2. com/go/hcl Virtual Storage 101 and Storage Terminology VMware vSphere 5 Training Fiber Channel Connectivity ESXi with 2 Dual Port HBAs ESXi with 2 Single Port HBAs FC Switched Fabric Storage Device with 2 Single Port Storage Processors Storage Device with 2 Dual Port Storage Processors Virtual Storage 101 and Storage Terminology VMware vSphere 5 Training Addressing FC SAN LUNs • FC SAN LUNs are addressed using a four-part name in the form of: vmhba#:storage_processor#:LUN#:Partition# • There can be multiple paths to a LUN with redundant hardware configurations vmhba1:0:8:1 vmhba1:0:9:1 vmhba1 SP0 LUN8 LUN9 vmhba2 ESXi Host with two single port HBAs.vmware. . Intel and others • Refer to the I/O Compatibility guide on the VMware Web site for model numbers: www. Brocade. vmhba2:1:8:1 vmhba2:1:9:1 SP1 FC Storage device with 2 single port SPs.Virtual Storage 101 and Storage Terminology VMware vSphere 5 Training Fiber Channel HBAs • ESXi natively supports Fiber Channel HBAs made by QLOGIC. EMULEX. or LUNs.Virtual Storage 101 and Storage Terminology VMware vSphere 5 Training Zoning • Zoning is the process of allowing ESXi hosts to communicate with a storage device through the Fiber Channel switched fabric • Zoning is performed from the management interface of the FC switch WWN: 210000E08B8E5C9A Zone Name: SILO101a_CX3-80a Zone Members: 210000E08B8E5C9A 500601603022C194 WWN:500601603022C194 Virtual Storage 101 and Storage Terminology VMware vSphere 5 Training Zoning Sample WWNs of discovered nodes WWNs included in this zone Names of existing zones. are carved • A LUN is a logical allocation of storage space carved from a set of underlying physical drives that make up a RAID group • A relationship between the ESXi hosts and LUNs is created through storage groups . Virtual Storage 101 and Storage Terminology VMware vSphere 5 Training Managing FC Storage • Fiber Channel storage devices house physical hard drives that make up RAID groups from which Logical Unit Numbers. wiredbraincoffee:iscsi1 .Virtual Storage 101 and Storage Terminology VMware vSphere 5 Training Sample SAN Management RAID Groups are collections of physical disks from which LUNs are carved Storage groups (host groups) create relationships between hosts and LUNs Virtual Storage 101 and Storage Terminology VMware vSphere 5 Training Understanding iSCSI Storage • iSCSI (Internet SCSI) is sending SCSI disk commands and data over a TCP/IP network • Why use it? – Low cost – Use existing hardware – Ethernet NIC. and OS features – Supports almost all vSphere features • Downside – performance? reliability? • iSCSI terms: – iSCSI hardware initiator – a special iSCSI NIC card – iSCSI software initiator – use your own NIC card and OS iSCSI software – iSCSI Target – the server running iSCSI Virtual Storage 101 and Storage Terminology VMware vSphere 5 Training Understanding iSCSI Storage • iSCSI uses IQN (iSCSI qualified name) to identify iSCSI Targets and Initiators • It is laid out in this format: – date in year-month format – reversed domain – a unique org assigned name (ie: hostname) – For example: 2007-01.com. switch. FC SP. server is initiator and storage is the target • LUN (logical unit number) – an address used to identify a SCSI disk Virtual Storage 101 and Storage Terminology VMware vSphere 5 Training Storage Terms You Must Know • Multipathing / Failover – allows you to use more than 1 path. and disk • Internet SCSI (iSCSI) – SCSI over TCPIP.Virtual Storage 101 and Storage Terminology VMware vSphere 5 Training Why You Need a SAN • Justification for a SAN with vSphere: – Maintenance with zero downtime – Load balancing with vMotion and svMotion – Storage consolidation and central management – Disaster recovery – Simple array migrations and storage upgrades – Use of advanced features like • HA • FT • DRS • DPM Virtual Storage 101 and Storage Terminology VMware vSphere 5 Training Storage Terms You Must Know • Datastore – VMware file system / logical volume – Can be NFS or VMFS and can be located on any supported storage – Where your VMs are stored • Disk partition – an area on a disk set aside for a datastore • Extent – a disk area that can be added to a datastore • Fibre Channel (FC) – high speed storage technology with FC HBA. ESXi uses NFS on NAS • NFS (Network File System) – a file sharing protocol used with ESXi server (and Unix/Linux) • Raw Device Mapping (RDM) – a special type of storage disk where ESXi controls disk access • Spanned Volume – a dynamic volume spread across number of extents • Volume – A disk volume – A logical storage unit . offers failover and redundancy • NAS (Network Attached Storage) – networked disk storage. FC switch. vmware.Virtual Storage 101 and Storage Terminology VMware vSphere 5 Training What is in a Datastore? • • • • • • Virtual disk Virtual memory VM configuration file Log files Core dumps Anything you add. like an ISO file Virtual Storage 101 and Storage Terminology VMware vSphere 5 Training ESXi Server Storage Options • Local Disk with VMFS Datastore • SAN – iSCSI Software – iSCSI Hardware – Fiber Channel (FC) • NAS – NFS • VSA – vSphere Storage Appliance • Checkout the vSphere SAN and I/O Compatibility Guide: www.com/go/hcl Virtual Storage 101 and Storage Terminology VMware vSphere 5 Training VMFS Specs and Maximums • • • • • • • Optimized for storing VMs and high performance Cluster file system – multiple ESXi hosts Not a lot of features when compared to NTFS or other FS VMFS-5 is the latest VMFS version You should have only one VMFS volume per LUN Max disk size for a VM is 64TB Best practice is to format LUNs with 8MB Block size . Virtual Storage 101 and Storage Terminology VMware vSphere 5 Training What We Covered  Storage 101 – Virtual Disks and VMFS   Data Transfer  Comparing Storage Technologies   Storage Area Network (SAN) 101   Fiber Channel SAN Components   Addressing FC SAN LUNs   Understanding iSCSI Storage   Why You Need a SAN   Storage Terms You Must Know   What is in a Datastore?   ESXi Server Storage Options   VMFS Specs and Maximums  vSphere Storage Appliance (VSA) VMware vSphere 5 Training Instructors: David Davis and Elias Khnaser vSphere Storage Appliance (VSA) VMware vSphere 5 Training In This Lesson:  vSphere Storage Appliance Overview  What Makes VSA Unique  VSA Cluster Design Options  VSA SAN Maintenance Mode  VSA Installation Gotchas . and DRS • Due to the cost barrier.com vSphere Storage Appliance (VSA) VMware vSphere 5 Training vSphere Storage Appliance Overview • VSA is not included with any version of vSphere • Cost details: – $5995 per instance (up to 3 nodes) – Or vSphere Essentials Plus with the VSA $7995 (which is 40% off) • Note: your pricing may vary (try to negotiate) • Consider the alternatives and what makes VSA so beneficial before you dismiss it and go with a low-end hardware SAN • Capex savings = no hardware SAN to buy • Opex savings = no dedicated SAN administration needed .vSphere Storage Appliance (VSA) VMware vSphere 5 Training vSphere Storage Appliance Overview • vSphere Storage Appliance = VSA • VSAs are commonly known as “Virtual Storage Appliances” • VSA is new with vSphere 5 and it allows you to create a storage area network (SAN) using the local storage across ESXi servers • Shared storage (a SAN/NAS) it required to implement many of VMware’s core features like vMotion. thus. many companies have been unable to implement these features • The new VSA will allow all customers to affordably implement a SAN and. implement advanced vSphere features vSphere Storage Appliance (VSA) VMware vSphere 5 Training vSphere Storage Appliance Overview Graphic Thanks to VMware. VMHA. com vSphere Storage Appliance (VSA) VMware vSphere 5 Training vSphere Storage Appliance Overview • VSA provides NFS-based storage • Each ESXi server has a special VSA VM on it • 1:1 relationship between vCenter and VSA (and must be on the same subnet) • ESXi servers should be fresh installs (vanilla configuration) • VSA SANs are either 2 nodes plus vCenter or 3 nodes • vCenter must not be running as a VM on the ESXi hosts in the cluster • Multiple NICs are highly recommended for redundancy vCenter Server VSA Manager VSA Cluster Service Manage Volume 1 Volume 2 (Replica) VSA Datastore 1 Volume 2 Volume 1 (Replica) VSA Datastore 2 VSA cluster with 2 members Graphic Thanks to VMware. that is fully supported for use with advanced vSphere features • Fully redundant (unlike a standalone SAN) • Easy to install (unlike…) • Bringing highly available SAN features and advanced vSphere features to EVERYONE Graphic Thanks to VMware.com . from VMware.vSphere Storage Appliance (VSA) VMware vSphere 5 Training What Makes VSA Unique • A SAN that requires no additional hardware • A software-based SAN. com vSphere Storage Appliance (VSA) VMware vSphere 5 Training VSA SAN Maintenance Mode • VSA SAN maintenance mode options are: – Entire VSA cluster – Single VSA node • If a node is taken out of the cluster. a full sync is done vSphere Storage Appliance (VSA) VMware vSphere 5 Training VSA Installation Gotchas • Requirements to install VSA are quite particular: – No VMs on the ESXi servers (including vCenter) – You can have only 1 datastore on the server and it must be a local disk (no SAN connections) – Only a short list of physical servers are “supported” (but it should still run) – ESXi servers must have “the same hardware configuration” – 6GB of RAM minimum per server – A RAID controller that supports RAID 10 • Please check the VSA installation requirements prior to install . changed blocks are tracked until the node is added again • If a new node is added.vCenter Server VSA Manager Manage VSA Datastore 1 Volume 1 Volume 3 (Replica) Volume 3 Volume 2 Volume 1 (Replica) Volume 2 (Replica) VSA Datastore 2 VSA Datastore 3 VSA cluster with 3 members Graphic Thanks to VMware. vSphere Storage Appliance (VSA) VMware vSphere 5 Training What We Covered  vSphere Storage Appliance Overview  What Makes VSA Unique  VSA Cluster Design Options  VSA SAN Maintenance Mode  VSA Installation Gotchas Creating a Free iSCSI SAN with OpenFiler VMware vSphere 5 Training Instructors: David Davis and Elias Khnaser . you can download OpenFiler as a pre-built VMware virtual appliance with no installation • Download it from www.openfiler.Creating a Free iSCSI SAN with OpenFiler VMware vSphere 5 Training In This Lesson:  Why Use OpenFiler?  Downloading OpenFiler  Installing OpenFiler  Configuring OpenFiler as an iSCSI SAN  Connecting vSphere to the OpenFiler iSCSI SAN Creating a Free iSCSI SAN with OpenFiler VMware vSphere 5 Training Why Use OpenFiler? • You need a SAN to perform advanced vSphere functions like: – vMotion – svMotion – VMHA – FT – DRS – DPM • SAN is the best way to manage storage • Recommend a dedicated server • Recommend OpenFiler for testing and developing Creating a Free iSCSI SAN with OpenFiler VMware vSphere 5 Training Downloading OpenFiler • Available in 32-bit and 64-bit ISO installer • Alternatively.com . create a second VMDK before boot Configure NTP Create partition and volume Verify the IQN Create filesystem and select iSCSI Allow local network Enable iSCSI Creating a Free iSCSI SAN with OpenFiler VMware vSphere 5 Training Connecting vSphere to the OpenFiler iSCSI SAN To configure a new ESXi Server to use iSCSI: • Add a software iSCSI adaptor • Configure the new iSCSI adaptor to: – Use dynamic discovery – Enter the IP or hostname of the OpenFiler server (add CHAP credentials if necessary) – Perform a rescan • If it’s the first connection to the iSCSI SAN. use Add Storage to create a VMFS datastore on the new iSCSI SAN .Creating a Free iSCSI SAN with OpenFiler VMware vSphere 5 Training Installing OpenFiler • Configure static IP address and DNS entry to it • Connect to it at: https://<hostname>:446 • Default username and password are: – openfiler – password * change default pass! (note: root account also works) Creating a Free iSCSI SAN with OpenFiler VMware vSphere 5 Training Configuring OpenFiler as an iSCSI SAN • • • • • • • If using in a VM. and Removing ESXi Users and Groups  Using Windows AD Users and Groups to Secure vSphere  Defining and Applying Roles and Permissions  vShield Overview  Securing Guest Virtual Machines .Creating a Free iSCSI SAN with OpenFiler VMware vSphere 5 Training What We Covered  Why Use OpenFiler?  Downloading OpenFiler  Installing OpenFiler  Configuring OpenFiler as an iSCSI SAN  Connecting vSphere to the OpenFiler iSCSI SAN Administering VMware ESXi Server Security VMware vSphere 5 Training Instructors: David Davis and Elias Khnaser Administering VMware ESXi Server Security VMware vSphere 5 Training In This Lesson:  Basics of vSphere Security  Default vSphere Security Roles  Adding. Modifying. Administering VMware ESXi Server Security VMware vSphere 5 Training Basics of vSphere Security • ESXi server has local Linux-like accounts • vCenter. no need to log out and back in Permissions are inherited in a hierarchical manor. just like alarms Remember the PoLP! • • • • Administering VMware ESXi Server Security VMware vSphere 5 Training Default vSphere Security Roles • • • • • • • • • No access Read-only Administrator VM power user (sample) VM user (sample) Resource pool admin (sample) VCB user (sample) Datastore consumer (sample) Network consumer (sample) . as a Linux appliance. can be configured to use Windows AD accounts • Recommend using Windows AD users and groups to define permissions to VC objects • All vSphere Client communications are encrypted • VLANs can be used to segment service console traffic Administering VMware ESXi Server Security VMware vSphere 5 Training Basics of vSphere Security • • • • Users and groups are assigned roles Roles are assigned to objects in the vSphere infrastructure Combining user/group with a role is what created a permission By default only root can login to ESXi and Win AD Admins on vCenter server can login to vSphere Client – Assuming vCenter is installed in Windows It is not possible to run vCenter for Windows on a Windows AD domain controller Permissions take effect immediately. installed on Windows. uses Windows Active Directory (AD) accounts • vCenter. and removing ESXi users and groups • Using Windows AD users and groups to secure vSphere • Defining and applying roles and permissions on different levels of the vSphere infrastructure Administering VMware ESXi Server Security VMware vSphere 5 Training vShield Overview • • • • • • • vShield vShield vShield vShield vShield vShield vShield Zones App App with Data Security Edge Endpoint Manager Bundle Administering VMware ESXi Server Security VMware vSphere 5 Training .Administering VMware ESXi Server Security VMware vSphere 5 Training Tasks to Perform… • Adding. modifying. Web. and Removing ESXi Users and Groups  Using Windows AD Users and Groups to Secure vSphere  Defining and Applying Roles and Permissions  vShield Overview  Securing Guest Virtual Machines vSphere Virtual Networking VMware vSphere 5 Training Instructors: David Davis and Elias Khnaser . and SSH access • Keep vSphere / ESXi patches up to date (use VMware Update Manager – VUM) Administering VMware ESXi Server Security VMware vSphere 5 Training What We Covered  Basics of vSphere Security  Default vSphere Security Roles  Adding.Administering VMware ESXi Server Security VMware vSphere 5 Training Securing Guest Virtual Machines • Treat security of guest VM as you would any other mission critical server • Install AV • Keep patches up to date • Limit login. Modifying. especially administrator/root • Limit software install • Properly secure vSC Client. vSphere Virtual Networking VMware vSphere 5 Training In This Lesson:  Virtual Networking  Network Adapters  Virtual Standard Switches (vSS)  vSS Functionality  Similarities Between pSwitch and vSS  Differences Between pSwitch and vSwitch  Types of vSwitches  Virtual Switch Ports  What is a VLAN?  MAC Address Changes  Forged Transmits vSphere Virtual Networking VMware vSphere 5 Training Virtual Networking • The virtual networking features of ESXi are the cornerstone of building an IP network for virtual machines that integrates seamlessly with the existing physical server environment vSphere Virtual Networking VMware vSphere 5 Training Network Adapters • The network adapters available for use in the virtual networking architecture can be identified from the Configuration | Network Adapters page • ESXi host performs a discovery to identify network IP addresses. This facilitates understanding which networks an adapter is connected to. Note the IP range can be inaccurate if no addresses are found . vSphere Virtual Networking VMware vSphere 5 Training Virtual Standard Switches (vSS) • vSS are logical objects that reside in the vmkernel of each ESXi host • Each virtual NIC connected to a virtual switch will have its own MAC address • vSS can be bound to one or more physical network adapters vSphere Virtual Networking VMware vSphere 5 Training vSS Functionality • Each virtual standard switch can contain one or more connection types or port groups that define the types of communication expected through the virtual switch • vSS operate at Layer 2 and can provide VLAN tagging. and segmentation offload units vSphere Virtual Networking VMware vSphere 5 Training Similarities Between pSwitch and vSS • Virtual standard switches are similar to physical switches in that both: – Maintain MAC address tables – Look up each frame’s destination MAC upon arrival – Forward frames to one or more ports – Avoid unnecessary deliveries . security. checksums. vSphere Virtual Networking VMware vSphere 5 Training Differences Between pSwitch and vSwitch • Virtual switches are different from physical switches in that: – Virtual standard switches cannot be connected to other virtual switches the way physical switches can be – Virtual standard switches do not require Spanning Tree Protocol – Virtual standard switch isolation prevents loops in the switching configuration – Forwarding table data is unique to each virtual vSphere Virtual Networking VMware vSphere 5 Training Types of vSwitches • Internal only – Used for communication of two virtual machines on the same ESXi host • Single adapter – A virtual switch bound to a single physical adapter used for communication with resources on the physical network • NIC team – a virtual switch bound to 2 or more physical adapters used to provide redundancy and bandwidth aggregation for communication with resources on the physical network VMkernel VMkernel VMkernel vSphere Virtual Networking VMware vSphere 5 Training Virtual Switch Ports • Virtual switches are made up of one more port groups or connection types that dictate the type of traffic supported by the virtual switch • The uplink ports of a virtual switch are the ports that are associated with a physical network adapter • The two port group or connection types are: – Virtual machine – VMkernel • vMotion VMkernel • Fault Tolerance Logging • Management traffic . • Multiple Management network ports creates redundancy through multiple points of entry at each IP address • Building a Management network port into a virtual switch with multiple uplinks provides redundancy with a single IP address configuration vSphere Virtual Networking VMware vSphere 5 Training Virtual Machine Port Group • A virtual machine port group provides associated virtual machines with access to other systems on physical networks by providing a switch-to-switch connection between the virtual switch and physical switch VMkernel .vSphere Virtual Networking VMware vSphere 5 Training Management Network Connection • The Management network connection type allows a virtual switch to pass communication to and from the ESXi management network • An IP address must be assigned to the Management network Management network VMkernel vSphere Virtual Networking VMware vSphere 5 Training Management Network Configuration • A Management network port labeled as vmk0 is added to vSwitch0 during the installation of ESXi • Subsequent Management network ports will enumerate as: – vmk1 – vmk2. etc. 100. Production LAN vSphere Virtual Networking VMware vSphere 5 Training What is a VLAN? • A VLAN is a logical configuration of a network on switch port to segment IP traffic vSphere Virtual Networking VMware vSphere 5 Training VLANs • Using VLANs reduces hardware needs by allowing a switch to segment IP traffic into multiple IP subnets on a port by port configuration 192.100.0/24 .vSphere Virtual Networking VMware vSphere 5 Training Virtual Machine Cov VMkernel Communication between physical and virtual machines.100.16.0/24 172.168.0/24 10.100. 16.0/2 172.0/2 172. the Red VLAN and Orange VLAN both contain physical and VMs that operate in their own independent broadcast domains vSphere Virtual Networking VMware vSphere 5 Training VLANs – Virtual to Physical VMkernel Physical switch port connected to uplink NIC is a trunk port .100.100.100.0/24 4 10.100.16.168.100.0/24 192.100. the port that connects each switch to the nearest route is configured as a trunk port 192.16.100.0/24 4 10.100.0/2 172.0/24 vSphere Virtual Networking VMware vSphere 5 Training VLANs – Virtual to Physical • Virtual switches in ESXi provide support for the 802.0/24 4 10.168.vSphere Virtual Networking VMware vSphere 5 Training VLANs Across Geographies • VLANs allow IP subnets to extend beyond the distance limitations of the physical medium • A trunk port is a port that has knowledge of all VLANs configured • In the example here.100.1q VLAN tagging standard to allow virtual machines to be seen as part of VLANs configured on physical switches • In the example.0/24 192.168.100.100.100. Don’t SEND.VMX) does not match the MAC address inside the guest operating system Don’t match.addressType = "generated" uuid.generatedAddressOffset = "0" . is configured with two virtual machine port groups named RedVLAN and OrangeVLAN with respective VLAN IDs of 100 and 101 vSphere Virtual Networking VMware vSphere 5 Training MAC Address Changes • This setting denies incoming traffic to a VM when the MAC address defined in the configuration file (.bios = "56 4d e4 66 62 74 85 7a-83 9c f9 da d5 .generatedAddressOffset = "0" vSphere Virtual Networking VMware vSphere 5 Training Forged Transmits • This setting denies outgoing traffic from a VM when the MAC address defined in the configuration file (. Don’t ACCEPT.VMX) does not match the MAC address inside the guest operating system Don’t match. ethernet0.ethernet0.generatedAddress = "00:50:56:ac:b3:5a" ethernet0.location = "56 4d 13 99 c9 e1 d9 41-e3 e7 c0 c1 b1 a6 2f 42" uuid.addressType = "generated" uuid.bios = "56 4d e4 66 62 74 85 7a-83 9c f9 da d5 ethernet0. ethernet0.generatedAddress = "00:50:56:ac:b3:5a" ethernet0. shown below.vSphere Virtual Networking VMware vSphere 5 Training vSwitch VLANs • A virtual switch can have multiple VLANs configured by creating multiple port groups that have been assigned VLAN IDs to correspond to the VLAN IDs configured on the physical switches • vSwitch2.location = "56 4d 13 99 c9 e1 d9 41-e3 e7 c0 c1 b1 a6 2f 42" uuid. vSphere Virtual Networking VMware vSphere 5 Training What We Covered  Virtual Networking  Network Adapters  Virtual Standard Switches (vSS)  vSS Functionality  Similarities Between pSwitch and vSS  Differences Between pSwitch and vSwitch  Types of vSwitches  Virtual Switch Ports  What is a VLAN?  MAC Address Changes  Forged Transmits Using the vSphere Distributed Virtual Switch (dvswitch) VMware vSphere 5 Training Instructors: David Davis and Elias Khnaser Using the vSphere Distributed Virtual Switch (dvswitch) VMware vSphere 5 Training In This Lesson:  vSphere Distributed Switch  Private VLANs – pVLANs  Networking Policies  Configuration Tasks . VLAN.Using the vSphere Distributed Virtual Switch (dvswitch) VMware vSphere 5 Training vSphere Distributed Switch • Creates a centralized Virtual Switch that multiple ESXi hosts can subscribe to • Reduces networking configuration and changes • Allows you to centrally manage networking for VMs across multiple ESXi hosts • Consistent network configuration and stats as VMs are migrated using vMotion • dvPort groups similar to standard vSwitch port groups but on the vDS level • Increased capabilities – security. Isolated. and more • Ability to add 3rd party switch – Nexus 1000V Using the vSphere Distributed Virtual Switch (dvswitch) VMware vSphere 5 Training Private VLANs – pVLANs • Primary – Original VLAN that can be subdivided into multiple secondary pVLANs • Secondary – They exist only inside the primary – Each secondary pVLAN has a VLAN ID – It associates each packets with an ID that the physical switch can use to identify the mode (Promiscuous. or Community) Using the vSphere Distributed Virtual Switch (dvswitch) VMware vSphere 5 Training pVLANs Secondary Mode Nodes • Promiscuous – May send and receive packets to any secondary pVLAN – Typically routers are attached to promiscuous ports • Isolated – May only send and receive packets from the promiscuous pVLAN • Community – May send andreceive packets between any secondary pVLAN and also with the promiscuous pVLAN . traffic control. Using the vSphere Distributed Virtual Switch (dvswitch) VMware vSphere 5 Training Private VLANs Using the vSphere Distributed Virtual Switch (dvswitch) VMware vSphere 5 Training Networking Policies • VLAN (vDS only) – Allows virtual networks to join physical VLANs • Port blocking (vDS only) – Sets blocking policies on dvPorts • Load balancing • Security • Traffic shaping Using the vSphere Distributed Virtual Switch (dvswitch) VMware vSphere 5 Training Configuration Tasks • • • • • • Create a new dvswitch Add hosts and vmnics to dvswitch Create a dvPort group Migrate legacy vSwitches and VM networks to dvswitch Migrate VMKernel virtual adapters to dvswitch View dvswitch – Mapping – Advanced configuration – Alarms . Using the vSphere Distributed Virtual Switch (dvswitch) VMware vSphere 5 Training What We Covered  vSphere Distributed Switch  Private VLANs – pVLANs  Networking Policies  Configuration Tasks Moving Virtual Machines with vMotion VMware vSphere 5 Training Instructors: David Davis and Elias Khnaser Moving Virtual Machines with vMotion VMware vSphere 5 Training In This Lesson:  Why You Need vMotion  vMotion Requirements  vMotioning Virtual Machines . FC.Moving Virtual Machines with vMotion VMware vSphere 5 Training Why You Need vMotion • The most incredible feature of vSphere • vMotion is used to move RUNNING virtual machines off of one ESXi server to another ESXi server • VMs disk files stay where they are (on shared storage) Why You Need vMotion Uses for vMotion: • Balance the load on ESXi Servers (DRS) • Save power by shutting down ESXi using DPM • Perform patching and maintenance on an ESXi server • Update Manager • HW maintenance Graphic Thanks to VMware.com Moving Virtual Machines with vMotion VMware vSphere 5 Training vMotion Requirements • vSphere Essentials Plus. Standard. Enterprise. or NFS • VMkernel interface on both ESXi servers with vMotion enabled • Works with standard switches or dvSwitches (should keep the same network name) • CPU compatibility. or Enterprise Plus • Shared storage between ESXi servers – iSCSI. or family compatibility if using Enhanced vMotion Compatibility (EVC) on your cluster . Moving Virtual Machines with vMotion VMware vSphere 5 Training vMotioning Virtual Machines Moving Virtual Machines with vMotion VMware vSphere 5 Training What We Covered  Why You Need vMotion  vMotion Requirements  vMotioning Virtual Machines Moving Virtual Storage with svMotion VMware vSphere 5 Training Instructors: David Davis and Elias Khnaser . Moving Virtual Storage with svMotion VMware vSphere 5 Training In This Lesson:  What is svMotion?  svMotion Requirements  svMotion and Thin Provisioning  Using svMotion  Migrating VMs with Snapshots – New in vSphere 5 Moving Virtual Storage with svMotion VMware vSphere 5 Training What is svMotion? • Move the storage of RUNNING virtual machines from one datastore to another datastore • The running VM stays on the server that it is on • The memory for that VM never moves What is svMotion? Uses for svMotion: • Balance the datastore utilization • Space • Performance • Perform SAN maintenance or swap out Graphic Thanks to VMware.com . Moving Virtual Storage with svMotion VMware vSphere 5 Training svMotion Requirements • vSphere Enterprise or Enterprise Plus is required • Moving a powered on VM with snapshots is not supported • Note that to use the option to “change both host and datastore”. depending on your network connection Moving Virtual Storage with svMotion VMware vSphere 5 Training svMotion and Thin Provisioning • When you migrate storage you have the option to change from – Thin to thick – Thick to thin • Why would you want to change to a thick virtual disk from a thin virtual disk? • Answer: Fault Tolerance (FT) Moving Virtual Storage with svMotion VMware vSphere 5 Training Using svMotion . the VM must be powered off • Moving a large VMDK can take a long time. Moving Virtual Storage with svMotion VMware vSphere 5 Training Migrating VMs with Snapshots.New in vSphere 5 • With ESXi 5 / vSphere 5. you can now perform a svMotion on a VM that has snapshots Let me show you how… Moving Virtual Storage with svMotion VMware vSphere 5 Training What We Covered  What is svMotion?  svMotion Requirements  svMotion and Thin Provisioning  Using svMotion  Migrating VMs with Snapshots – New in vSphere 5 Performance Optimization with Distributed Resource Scheduler (DRS) VMware vSphere 5 Training Instructors: David Davis and Elias Khnaser . or month • Over time. how are you going to balancing this constantly fluctuating load? • • • • Performance Optimization with DRS VMware vSphere 5 Training Introduction to Distributed Resource Scheduler (DRS) • Distributed resource scheduler is commonly known as DRS • It doesn’t stand for “dynamic” resource scheduler • DRS understands the resources of the virtual infrastructure – CPU – Memory – Power – Storage • DRS ensures that a VM gets the resources it needs • DRS does not try to achieve load balancing .Performance Optimization with DRS VMware vSphere 5 Training In This Lesson:  Introduction to Distributed Resource Scheduler (DRS)  DRS Requirements  Creating a DRS Enabled Cluster  DRS/HA Cluster Settings  Understanding Resource Pools  Creating Resource Pools in Your DRS Cluster Performance Optimization with DRS VMware vSphere 5 Training Introduction to Distributed Resource Scheduler (DRS) The number of VMs grows The utilization of those VMs grows All this grows disproportionally It constantly expands and contracts throughout the day. week. Graphic Thanks to VMware.com Performance Optimization with DRS VMware vSphere 5 Training Introduction to Distributed Resource Scheduler (DRS) • Hosts and Clusters provide the resources • The VMs consume the resources • Goals of DRS: – Prevent one VM from monopolizing all resources – Guarantee service levels – Offer most efficient use of server hardware – Make your life as a VMware admin easier Performance Optimization with DRS VMware vSphere 5 Training Introduction to Distributed Resource Scheduler (DRS) • DRS is enabled on a cluster • Automation levels are: – Manual – suggestions – Partially automated – auto place on power on and suggestions – Fully automated – you set the migration threshold • You can create migration rules to keep VMs together or apart • DRS can auto-place new VMs in the cluster . consider Enhanced VMotion Compatibility (EVC) • Checkout the DRS tab and Resource Allocation tab on the cluster as well as the cluster properties • • • • • Performance Optimization with DRS VMware vSphere 5 Training Understanding Resource Pools • Different ways to reserve resources: – Reservation – reserve a certain amount of CPU or memory – Limit – set an “upper bound” of resources to this VM – Assign shares – give shares of CPU or memory resources • Shares set the priority of CPU and RAM for a VM – Set as high. you can set a custom weight • You can also set share values and IOPS per VM – These will be used with SIOC and SDRS (see other lessons on those topics) Additional Resources . normal. and low with 4:2:1 ratio – Or.Performance Optimization with DRS VMware vSphere 5 Training DRS Requirements vSphere Enterprise or Enterprise Plus Shared storage between hosts All VMs in the cluster must be on that shared storage DRS will use VMotion so it needs to work between hosts Beware of CPU compatibility issues and if so. Performance Optimization with DRS VMware vSphere 5 Training What We Covered  Introduction to Distributed Resource Scheduler (DRS)  DRS Requirements  Creating a DRS Enabled Cluster  DRS/HA Cluster Settings  Understanding Resource Pools  Creating Resource Pools in Your DRS Cluster Implementing High Availability with VMware HA (VMHA) VMware vSphere 5 Training Instructors: David Davis and Elias Khnaser Implementing High Availability with VMware HA VMware vSphere 5 Training In This Lesson:  Why Do You Need High Availability (HA)?  VMHA Saving the Day  VMHA Master / Slave  Requirements for VMHA  Best Practices for VMHA . you could have an ESXi server software OS crash (unlikely) • VMHA powers all VMs running on that server on other servers in the VMHA cluster and apps are up in the time it takes guest OS to boot • VMHA monitors not only ESXi host failures but also guest OS failures • Uniform HA protection for all VM guests and all applications.Implementing High Availability with VMware HA VMware vSphere 5 Training Why Do You Need High Availability (HA)? • Quickly bring back up critical business applications in the event of an ESXi server failure • Decrease downtime and improve availability • Examples of business critical applications: – Exchange / email – SQL server / database – Corporate file server and intranet / web Implementing High Availability with VMware HA VMware vSphere 5 Training VMHA Saving the Day • Let’s say that you have an ESXi server hardware failure (bad CPU or disconnected network cable) • Or. no matter the OS or app • Smart failover to best ESXi host (requires DRS) • Supports up to 32 ESXi servers in a cluster • Enhanced isolation response Implementing High Availability with VMware HA VMware vSphere 5 Training VMHA Master / Slave • 1 Master host per cluster known as the Fault Domain Manager Master (FDMS) • FDMS host is determined via an election process • FDMS host with the most mounted datastore has better election chances • VMHA check for host failure using the management network and via datastore heartbeat • FDMS host – Monitors the state of slave hosts – Monitors the state of all protected VMs – Manages the lists of cluster hosts and protected VMs • FDMS is vCenter’s management interface into the cluster’s health state . Implementing High Availability with VMware HA VMware vSphere 5 Training Requirements for VMHA • • • • • • • • Shared storage for VMs running in HA cluster All hosts should have access to all VM networks Can use DRS with VMHA or just VMHA only All hosts must be licensed for VMware HA Create a VMHA enabled cluster All hosts must have a static IP address At least two hosts in the cluster At least one management network.isolationaddressX where X can be a value between 1-10 • Use network redundancy between ESXi servers Implementing High Availability with VMware HA VMware vSphere 5 Training Best Practices for VMHA • Configure redundant network paths: – ESX – secondary SC port – ESXi – secondary VMKernel port • Configure the restart priority for VMs based on your most critical applications • Configure isolation response IP info • Configure VM Monitoring in HA cluster settings to have VMware monitor the guest OS • Configure alarms to alert you on cluster changes . best practice says two Implementing High Availability with VMware HA VMware vSphere 5 Training Best Practices for VMHA • Keep an eye on cluster validity • Recommend you disable host monitoring as you make changes to your network or dvSwitches • All networks and VMs on HA clusters must have compatible networks • By default network isolation IP is the default gateway but you can configure others • das. Implementing High Availability with VMware HA VMware vSphere 5 Training What We Covered  Why Do You Need High Availability (HA)?  VMHA Saving the Day  VMHA Master / Slave  Requirements for VMHA  Best Practices for VMHA Super High Availability with VMware Fault Tolerance (FT) VMware vSphere 5 Training Instructors: David Davis and Elias Khnaser Super High Availability with VMware Fault Tolerance (FT) VMware vSphere 5 Training In This Lesson:  Introduction to VMware Fault Tolerance (FT)  Requirements of FT  Constraints of FT  Testing to See If You Can Use FT with VMware Site Survey  Enabling VMware FT  Testing Failover with a Virtual Machine Using FT . Super High Availability with VMware Fault Tolerance (FT) VMware vSphere 5 Training Introduction to VMware Fault Tolerance (FT) • FT provides continuous availability for a VM – Zero downtime • Takes VMHA to the next level • Works for all applications and 99% of guests operating systems • Does this by creating a “live shadow” copy of the running VM then keeping them in “lockstep” using VMware’s vLockstep • If an ESXi server fails. accessible by servers • Must be enabled in a HA cluster • vSphere Enterprise or Enterprise Plus . the shadow will take over and a new shadow will be created in the cluster on another ESX server Super High Availability with VMware Fault Tolerance (FT) VMware vSphere 5 Training Introduction to VMware Fault Tolerance (FT) • Primary VM is called the “Primary” and the copied/lockstep VM is the “secondary” • The virtual disk for the VM is on shared storage and never moves • “Continuous VMotion” Graphic Thanks to VMware.com Super High Availability with VMware Fault Tolerance (FT) VMware vSphere 5 Training Requirements of FT • CPUs on all FT ESXi servers must match and be from a specific list of processors (see KB) • Hardware virtualization enabled in the BIOS • Recommended minimum # of 1GB NICs = 3 • One NIC on each server must be enabled for FT logging and vMotion • ESXi servers must be running same build • VMs on shared SAN. nl) FT Checklist… • Site Survey saves time by automating this check • Run Site Survey on your cluster to see if you can use FT Image Thanks to www.Super High Availability with VMware Fault Tolerance (FT) VMware vSphere 5 Training Constraints of FT • • • • • • • • • Single vCPU in each VM only (no SMP) Requires specific hardware Recommended minimum of 4 VMs running FT on an ESX server “Line of site” between ESXi servers due to latency Only thick disk is supported Snapshots are not allowed (includes via VADP backup products) Cannot invoke a svMotion on a VM with FT enabled Linked clones are not allowed on a VM with FT enabled Some guests not supported and some guests require shutdown to enable Super High Availability with VMware Fault Tolerance (FT) VMware vSphere 5 Training Testing to See If You Can Use FT with VMware Site Survey • Checkout Eric Sloof’s (www. enabling FT is easy – Right-click on a VM – Go to Fault Tolerance – Click Turn On Fault Tolerance .com Enabling VMware FT • Once requirements have been met.LandSoCAL.ntpro. Super High Availability with VMware Fault Tolerance (FT) VMware vSphere 5 Training What We Covered  Introduction to VMware Fault Tolerance (FT)  Requirements of FT  Constraints of FT  Testing to See If You Can Use FT with VMware Site Survey  Enabling VMware FT  Testing Failover with a Virtual Machine Using FT Upgrading from VMware vSphere 4 to vSphere 5 VMware vSphere 5 Training Instructors: David Davis and Elias Khnaser Upgrading from VMware vSphere 4 to vSphere 5 VMware vSphere 5 Training In This Lesson:  Upgrade Steps  Upgrade to vCenter 5  Update Manager Upgrade  ESX/ESXi Upgrade  VM Upgrade . 8.Upgrading from VMware vSphere 4 to vSphere 5 VMware vSphere 5 Training Upgrade Prerequisites • Verify that your ESX/ESXi servers will run vSphere 5 • Verify that your licenses will upgrade to the level of vSphere that you require – Beware of vRAM • Plan. and plan some more • Review the upgrade guide – which scenario are you? Upgrading from VMware vSphere 4 to vSphere 5 VMware vSphere 5 Training Upgrade Steps 1. 2. 4. 3. plan. 5. 6. 7. Run vCenter Host Agent Pre-Upgrade Checker Upgrade vCenter Server Upgrade vSphere Client Upgrade your licensing Upgrade Update Manager Upgrade ESX/ESXi hosts Upgrade VM Tools and VM Hardware Upgrade datastores to VMFS-5 Upgrading from VMware vSphere 4 to vSphere 5 VMware vSphere 5 Training Upgrade to vCenter 5         Requires VC downtime No production down time Database Schema will be upgraded Upgrade to different vCenter server Backup database ODBC credentials Uninstall UM and converter extensions vSphere compatibility matrixes . Upgrading from VMware vSphere 4 to vSphere 5 VMware vSphere 5 Training Update Manager Upgrade    Backup database ODBC credentials Uninstall UM client extensions Upgrading from VMware vSphere 4 to vSphere 5 VMware vSphere 5 Training ESX/ESXi Upgrade     Requires host downtime Host in Maintenance Mode Host Upgrade Utility (GUI) 15 – 25 minutes for upgrade Upgrading from VMware vSphere 4 to vSphere 5 VMware vSphere 5 Training VM Upgrade      Requires VM downtime VMware Tools upgrade VM Hardware upgrade to version 8 Automated upgrade via Update Manager Manual upgrade . Upgrading from VMware vSphere 4 to vSphere 5 VMware vSphere 5 Training What We Covered  Upgrade Steps  Upgrade to vCenter 5  Update Manager Upgrade  ESX/ESXi Upgrade  VM Upgrade vSphere Command Line Interface (CLI) Options VMware vSphere 5 Training Instructors: David Davis and Elias Khnaser vSphere Command Line Interface (CLI) Options VMware vSphere 5 Training In This Lesson:  Administering vSphere Using the CLI  Four vSphere CLI Options  Using ESXi Tech Support Mode  Using esxcfg and esxcli Commands  Getting Started with PowerCLI  Project Onyx  vCLI Basics  Installing and Using vMA . vSphere CLI (vCLI) – from Windows 4.com/go/sysadmintools vSphere Command Line Interface (CLI) Options VMware vSphere 5 Training Using ESXi Tech Support Mode • Tech support mode = ESXi console – Now supported • Remote tech support mode = remote ESXi console via SSH – Enable and connect with an SSH client • Both can be enabled on the ESXi console via DCUI or via the vSphere client .VMware. ESXi tech support mode / remote TSM (SSH) – formerly known as the “hidden ESXi console” 2.vSphere Command Line Interface (CLI) Options VMware vSphere 5 Training Administering vSphere Using the CLI • • • • Faster (once you get used to it) Scripting for frequent tasks or mass changes (aka “automation”) Integration with other products Because it’s cool vSphere Command Line Interface (CLI) Options VMware vSphere 5 Training Four vSphere CLI Options 1. vSphere Management Assistant (vMA) www. PowerCLI / PowerShell and Project Onyx 3. esxcfg-* commands have now been “depracated” and you should use esxcli instead • esxcli is all new in vSphere 5 and can do just about anything! vSphere Command Line Interface (CLI) Options VMware vSphere 5 Training Getting Started with PowerCLI • PowerCLI is using Microsoft PowerShell with vSphere • Download the Windows PowerCLI Installer – Gives you a command line • Download the free Quest PowerGUI – Gives you a GUI for PowerCLI as well as pre-created scripts vSphere Command Line Interface (CLI) Options VMware vSphere 5 Training Project Onyx • A free tool from VMware labs that shows you the PowerCLI commands for the configs you perform.com/flings/onyx .vmware.vSphere Command Line Interface (CLI) Options VMware vSphere 5 Training Using esxcfg and esxcli Commands • Traditional ESXi configuration commands via TSM start with esxcfg-* • However. using the vSphere client • http://labs. com .Graphic thanks to VMware. let’s install it and I’ll show you how it works… vSphere Command Line Interface (CLI) Options VMware vSphere 5 Training Installing and Using vMA • vSphere Management Assistant (vMA) • A Linux-based virtual appliance that has “the vCLI” already in it • vMA offers – esxcfg and esxcli command line administration for ESXi / vSphere – “fastpass” authentication that allows you to authenticate once and then perform multiple commands Now. let’s install it and I’ll show you how it works… vSphere Command Line Interface (CLI) Options VMware vSphere 5 Training What We Covered  Administering vSphere Using the CLI  Four vSphere CLI Options  Using ESXi Tech Support Mode  Using esxcfg and esxcli Commands  Getting Started with PowerCLI  Project Onyx  vCLI Basics  Installing and Using vMA .vSphere Command Line Interface (CLI) Options VMware vSphere 5 Training vCLI Basics • vSphere CLI (vCLI) is a Windows application that gives you CLI tools for ESXi / vSphere • It offers esxcfg and esxcli commands Now. vSphere Auto Deploy VMware vSphere 5 Training Instructors: David Davis and Elias Khnaser vSphere Auto Deploy VMware vSphere 5 Training In This Lesson:  What is Auto Deploy?  Auto Deploy Components  Auto Deploy First Boot Process  Infrastructure Requirements  Installation and Configuration Tasks  Test and Repair Rules Compliance  Auto Deploy PowerCLI  Setting Up Syslog Server  Setting Dump Collector vSphere Auto Deploy VMware vSphere 5 Training What is Auto Deploy? • Auto Deploy allows you to quickly provision one or more stateless physical hosts with ESXi. Furthermore. Auto Deploy allows you to match certain criteria in the physical host to rule sets and deploy the appropriate ESXi image that has all the hardware drivers • Auto Deploy allows you to automatically add ESXi hosts to vCenter and apply host profiles . vSphere Auto Deploy VMware vSphere 5 Training Auto Deploy Components • Auto Deploy Server • Rules – Active Rule Set – Working Rule Set • Image Profiles – Default Image Profiles – Custom Image Profiles • Host Profiles • Answer Files vSphere Auto Deploy VMware vSphere 5 Training Auto Deploy First Boot Process • Stateless host PXE boots and gets an IP address from DHCP • DHCP points the host to the TFTP server via option 66 • The host contacts TFTP server and downloads a gPXE configuration file as specified in option 67 • gPXE config file instructs the host to make HTTP boot request to Auto Deploy server • Auto Deploy queries the rules engine for information about host • An Image Profile and a Host Profile is attached to the host based on a rule set • ESXi is installed into host RAM.vmw-hardwired • Router Configuration • PXE • TFTP .kpxe. is added to vCenter and is configured • vCenter maintains the Image Profile and Host Profile for each host in its database vSphere Auto Deploy VMware vSphere 5 Training Infrastructure Requirements • DHCP – Option 66: FQDN or IP address of TFTP Server – Option 67: undionly. com • Test and bind to a value: – $tr = Test-DeployRuleSetCompliance esx6.vSphere Auto Deploy VMware vSphere 5 Training Installation and Configuration Tasks • • • • • • Install and configure Auto Deploy Install TFTP server Configure DHCP Configure DNS Install and configure Dump Collector Install and configure Syslog Server vSphere Auto Deploy VMware vSphere 5 Training What You Are Going to Need • • • • • • vCenter 5 setup files VMware PowerCLI TFTP server (we are using WinAgents TFTP) Windows Server 2008 DHCP and DNS ESXi 5 offline bundle A host capable of running ESXi 5 vSphere Auto Deploy VMware vSphere 5 Training Test and Repair Rules Compliance • Make changes to a rule: – Copy-DeployRule -DeployRule Staging1 –ReplaceItem Prod • Verify host accessibility: – Get-VMHost -Name esx6.wiredbraincoffee.com • Remediate Host: – Repair-DeployRuleSetCompliance $tr .wiredbraincoffee. vSphere Auto Deploy VMware vSphere 5 Training Auto Deploy PowerCLI • • • • • • • • • • Get-Help cmdlet_name Get-Help cmdlet_name –Detailed Get-DeployCommand New-DeployRule Get-DeployRule Copy-DeployRule Add-DeployRule Remove-DeployRule Set-DeplyRule Get-DeployRuleset vSphere Auto Deploy VMware vSphere 5 Training Auto Deploy PowerCLI • • • • • • • • • • Switch-ActiveDeployRuleset Get-VMHostMatchingRules Test-DeployRulesetCompliance Repair-DeployRulesetComplaince Apply-ESXImageProfile Get-VMImhostProfile Repair-DeployImageCache Get-VMHostAttributes Get-Deploymachine Identity Set-DeplyMachineIdentity vSphere Auto Deploy VMware vSphere 5 Training Setting Up Syslog Server • Esxcli: – Esxcli system syslog • Host Profiles: – Select the host and go to View | Management | Host Profiles – For a new profile, click Create Profile, or right-click a profile you want to modify and select Edit Profile – In the Edit Profile dialog, set up the syslog server host profile – Select Advanced configuration option vSphere Auto Deploy VMware vSphere 5 Training Setting Up Dump Collector • Esxcli: – esxcli system coredump network set --interface-name vmk0 --server-ipv4 192.168.2.52 --server-port 6500 – esxcli system coredump network set --enable true – esxcli system coredump network get • Host Profiles: – Under Network Configuration – Expand Network Coredump Settings and click Edit – Enter the server port and IP address and the host NIC to use and click the check box to enable ESXi Dump Collector – Click OK to save the host profile settings vSphere Auto Deploy VMware vSphere 5 Training What We Covered  What is Auto Deploy?   Auto Deploy Components   Auto Deploy First Boot Process   Infrastructure Requirements  Installation and Configuration Tasks   Test and Repair Rules Compliance  Auto Deploy PowerCLI   Setting Up Syslog Server  Setting Dump Collector  Storage DRS VMware vSphere 5 Training Instructors: David Davis and Elias Khnaser Storage DRS VMware vSphere 5 Training In This Lesson:  Storage DRS Explained  Datastore Clusters Explained  SDRS Initial Placement  SDRS Load Balancing  Datastore Maintenance with SDRS  SDRS Affinity Rules  Configuring and Using Storage DRS Storage DRS VMware vSphere 5 Training Storage DRS Explained • Today (without SDRS)… – When you create a new VM, you have to manually try to find a datastore with available space and low latency – From there, you are essentially hoping for the best storage results for the VM – Periodically, you do your best to check to see if VMs are receiving low latency and you try to monitor datastores for low space – This is “best effort” VM to storage management • This is inefficient and it is costing all parties time and money • All this manual intervention leaves lots of room for potential application outages and slowdowns • You are using DRS for CPU and RAM but it does nothing for storage Storage DRS VMware vSphere 5 Training Storage DRS Explained • With the New Storage DRS… – VMs (and their VMDKs) are automatically placed on the datastore with the lowest latency and most space available – VMs are automatically balanced by being svMotion’ed to a better datastore if they aren’t receiving the latency they need • This will save the VMware Admin and SAN Admin lots of time (and the company, money). SDRS saves opex. just like a DRS cluster Graphic Thanks to VMware.com Storage DRS VMware vSphere 5 Training SDRS Initial Placement • Initial placement on the “correct” datastore in the datastore cluster happens at: – Creation time – When a clone is created – When a VM is relocated • SDRS VMDK affinity and anti-affinity rules are available Storage DRS VMware vSphere 5 Training SDRS Load Balancing • SDRS is triggered based on– High latency – Low space • Space is continuously collected and the default threshold is 80% utilization • I/O latency is evaluated every 8 hours based on last 24 hour trend and the default threshold is 15ms • Storage DRS does do a cost/benefit analysis • SDRS works with SIOC . a datastore cluster is the unit used to load balance VM storage across. datastore clusters are new in vSphere 5 • Without SDRS in use. a datastore cluster is a group of datastores • With SDRS.Storage DRS VMware vSphere 5 Training Datastore Clusters Explained • Like SDRS. com Storage DRS VMware vSphere 5 Training SDRS Affinity Rules Graphic Thanks to VMware. replication. ISOs. to prevent unnecessary migrations) • SDRS is available with a vSphere Enterprise Plus license only • For questions about using SDRS with your SAN features (autotiering. and unregistered VMs remain Graphic Thanks to VMware.Storage DRS VMware vSphere 5 Training Datastore Maintenance with SDRS • When a datastore is put into maintenance mode. see Duncan’s post- . so don’t expect it to make recommendations immediately • You can create a scheduled task to modify SDRS settings (perhaps during a backup period. and thin provisioning). all registered VMs’ VMDKs are evacuated • Templates. dedup.com Storage DRS VMware vSphere 5 Training SDRS Notes • It will take at least 16 hours of I/O statistics before SDRS will make its first recommendation based on latency. Storage DRS VMware vSphere 5 Training What We Covered  Storage DRS Explained  Datastore Clusters Explained  SDRS Initial Placement  SDRS Load Balancing  Datastore Maintenance with SDRS  SDRS Affinity Rules  Configuring and Using Storage DRS Policy-driven Storage VMware vSphere 5 Training Instructors: David Davis and Elias Khnaser Policy-driven Storage VMware vSphere 5 Training In This Lesson:  Policy-driven Storage Explained  Storage Vendor Profiles and VASA  Configuration of Policy-driven Storage . and it allows you to report and find if VMs are on the right storage Policy-driven Storage VMware vSphere 5 Training Name Change Alert • Policy-driven Storage is now Profile-driven Storage .Policy-driven Storage VMware vSphere 5 Training Policy-driven Storage Explained • Today. resulting in significant time and money (opex) Policy-driven Storage VMware vSphere 5 Training Policy-driven Storage Explained • Policy-driven storage allows you to: – Define storage capabilities (ie: capacity. it still takes additional work • Multiple steps for vSphere and SAN Admins can be saved by using policy-driven storage. when you perform the more common task of creating a new VM. redundancy) • Custom • Learned from SAN hardware (via VASA) – Associate storage capabilities with datastores – Create storage profiles (Gold/Silver/Bronze) – Associate a VM with a profiles – All this allows vSphere to place a VM on a datastore that meets its needs – automatically . performance. availability. when you create a new datastore. the process of selecting what SAN LUN it will be stored on is manual • Also. the process of selecting what datastore they will be stored on is manual • VMware Admins have to work with SAN Admins to perform all these tasks – Even if you are the SAN admin. Create a VM Storage Profile 3. Profiles tab . Assign user-defined storage capabilities to datastores 4. Obtain storage capabilities – VASA (vCenter Storage Providers) – Create user-defined storage capabilities 2.Policy-driven Storage VMware vSphere 5 Training Graphic Thanks to VMware. Assign VMs a storage profile – When created – On each VM’s Properties.com Policy-driven Storage VMware vSphere 5 Training Storage Vendor Profiles and VASA • Storage capabilities come from either VASA or they are userdefined • vSphere Storage APIs – Storage Awareness = VASA • VASA-capable arrays are setup as vSphere “Storage Providers” • VASA-capable arrays then tell vSphere: – Their capabilities – Their performance (useful for SDRS) “Note to self: find out if my storage supports VASA” Policy-driven Storage VMware vSphere 5 Training Configuring Policy-driven Storage 1. Policy-driven Storage VMware vSphere 5 Training What We Covered  Policy-driven Storage Explained  Storage Vendor Profiles and VASA  Configuration of Policy-driven Storage Understanding the New vSphere 5 vRAM Pooled Pricing VMware vSphere 5 Training Instructors: David Davis and Elias Khnaser Understanding the New vSphere 5 vRAM Pooled Pricing VMware vSphere 5 Training In This Lesson:  Why is vSphere 5 vRAM Pooled Pricing So Important?  3 Major Changes with vSphere 5 Licensing  vRAM Pooled Pricing in Action  vSphere 5 vRAM Entitlements  Requirements to Access vRAM Pooled Pricing Reports  vSphere 5 License Validator Script  Using vSphere License Advisor  4 Ways to Reduce Your vRAM Pool Utilization . Understanding the New vSphere 5 vRAM Pooled Pricing VMware vSphere 5 Training Why is vSphere 5 vRAM Pooled Pricing So Important? • A significant change to vSphere licensing • Places a soft limit on virtual machines when a pool-wide limit is reached (with vCenter Standard) • You will be violating your end user license agreement (EULA) and receive a warning if you exceed the pool with vSphere Standard. per version Understanding the New vSphere 5 vRAM Pooled Pricing VMware vSphere 5 Training vRAM Pooled Pricing in Action • vRAM pooled pricing is based on configured vRAM in use by Powered On virtual machines . or Enterprise Plus • You will be violating your end user license agreement (EULA) and will not be able to power on a VM if you exceed the pool with vSphere Essentials and Essentials Plus (vCenter Foundations) • This change should affect how you provision your VMs and it may affect your cost Understanding the New vSphere 5 vRAM Pooled Pricing VMware vSphere 5 Training 3 Major Changes with vSphere 5 Licensing 1. Enterprise. Each vSphere edition now comes with a vRAM entitlement that is pooled by vCenter. vSphere is still sold per CPU socket 2. vSphere advanced edition is gone AND vSphere CPU core and physical RAM capacity per host restrictions are gone 3. vSphere 5 is still sold on a per CPU socket license (or in a kit) but now each edition has specific vRAM entitlements that will be pooled.Understanding the New vSphere 5 vRAM Pooled Pricing VMware vSphere 5 Training Graphic thanks to VMware. per vCenter.com Understanding the New vSphere 5 vRAM Pooled Pricing VMware vSphere 5 Training vSphere 5 vRAM Entitlements vSphere Hypervisor Free Edition = 32GB per server vSphere Essentials and Essentials Plus = 32GB vSphere Standard = 32GB vSphere Enterprise = 64GB vSphere Enterprise Plus = 96GB Again. per version of vSphere • A new version of vSphere is available. vSphere Desktop Edition. that is sold based on a per VDI user desktop basis. • • • • • • Understanding the New vSphere 5 vRAM Pooled Pricing VMware vSphere 5 Training vSphere 5 vRAM Entitlements • August 3 Updates: – vRAM Entitlements were increased – Cap the amount of vRAM counted per VM at 96GB – Calculate a 12 month average of configured vRAM rather than a high water mark . virtu-al.net/2011/07/14/vsphere-5-license-entitlements Understanding the New vSphere 5 vRAM Pooled Pricing VMware vSphere 5 Training Using vSphere License Advisor • A free tool from VMware that advises you on vSphere license usage • Especially important if planning an upgrade from vSphere 4 to 5 • Tiny Windows install that connects to a single vCenter server • The tool does not recognize multiple vCenter servers in linked mode • Requires that the Java runtime engine (JRE) be installed • Offers the ability to export data .Understanding the New vSphere 5 vRAM Pooled Pricing VMware vSphere 5 Training Requirements to Access vRAM Pooled Pricing Reports • vSphere web client (server) must be installed • Traditional Windows-based vSphere Client must be used • Go to Home  Licensing  Reporting (tab) Understanding the New vSphere 5 vRAM Pooled Pricing VMware vSphere 5 Training vSphere 5 License Validator Script http://www. com Understanding the New vSphere 5 vRAM Pooled Pricing VMware vSphere 5 Training 4 Ways to Reduce Your vRAM Pool Utilization 1. Understand application memory utilization and find ways to reduce it 4. Power off virtual machines that are unused 3. Rightsize the memory on each of your virtual machines 2. Remember that all hosts in your enterprise with vSphere licenses count toward the pool (including VMHA hosts who are in standby mode and even remote servers if you are using vCenter linked mode) Tips: • vSphere licenses are per socket and not per core • You could implement chargeback to charge the groups in your company who use the most memory • Standardize on the same license of vSphere Understanding the New vSphere 5 vRAM Pooled Pricing VMware vSphere 5 Training What We Covered  Why is vSphere 5 vRAM Pooled Pricing So Important?  3 Major Changes with vSphere 5 Licensing  vRAM Pooled Pricing in Action  vSphere 5 vRAM Entitlements  Requirements to Access vRAM Pooled Pricing Reports  vSphere 5 License Validator Script  Using vSphere License Advisor  4 Ways to Reduce Your vRAM Pool Utilization .Understanding the New vSphere 5 vRAM Pooled Pricing VMware vSphere 5 Training Using vSphere License Advisor Graphic thanks to VMware. Network I/O Control (NIOC) VMware vSphere 5 Training Instructors: David Davis and Elias Khnaser Network I/O Control (NIOC) VMware vSphere 5 Training In This Lesson:  What is Network I/O Control?  New in vSphere 5 NIOC  Configuring Network I/O Control Network I/O Control (NIOC) VMware vSphere 5 Training What is Network I/O Control? • Provide QoS for network traffic by type • Requires vSphere Enterprise Plus and use of vDS Graphic Thanks to VMware.com . com .1p tagging Network I/O Control (NIOC) VMware vSphere 5 Training Configuring Network I/O Control Graphic Thanks to VMware.vmware.1 AKA NetIOC or NIOC QoS for the virtual network Uses shares.Network I/O Control (NIOC) VMware vSphere 5 Training What is Network I/O Control? New feature in vSphere 4. see vSphere Network I/O Best Practices http://www.com/resources/techresources/10119 • • • • Network I/O Control (NIOC) VMware vSphere 5 Training New in vSphere 5 NIOC • User-defined network resource pools – Enables multi-tenancy deployment – Bridges virtual and physical infrastructure QoS by using per resource pool 802. which you are already used to using in vSphere with resources pools • Ensures best performance for critical vSphere infrastructure services when there is high network utilization – NFS – iSCSI – FT – vMotion • For more information. Network I/O Control (NIOC) VMware vSphere 5 Training What We Covered  What is Network I/O Control?  What’s New in vSphere 5 NIOC?  Configuring Network I/O Control Storage I/O Control (SIOC) VMware vSphere 5 Training Instructors: David Davis and Elias Khnaser Storage I/O Control (SIOC) VMware vSphere 5 Training In This Lesson:  Why You Need Storage I/O Control (SIOC)  How SIOC Works  SIOC Requirements  Enabling SIOC in vSphere  Monitoring SIOC Performance . SIOC is necessary so that one VM doesn’t slow down another (regarding storage resources) Storage I/O Control (SIOC) VMware vSphere 5 Training How SIOC Works Graphics Thanks to VMware.com Storage I/O Control (SIOC) VMware vSphere 5 Training SIOC Requirements • • • • • Datastores must be managed by a single vCenter server FC.Storage I/O Control (SIOC) VMware vSphere 5 Training Why You Need Storage I/O Control (SIOC) • General consensus is that most virtualization performance issues are caused by latency in shared storage • Storage I/O Control provides “Quality of Service” (QoS) to ensure that all VMs get the storage performance the require • In summary.1 or later (vSphere 5 to use NFS) . and NFS are supported (RDMs are not) Support for NFS is new in vSphere 5! Datastores with multiple extents are not supported vSphere 4. iSCSI. you can convert MB per second into IOPS based on the typical I/O size for that virtual machine. set a limit of 160 IOPS.” Storage I/O Control (SIOC) VMware vSphere 5 Training Enabling SIOC in vSphere • To set the shares and maximums – Go to the Datastores view in the vSphere Inventory – Select the Virtual Machines tab or – Go to the Properties of each VM – Resources tab • Monitor SIOC Latency and IOPS in the Datastore Inventory. ESXi monitors the latency of that datastore • To enable SIOC: – Go to the ESXi Server – Configuration tab – Storage – Select the Datastore – Click Properties Storage I/O Control (SIOC) VMware vSphere 5 Training Enabling SIOC in vSphere • Set the number of shares and maximum number of IOPS per VM – Default is Normal/1000 – Unlimited IOPS • Note: “If the limit you want to set for a virtual machine is in terms of MB per second instead of IOPS. to restrict a backup application with 64KB IOs to 10 MB per second. Performance tab .Storage I/O Control (SIOC) VMware vSphere 5 Training Enabling SIOC in vSphere • SIOC is enabled per datastore • Once enabled. For example. Storage I/O Control (SIOC) VMware vSphere 5 Training What We Covered  Why You Need Storage I/O Control (SIOC)  How SIOC Works  SIOC Requirements  Enabling SIOC in vSphere  Monitoring SIOC Performance ESXi Firewall VMware vSphere 5 Training Instructors: David Davis and Elias Khnaser ESXi Firewall VMware vSphere 5 Training In This Lesson:  ESXi Firewall Defined  Configuration Files  Rule Set Add  Service Behavior  ESXI Shell Firewall Configuration . use <begin> and <end> tags Status of the service when the rule set is applied (true or false) Whether the ruleset is required and cannot be disabled (true or false) . destination or source (dst or src) Port number or range of ports. Use <service></service> Usually the name of the service Numeric identifier for the rule Port direction (inbound or outbound) Protocol for the port (tcp or udp) Type of port. If the configuration file contains only one service. you do not need a service ID.ESXi Firewall VMware vSphere 5 Training ESXi Firewall Defined • The ESXi Firewall is a new service-oriented. stateless firewall used to protect the management interface of ESXi • The firewall can be configured either from a GUI through the vSphere client or via the command-line using esxcli ESXi Firewall VMware vSphere 5 Training Configuration Files • Rule set configuration files • Service configuration files ESXi Firewall VMware vSphere 5 Training Rule Set Add • /etc/vmware/firewall/ Option <service id='nnnn'> <id> <rule id='nnnn'> <direction> <protocol> <porttype> <port> <enabled> <required> Description Numeric identifier for the service. To enter a range. ESXi Firewall VMware vSphere 5 Training Example: Rule Set Configuration File <ConfigRoot> <service id='0000'> <id>serviceName</id> <rule id = '0000'> <direction>inbound</direction> <protocol>tcp</protocol> <porttype>dst</porttype> <port>80</port> </rule> <rule id='0001'> <direction>inbound</direction> <protocol>tcp</protocol> <porttype>src</porttype> <port> <begin>1020</begin> <end>1050</end> </port> </rule> <enabled>true</enabled> <required>false</required> </service> </ConfigRoot> ESXi Firewall VMware vSphere 5 Training Service Behavior • Start automatically if any ports are open and stop when all ports are closed • Start and stop with host • Start and stop manually ESXi Firewall VMware vSphere 5 Training ESXi Shell Firewall Configuration Command esxcli network firewall get esxcli network firewall set --defaultaction esxcli network firewall set –enabled esxcli network firewall load esxcli network firewall refresh esxcli network firewall unload esxcli network firewall ruleset list esxcli network firewall ruleset set --allowedall esxcli network firewall ruleset set --enabled esxcli network firewall ruleset allowedip list esxcli network firewall ruleset allowedip add esxcli network firewall ruleset allowedip remove Description Returns the enabled or disabled status of the firewall and lists default actions Update default actions Enable or disable the ESXi firewall Load the firewall module and rule set configuration files Refresh the firewall configuration by reading the rule set files if the firewall module is loaded Destroy filters and unload the firewall module List rule sets information Set the allowedall flag Enable or disable the specified rule set List the allowed IP addresses of the specified rule set Allow access to the rule set from the specified IP address or range of IP addresses Remove access to the rule set from the specified IP address or range of IP addresses . ESXi Firewall VMware vSphere 5 Training What We Covered  ESXi Firewall Defined   Configuration Files   Rule Set Add   Service Behavior   ESXI Shell Firewall Configuration  VMware Data Recovery (VDR) 2 VMware vSphere 5 Training Instructors: David Davis and Elias Khnaser VMware Data Recovery (VDR) 2 VMware vSphere 5 Training In This Lesson:  Introduction to VMware Data Recovery (VDR) 2  New VDR Features in vSphere 5  Limitations of VDR  Installing VDR  VDR Initial Configuration  Backup and Restore with Data Recovery VMware Data Recovery (VDR) 2 VMware vSphere 5 Training Introduction to VMware Data Recovery (VDR) 2 • VDR is a VMware virtualization-specific backup and recovery application for VMware vSphere 4 and 5 • Easy to deploy as an appliance, integrates with vCenter, and administered from vCenter • Provides backup and restore of guest Virtual Machines • Advanced features like: – De-duplication – File level restore – Incremental/differential backup • Included with vSphere Editions – Essentials Plus, Standard, Enterprise, and Enterprise Plus VMware Data Recovery (VDR) 2 VMware vSphere 5 Training Introduction to VMware Data Recovery (VDR) 2 • Appliance and plug-in – No physical server and no COS to install • Fully integrated with vCenter • Works if VMs are on or off • Uses snapshots for anytime BU • Supports VSS for Windows BU • Uses VADP (vSphere API for Data Protection) framework VMware Data Recovery (VDR) 2 VMware vSphere 5 Training Introduction to VMware Data Recovery (VDR) 2 • Can backup entire vSphere infrastructure in a few clicks • No agents and works on any OS • Complete management of backup and recovery through the vSphere Client • Included with vSphere • Deduplication and compression are automatic VMware Data Recovery (VDR) 2 VMware vSphere 5 Training New VDR Features in vSphere 5 • In vSphere 4.1, VDR 1.2 offered: – Linux file level restore – VSS in Win 2008 and Win 2008 R2 at the app level – Up to 10 appliances per vCenter (and up to 100 VMs per appliance) – VDR log can be sent to the syslog server VMware Data Recovery (VDR) 2 VMware vSphere 5 Training New VDR Features in vSphere 5 • In vSphere 5, VDR 2.0 offers: – Now uses Cent OS 5.5 64-bit – better scalability and stability – Swap files not included in backups anymore – Integrity checks and reclaim operations can be scheduled, resumed, and run in the background – Overall performance of backups and other operations has been improved – Email reporting has been added VMware Data Recovery (VDR) 2 VMware vSphere 5 Training Limitations of VDR • Backup datastore recommended to be no more than 1TB of de-dup data and 2 destination total (500MB if CIFS) • 8 concurrent VMDK backups • Maximum of 100 VMs can be backed up per VDR appliance – You can add another VDR appliance • Maximum of 10 VDR appliances per vCenter Server – Maximum of 1000 VMs per vCenter that can be backed-up with VDR • Does not provide a method to get backup data onto tape or offsite you must be using Essentials Plus. use the web interface or CLI . format and mount it VMware recommends using a thick VMDK for performance reasons • Powering on VDR is like powering on any VM • After initial power on. use the CLI to change the root password • Default username and password: – root – [email protected] • • • • • VMware Data Recovery (VDR) 2 VMware vSphere 5 Training VDR Initial Configuration • Once powered on and password is changed. mount the ISO. do the following from the web interface: – Set a static IP address (can also do using CLI) – Set the correct time zone – Reboot – Double check configurations once it comes back • To power off the VDR appliance properly.VMware Data Recovery (VDR) 2 VMware vSphere 5 Training Installing VDR • 60 Day evaluation is available with vSphere – Or. Enterprise Plus. kept with the VM. Enterprise. or purchased a la carte with Essentials • Download VDR on the same page that you download vSphere • VDR is a single file in ISO format • Either burn to media. is my favorite Once you create a VMDK destination. or unzip the ISO to gain access to the files inside • Deploy the VDR appliance from the OVF file • Install the VDR vSphere Client plug-in with the Windows installer VMware Data Recovery (VDR) 2 VMware vSphere 5 Training VDR Initial Configuration You must add a storage destination before powering up VDR You can add a VMDK virtual disk destination or network share A VMDK. Standard. com VMware Data Recovery (VDR) 2 VMware vSphere 5 Training What We Covered  Introduction to VMware Data Recovery (VDR) 2  New VDR Features in vSphere 5  Limitations of VDR  Installing VDR  VDR Initial Configuration  Backup and Restore with Data Recovery Administering vSphere Using an iPad VMware vSphere 5 Training Instructors: David Davis and Elias Khnaser .VMware Data Recovery (VDR) 2 VMware vSphere 5 Training Backup and Restore with Data Recovery Graphics Thanks to VMware. Administering vSphere Using an iPad VMware vSphere 5 Training In This Lesson:  Features of the vSphere Client for iPad  Requirements for the vSphere Client for iPad  Installing vCenter Mobile Access (vCMA)  Installing vSphere Client for iPad  Administering vSphere Using an iPad Administering vSphere Using an iPad VMware vSphere 5 Training Features of the vSphere Client for iPad • Search for vSphere hosts and VMs • Monitor the performance of vSphere hosts and VMs • Manage virtual machines with the ability to start.com/flings/vcma • Network connection to the vCMA – Via LAN or Internet VPN • vSphere Client for iPad – Via iTunes store • Note: this is all free except your vSphere and vCenter infrastructure .vmware. stop and suspend • View and restore virtual machines’ snapshots • Reboot vSphere hosts or put them into maintenance mode • Diagnose vSphere hosts and virtual machines using built-in ping and traceroute tools Administering vSphere Using an iPad VMware vSphere 5 Training Requirements for the vSphere Client for iPad • vSphere and vCenter already in place • vCenter Mobile Access (vCMA) virtual appliance available from the VMware Labs: http://labs. for the vCMA. through the vSphere Client http://labs.Administering vSphere Using an iPad VMware vSphere 5 Training Installing vCenter Mobile Access (vCMA) • vCMA is a free virtual appliance from VMware Labs • It allows you to manage your virtual infrastructure from mobile devices.apple. username.com/us/app/vm ware-vsphere-clientfor/id417323354?mt=8&ls=1 Administering vSphere Using an iPad VMware vSphere 5 Training Administering vSphere Using an iPad • To connect: – Get the IP address (or DNS name) of the vCMA VM – Enter that IP address (or DNS name) in the Settings on the iPad.vmware. like smartphones and iPads – Via web browser and the vSphere Client for iPad • Download the OVF file and Deploy it. downloaded through iTunes and installed on the iPad • Search in iTunes for “vSphere Client” or go tohttp://itunes. and password • You’re ready! .com/flings/vcma Administering vSphere Using an iPad VMware vSphere 5 Training Installing vSphere Client for iPad • A free Apple iPad client for administering vSphere • Requires local LAN access or VPN access to the vCMA • Just like any iPad app. when you first launch the client • Connect to the vSphere infrastructure using the vSphere Client for iPad by entering your vCenter server name. . . . Administering vSphere Using an iPad VMware vSphere 5 Training What We Covered  Benefits of the vSphere Client for iPad  Requirements for the vSphere Client for iPad  Installing vCenter Mobile Access (vCMA)  Installing vSphere Client for iPad  Administering vSphere Using an iPad .
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