Tindouf Basin Geology Map

March 30, 2018 | Author: api-26019795 | Category: Groundwater, Water Resources, Hydrogeology, Aquifer, Wetland


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Groundwater Resources of the World160° w. G. 140° 120° 100° 80° 60° 40° 20° 0° 20° 40° 60° 80° 100° 120° 140° 160° e. G. 180° 80° Thule 80° Barents Baffin Bay Murmansk Tu lom a Sea Kara Sea Lake Taymyr Lapt ev S ea Pyasin a East Siberian Sea Yenis ey Norilsk Ko tu y O l enek pi ne r cu Po Yu kon Yukon Arctic Circle B ac k elon Th s lfu Oe Ka lix ae l ve n Lu l mijoki Ke a P ec ho r Le Ind na igi rka e Ya Nome o Ku sk S tewa rt Great Bear Lake Godthab n za Ka a A ng na Ko Reykjavik e rm an Arkangelsk Se Lake Onega ly m a Ta z Niz hn Om olo n An ad y r Anadyr y ay a kw i m M ac Tung us k a v. D uy Vily vin a Ob Ald an Yukon ke n Anchorage z Podk am e Yakutsk nn a ya om Gl ie Great Slave Lake Thl ewi az a Hudson Bay Nor th Sea 60° Juneau Oslo Vänern Helsinki Stockholm Tallinn va Ne I Lia r d Lake Ladoga Yen ise y Tung uska L ena a sh r ty Churchill Lake Althabasca Saint Petersburg Lake Peipus Lake Rybinsk Vol ga Ob 60° Angar a Magadan m a O a Beri n g Sea Baltic Vättern k le Gu lf of Ala ska Riga ab a ce Pe a ga Vol Ath Chur c hil l Ne on ls Copenhagen Sea Neman Nizhniy Novgorod Moscow Kazan ka Kama Tobo l Perm Yekaterinburg Chuly m Dau g A ng K am ch atk a B er i n g S e a sc Vi Lena Vilnius av a Dnipr o O Ufa Lake Kuybyshev Chelyabinsk m ti Omsk Edmonton S ewan tch ka as S rn e ve Grande Riviere Minsk Dublin Goose Bay nt Tre Hamburg Amsterdam Rh in e El be Samara Wis la Bug Ob Irty U ra l yk a l La k e Novosibirsk Sea of Am ara Lake Winnipeg Ea stm ain Birmingham Frase r Colum Rh in e bia Sa an hew a tc sk Winnipeg Lake Nipigon Brussels Lille as Ma Od Kyiv Kharkiv Don le Se a ng On Argu n Vancouver Sei n e Paris e Prague nu Da Lake Superior be Munich Vienna Budapest Sava D r av a Re d Seattle s so Mi ur i Loir Tisza Dnis t e r Volgograd Dnipropetrovs'k Vo lga on A ur m lum bia Co ws llo Ye e ak e to n pr Quebec Lake Huron Chisinau Dni Lake Balqash Ulaanbaatar Harbin su Us o Rostov-na-Donu Kub Astrakhan Aral Sea Ottawa Rh one Portland Sn Minneapolis Mis sour i Lake Michigan Toronto Detroit St re aw .L nc e Montreal Halifax Lyon Po Milan Belgrade Da Odesa Bucharest n be u an S hu Ili Am ur Calgary an Al b y London Rotterdam Berlin ra Warsaw lga Vo Ok a Yenise y Ba s Irkutsk Lake Baikal Is h im i lka Sh ur Ze y a Okhotsk Petropavlovsk-Kamchatskiy h Astana Khabarovsk ut Pr ri Turin Ca S Urumqi Almaty Bishkek Tashkent Issyk Kul Changchun Xiliao He sp Milwaukee pi sip si s Lake Ontario Lake Erie Providence Boston Do ur o Marseille Eb r Sofiya Bl ac k Se a T'bilisi Istanbul Jilin Vladivostok Shenyang Sapporo yr rya Da ia n o Se Mi to Great Salt Lake P e la tt s Chicago Cleveland Columbus Pittsburgh New York Baltimore Cincinnati ee Rome Barcelona Naples Madrid T aj o Baotou k Yar Sacr am en Gr e 40° en Indianapolis Denver A r kan sa s Ankara K iz Kansas City Philadelphia Lisbon Bursa Smyrana ak ilim Eup hra tes Yerevan r az Kur a A Baku Dushanbe Ashgabat A an t Beijing Huludao a Sacramento do lora Co St. Louis o O hi Washington D.C. na G uad ia Tabriz Tigr is San Francisco Taiyuan Huan San Jose Algiers Tunis ss ne Te n Athens Adana Al Mawsil Aleppo Mashhad Karaj Tehran Eup hr Lanzhou Kabul Srinagar In d Ch an g Hu J ia ng Las Vegas Memphis Rabat la ba m ss ip p Me d i t e rr a n e a n Tripoli Benghazi Alexandria Los Angeles Tijuana Phoenix San Diego B ra Re d a Beirut an gH e Xian Casablanca Atlanta Dallas Ciudad Juarez z os Mis si Sea Tel Aviv-Yafo Jerusalem Damascus Amman Baghdad Ti Kar k h he Peshawar Esfahan u s Faisalabad Chen a b Rawalpindi Gujranwala Amritsar Lahore Multan Ludhiana tlej Su B r ahm ap utr a Ya lo Tangshan Pyongyang Japan Dalian Dongguan Seoul Yantai Linyi Shijiazhuang Inch'on Zibo Taejon Jinan Taegu Qingdao Taian Ulsan Nagoya Kyoto Yel l o w Zhengzhou Pusan Hiroshima Kwangju Zaozhuang Sea Xuzhou Osaka Fukuoka Suzhou Fuyang Han S Tianjin hu i Sea of 40° uD m arya Sendai Tone g He Tokyo es at i A ng ng Ji an Huainan Nanjing ng Changzhou g Austin San Antonio Ya qu i Conch os Wuhan Lhasa Meerut Ch Houston New Orleans Tampa Tindouf Cairo Kuwait Shiraz Chengdu Chongqing an Ch a Hangzhou Shanghai Wuxi Suzhou Ningbo East Chin a P A C I F I C Delhi Faridabad Indu s Ga n ga Kathmandu Lucknow G ha g Jiang Nanchang Wu Jia is gr lo Co ra d o o Ri Br av o Torreon Jaipur Ch am Agra ba l Changsha Wenzhou nd w Murzuq Monterrey Miami Nile C hi Doha Riyadh Aswan Dubai Hyderabad Karachi Muscat Ahmadabad Kanpur Allahabad Varanasi Patna Aurangabad Dhanbad Ga n ge s in g ha Thimphu ra Sea Guiyang Kunming n Ho g Ho Fuzhou Taipei Putian T'aichung Guangzhou Gulf of Mexico Havana Tamanrasset Abu Dhabi sh u ng Tropic of Cancer Honolulu Guadalajara Dhaka M Bhopal Indore Vadodara ada rm Na Lake Nasser Jabalpur Jamshedpur Nagpur Ma h Asansol Khulna Chittagong Kolkata Ay ey Tropic of Cancer Shantou Kaoshsiung i g on ek Nanning Hanoi Leon Merida Toluca Mexico City Gris a alv Jeddah Mecca Surat G od Hong Kong ana Puebla Port-au-Prince Santo Domingo Belmopan San Juan Nouakchott Nile Mumbai Pune i Hyderabad Kr ish na D allol B os s o Guatemala San Salvador Tegucigalpa o Coc Caribbean Sea A T L A N T I C i noc Or Seneg a l Bhi ma Vishakhapatnam Kr is hna Sal wee av a r n 20° di Haiphong 20° arwa R ed S Yangon dy Chao Vientiane ra ba At ea P hr ay a Timbuktu Khartoum Vijayawada Asmara ng eko M Dakar er Ni g m b ia G Sana Lake Chad A r ab i a n S ea Bangalore C au Bay of Chennai v ery Bengal South Manila Bangkok Bamako B lac k Vo lta Whi te W hi te Nil e Niamey Kano Kaduna N'Djamena Aden Blu e Nile Managua Ouagadougou Ot i Barranquilla Lake Tana O C E A N Davao a Volta Maracaibo Maracay Caracas Barquisimeto Valencia o Coimbatore Madurai Phnom Penh Ho Chi Minh City China ri ha C Bandam Com o e San Jose Panama City a Conakry Nig er Addis Ababa e nu Be Bucaramanga Car o ni Georgetown Ess equibo Kumasi Paramaribo Monrovia Cayenne Abidjan Medellin Lake Volta Ibadan Benin City Sea W te hi Colombo Ni le P A C I F I C en a M eta Lomé Lagos Accra Douala ga na Sa i eb W Bogota Cali Yaounde Ou ba ng ui be Sha Bangui Ue le d al Ma g G uav iar e Orin Lake Turkana Webi Medan elle Kuala Lumpur o a nc 0° Equator Quito Ca qu e ta P utum a yo Libreville O gooue Br as Co ng o A L om Guayaquil M ar Toc an ti n s Manaus Kas ai a mi o oc Gu lf of G ui n e a Belem zonas ma Jubba Kisangani Lake Edward Kampala Nairobi Lake Albert Mogadishu Singapore n ga Su Su n i ga i K ap u Neg r Mah ak am Equator 0° ngo Co Lake Kivu Kigali Ba tan g o H ari Lake Victoria Xing u Par naiba Iquitos a n on a eir ad Fortaleza Brazzaville Kinshasa Natal Palembang Sep ik Makassar Kananga Digul Lake Tanganyika Ta p M aj os Jakarta h ua a Iri ri J ur u a Dar es Salaam Bandung Surabaya Dili Ar ag ua ia To can tin s Te le s Luanda Cuanz a P ir es Xing Co ng o Sao F ran o sc ci G re B en i Lima J ur uenda c is c o Salvador K af Lilongwe ue F r an Sa o Brasilia Goiania Sh Cuiaba Lusaka Za Za mbez i ire Mit ch ell anai P ar ba Ok av a ng o Lake Kariba Livingstone Antananarivo F li nd V ic Santa Cruz de La Sierra O C E A N Belo Horizonte Vitoria Rio de Janeiro Harare to r ia Lake Titicaca La Paz Lu g en d M ar a Kw us ur P l aya Uc Recife R at ano n a lla Hu ng o i u Gua p or e K a s ai ga Lake Mweru Maceio Lubumbashi Campinas a Lake Malawi I N D I A N Darwin Port Moresby Honiara mor e Ma yo ma co Pil do an Cu Cunen Cairns m be e zi Suva er 20° s 20° Pa ra guay Windhoek Li o po mp As Fo r tes cu e Noumea r g i na Tropic of Capricorn Antofagasta Sao Paulo hb ur Alice Springs to n Fi r tz oy Tropic of Capricorn Asuncion Curitiba Dulce ado Sal Pretoria Johannesburg l aa y Gasc o ne G eo Gaborone er Cr e ua y ug V D Par ana M ia m Cop p ur tin an ch i a Wa rre so n Maputo go e k Brisbane ne lon Ba Ur Orange Ora nge Maseru Porto Alegre ero ad gu sa De Durban Cordoba Rosario Para na O C E A N Perth Adelaide Lake Eyre O C E A N 40° Santiago Da r l ing Cape Town L n hla ac Buenos Aires Montevideo Sydney Mur ray Canberra Auckland Melbourne C ol o ra do Tasman Sea 40° Ne gr o Ch u ub t Hobart Christchurch Ushuaia S c o t ia 60° S e a 60° Antarctic Circle Antarctic Circle We d de l l S ea 80° 80° Scale 1 : 25 000 000 © BGR Hannover / UNESCO Paris 2008. All rights reserved. Printed by: Oeding Druck GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany Mean Annual Precipitation (1961 - 1990) 150° w.G. 120° 90° 60° 30° 0° 30° 60° 90° 120° 150° e.G. 180° 150° w.G. 120° Population Density (2000) 90° 60° 30° 0° 30° 60° 90° 120° 150° e.G. 180° WHYMAP and the Groundwater Resources Map of the World 1 : 25 000 000 Legend Within the past decades the interest in groundwater has increased considerably due to water shortage problems on local, regional and even global levels. In order to support the sustainable management of groundwater resources, it is necessary to map, model and quantify the stored volume and the average annual replenishment, and to determine the chemical quality of groundwater. Therefore, the World-wide Hydrogeological Mapping and Assessment Programme (WHYMAP) was created in 1999 as a contribution to the world-wide efforts to improve the management of the earth's water resources including groundwater. WHYMAP is a joint programme of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), the Commission for the Geological Map of the World (CGMW), the International Association of Hydrogeologists (IAH), the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the German Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources (BGR). It aims at collecting, compiling and visualising hydrogeological information at a global scale, to convey groundwater related information in an appropriate way for the global discussion on water issues and to give recognition to invisible underground water resources. WHYMAP brings together the huge efforts in hydrogeological mapping, at regional, national and continental levels. BGR, together with the partners above, is gradually building up a geographic information system (WHYMAP GIS) in which the groundwater data are managed and visualised. This Groundwater Resources Map of the World at the scale of 1 : 25 000 000 is a result of WHYMAP and combines the related data known or published so far. It shows various characteristic groundwater environments in their areal extent: blue colour is used for large and rather uniform groundwater basins (aquifers and aquifer systems usually in large sedimentary basins that may offer good conditions for groundwater exploitation), green colour areas have complex hydrogeological structure (with highly productive aquifers in heterogeneous folded or faulted regions in close vicinity to non-aquifers), and brown colour symbolises regions with limited groundwater resources in local and shallow aquifers. Within the three main hydrogeological units up to five different categories are defined according to their modelled recharge rates from over 300 mm to less than 2 mm per year. Dark colours (dark blue, green and brown) represent areas with very high recharge rates while light blue, green and brown colours outline regions with very low recharge potential. The latter category is vulnerable to groundwater mining. Groundwater recharge rates refer to the period 1961 - 1990 and are derived from simulations with the global hydrological model WaterGAP, version 2.1f, provided by the University of Frankfurt/Main, Germany (Doell et al., 2006). Aspects of hydrodynamic conditions are addressed by outlining areas of groundwater discharge in arid zones (e.g. endorheic basins or "chotts" and "sebkhas"). Groundwater resources frequently sustain important wetland ecosystems. Therefore, wetlands with a surface larger than 500 hectares which are supposed to be groundwater related have been abstracted from the existing data base listing wetlands according to the RAMSAR convention (www.wetlands.org/rsis). Rising demands from population growth and food production are calling for a closer look at the use of groundwater. Therefore, known areas of heavy groundwater abstraction prone to over-exploitation and areas of groundwater mining are mapped. Cities shown on the map (mostly those with a population estimated at more than 1 million inhabitants in 2005 according to the United Nations Department of Economics and Social Affairs) known to have at least 25 % of the total water consumption supplied by groundwater have been identified by a special symbol. Groundwater quality is an important issue for the use of groundwater such as drinking water supply and irrigated food production. Areas where salinity of groundwater regionally exceeds 5 g/l are highlighted by orange hatching. The global Groundwater Resources Map contains only selected information related to groundwater. For reasons of clarity and readability important complementary information has been deferred to a set of four insert maps at the scale of 1 : 120 000 000 (see left). These thematic maps highlight the issues of "Mean Annual Precipitation", "River Basins and Mean Annual River Discharge", "Population Density" and "Groundwater Recharge per Capita". Comparison between the main Groundwater Resources Map and the four thematic small-scale maps should help to understand the global picture of groundwater and surface water resources and provide insight into their pressures, in particular the priority use for drinking purposes. Essential geographic differences are revealed over the globe in the distribution and amount of rainfall, the most important input factor for both, surface water flow and groundwater replenishment. The latter is mirrored in the main map by various colour shades. The rainfall map is based on data from the Global Precipitation and Climate Centre (GPCC) in Offenbach, Germany. To highlight the surface water situation, a map of major active water basins (surface water catchment areas) has been provided by the Global Runoff Data Centre (GRDC) in Koblenz, Germany. In addition, the surface water courses and lakes have been classified according to their mean annual discharge. This picture complements with the main map, particularly in the dry regions of the world, where no surface water is available but luckily some of the biggest aquifer systems are located. Population density also varies largely on earth and is a key factor for the broad variation of water demand on the continents. This information combined with the amount of groundwater recharge modelled by Doell et al. (2006) provides categories of mean annual groundwater recharge per capita. On this map, large countries have been subdivided into individual sub-regions or states, if this was appropriate or known, to highlight the regional variation. Further information will be provided in a corresponding explanatory booklet to be published soon. See also: www.whymap.org Groundwater resources and recharge (mm/year) very high 300 60° 60° 60° 60° high 100 medium 20 C lu t ha low 2 very low 0 in major groundwater basins in areas with complex hydrogeological structure in areas with local and shallow aquifers 30° 30° 30° 30° 0° 0° 0° 0° Special groundwater features 30° 30° 30° 30° area of saline groundwater (> 5 g/l total dissolved solids (TDS)) 60° 60° 60° 60° natural groundwater discharge area in arid regions Scale 1 : 120 000 000 Population in persons/km2 Source: Gridded Precipitation Normals Data Set, Global Precipitation Climatology Centre (GPCC), Offenbach 2007 Scale 1 : 120 000 000 area of heavy groundwater abstraction with over-exploitation Precipitation in mm/year 0 10 50 100 200 500 1000 2500 no data 0 5 25 250 1000 no data Sources: Gridded Population of the World (GPW), Version 3 Center for International Earth Science Information Network (CIESIN), Columbia University; United Nations Food and Agriculture Programme (FAO) & Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical (CIAT) 2005 area of groundwater mining River Basins and Mean Annual River Discharge (1961 - 1990) 150° 120° 90° 60° 30° 0° 30° 60° 90° 120° 150° 180° Groundwater Recharge (1961 - 1990) per Capita (2000) 150° 120° 90° 60° 30° 0° 30° 60° 90° 120° 150° e.G. 180° selected wetland, mostly groundwater related Prepared by Wilhelm Struckmeier and Andrea Richts (Chief Editors), Ian Acworth, Giuseppe Arduino, Emilia Bocanegra, Philip Commander, William Cunningham, Petra Döll, Abdallah Droubi, Nelson da Franca, Wilfried Gilbrich, Jan Girman, Jac van der Gun, Jean Margat, Dominique Poitrinal, Shaminder Puri, Alfonso Rivera, Mohamed Safar-Zitoun, Slavek Vasak, Jaroslav Vrba, Peter Winter, Markus Zaepke, Han Zaisheng and Igor Zektser Topographic base map CGMW / UNESCO (2000): UN (2006): ESRI (2006): NASA / USGS (2006): GRDC (2007): Geological Map of the World 1 : 25 000 000, 2nd edition Cartographic Data Data & Maps Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM30) Rivers & Lakes Surface water major river Geography and Climate selected city selected city, partly dependent on groundwater country boundary 60° 60° 60° 60° 30° 30° 30° 30° modified by BGR (2007/2008) large freshwater lake Under the auspices of 0° 0° 0° 0° Map projection Robinson projection, longitude of central meridian 11°E, spheroid WGS84, geographic coordinates large saltwater lake 30° 30° 30° 30° UNESCO / IHP UNESCO / IGCP BGR CGMW IAEA IAH Andras Szöllösi-Nagy and Alice Aureli Robert Missotten Hans-Joachim Kümpel and Wilhelm Struckmeier Jean-Paul Cadet and Philippe Rossi Pradeep Aggarwal and Andy Garner Stephen Foster and Jiri Krasny continuous ice sheet boundary of continuous permafrost Disclaimer The designations employed and the presentation of material on this map do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Secretariat of the United Nations or the WHYMAP Consortium concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries. This map was derived and compiled from disparate sources of information. The WHYMAP Consortium gives no warranty, expressed or implied, to the quality or accuracy of the information supplied and accepts no liability whatsoever in respect of loss, damage, injury or other occurrences however caused. The data and information on this map are protected under the copyright of Bundesanstalt für Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe (BGR) and UNESCO. No part of this work may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means whatsoever or stored in a retrieval system of any nature without the prior written permission of BGR and UNESCO. GROUNDWATER RESOURCES OF THE WORLD extracted from: 1 : 25 000 000 www.whymap.org The WHYMAP initiative has been supported by the IHP Council within the framework of the IHP VI programme (2002-2007). 60° 60° 60° 60° World-wide Hydrogeological Mapping and Assessment Programme (WHYMAP) Mean river discharge in km3/year 0-5 5 - 10 10 - 50 50 - 100 100 - 500 500 - 800 800 - 1200 1200 - 2000 2000 - 3000 > 3000 major river basin land area with minor or inactive river basins Scale 1 : 120 000 000 Sources: Basins selected, derived and adjusted by Global Runoff Data Centre (GRDC), Koblenz 2007, based on HYDRO1K by USGS; Mean river discharge calculated with WaterGAP 2.1, Universities of Frankfurt/Main and Kassel 2007; Rivers and lakes by GRDC & WHYMAP 2007 Scale 1 : 120 000 000 Groundwater recharge in m3/person/year (aggregated for countries or subnational units) country boundary 0 250 500 1000 1500 3000 10000 no data Cartographical editing / GIS Sources: Mean groundwater recharge calculated with WaterGAP 2.1, Universities of Frankfurt/Main & Kassel 2007; Population data based on GPW - Version 3, Center for International Earth Science Information Network (CIESIN) 2005 BGR Uta Philipp, Andrea Richts
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