‘The heart that feels music will feel people’: rethinking the concept of the transformative power of music in the writings and practices of Shinichi Suzuki

June 11, 2018 | Author: Imogen Coward | Category: Documents


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power of Music ABSTRACTS The 34th National Conference of the Musicological Society of Australia and the 2nd International Conference on Music and Emotion Hosted by The University of Western Australia 30 November – 3 December 2011

A Colourful Conference The ‘Power of Music’: Joint MSA/ICME Conference, 2011 stitches together a dynamic program of scholarship across a broad spectrum of disciplines. The vibrant colours of the conference program and bags illustrates the diversity of music’s power and highlights the variety of scholarship and delegates attracted to this seminal conference. Bazura Bags are made by a women’s cooperative using non-biodegradable juice containers recycled from the landfills, fields and streets of the Philippines. The ‘Power of Music’ conference is pleased to support these efforts in cooperation and sustainability. Conference program cover design: Rebecca Taylor Published by: The University of Western Australia, Crawley, Western Australia, November 2011.

power of Music ABSTRACTS

The 34th National Conference of the Musicological Society of Australia and the 2nd International Conference on Music and Emotion Hosted by The University of Western Australia 30 November – 3 December 2011

Contents

MSA President’s Welcome p2

About the Conference p4

Forums p8

Abstracts A - Z p10

Acknowledgments p3

Keynote Speakers p6

Collaboratories p9

List of Delegates p130

power of Music p1

MSA President’s Welcome Welcome from Jane Davidson, Conference Director and President of the Musicological Society of Australia Welcome to The University of Western Australia (UWA) and this conference which joins together The 34th National Conference of the Musicological Society of Australia and the 2nd International Conference on Music and Emotion. It is a pleasure to host this international gathering on this beautiful campus which is situated on Noongar land. We acknowledge that Noongar people remain the spiritual and cultural custodians of their land, and continue to practise their values, languages, beliefs and knowledge here. We hope you enjoy this land and the experiences available from a stroll along Matilda Bay to Kings Park and beyond. Music is a crucial technology used to regulate moods and actions of both self and others. Its ‘power’ is experienced as a pervasive and crucial form of human communication and expression. At this conference, music’s many different contexts are to be explored and investigated. Delegates from more than twenty-nine countries are in attendance, representing many sub-disciplines of music scholarship including music perception and cognition, sociology of music, ethnomusicology, music education, music therapy, music analysis and historical musicology. We are delighted to have keynote presentations from Professor Nicholas Cook (University of Cambridge), Professor Andrew Lawrence-King (Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence for the History of Emotions, Guildhall School of Music and Drama, Royal Danish Academy of Music), and Associate Professors Dorottya Fabian and Emery Schubert (both from The University of New South Wales). This conference could not have happened without the generous support of: the MSA Student and Indigenous Travel Grants Scheme which has funded some thirty-five Australian and New Zealand student delegates, including two indige-

MSA President’s Welcome p2

nous bursaries; and the SEMPRE international travel awards which have supported the attendance of some twelve colleagues and students from many parts of the globe. Special thanks go to the Vice-Chancellor of UWA whose support has facilitated venue use and whose discretionary funding has generously offered support to twenty student delegates and contributed to conference running expenses. Also, the Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence for the History of Emotions is to be thanked for its support of two sessions within this conference and the presence of one of our keynote speakers. The Perth Convention Bureau has provided funding for some of our guest speakers and The University Club of Western Australia has kindly opened its doors to our delegates during their stay. The Co-op Bookshop (UWA) has coordinated the trade display from a range of local, national and international publishers and we also acknowledge the School of Music at UWA which has generously allocated administrative support to this event. This conference has been in preparation for some twelve months and would not have been possible without the hard work of the MSA Executive and the MSA Awards Chair, supported by the unerring work of the local conference teams. Special gratitude goes to Kaye Hill for her meticulous management of the entire program of events, for without Kaye this conference simply could not have happened. Final thanks go to Michael Spitzer (University of Liverpool) for having developed and hosted the First International Conference on Music and Emotion at Durham University, United Kingdom, in 2009. I hope you enjoy your time in Western Australia.

Acknowledgments

Conference Committee Kaye Hill (Manager), Patricia Alessi, Mary Broughton, Jane Davidson, Brian Dawson, Andrea Emberly, Robert Faulkner, Jonathan McIntosh, Esmeralda Rocha, Victoria Rogers, David Symons.

Academic Selection Panel Jane Davidson, Andrea Emberly, Jonathan McIntosh, Jon Prince, Esmeralda Rocha, Victoria Rogers, David Symons.

Conference Administrative Team Kaye Hill (Manager), Brian Dawson, Sophie Field, Rebekah Prince.

Conference Technical Team

MSA Awards Chair John Phillips.

Kaye Hill (Manager), Jesse Stack, Pip White.

UWA School of Music Administrative Support Sarah Brittenden, Karen Sainsbury.

ARC CHE Administrative Support Pam Bond, Erika Von Kaschke.

Conference Helpers Joshua Bamford, Selena Clohessy, Elsie Gangemi, Trevor Hill, Nikki Man, Freya Petersen, Laura Pitts, Amanda Probst, Thea Rossen, Janelle Terpstra, Ruth Thomas, Olivia Thorne, Ruth Wise, Sharon Wong.

Sponsors and Supporters Vice-Chancellor, The University of Western Australia School of Music, The University of Western Australia Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence for the History of Emotions SEMPRE: Society for Education, Music and Psychology Research Perth Convention Bureau The University Club of Western Australia The Co-op Bookshop (UWA)

Acknowledgments p3

About the Conference The ‘Power of Music’, hosted by The University of Western Australia (UWA) brings together The 34th National Conference of the Musicological Society of Australia (MSA) and the 2nd International Conference on Music and Emotion (ICME). This unique three-way partnership has resulted in a program that is wide in scope and diverse in activity, featuring events which otherwise would not be available in a single location: The prestigious 2011 Callaway Lecture which serves as the opening keynote address and which honours the late Sir Frank Callaway (1919-2003), a leading international figure in music education in the second half of the twentieth-century and the Foundation Professor of Music at UWA; • More than 200 conference presentations from a broad range of disciplines with strong international, national and local content, including fifty poster sessions; • Two collaboratories emanating from the Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence for the History of Emotions at UWA; • Two participatory forums – the Gender and Sexuality Forum, and the Indigenous Music Think Tank – both hosted by the MSA. •

More information on these events can be found in this Abstracts book.

About the Conference p4

Venues The historic and picturesque Crawley campus of The University of Western Australia is home to the conference. The University and its gardens are ideally positioned on the shores of the Swan River, overlooking Matilda Bay and in close proximity to the city of Perth. The conference venues, all with modern facilities, are distributed across three buildings within easy-walking distance from one another: the Arts building, the Social Sciences building, and the Music building. More detail, including maps, can be found in the Program booklet.

Hospitality Conference registration includes morning and afternoon teas as well as lunch. Dietary requirements nominated at the time of registration have been catered for. Delegates wishing to purchase coffee, refreshments and meals from the modern café facilities of the neighbouring University Club have been granted complimentary membership for the duration of the conference. Access is also available to the Club Restaurant, but bookings are essential (phone: 6488 8770). A temporary Club membership card is included in each conference pack. Two special events are available to delegates who nominated attendance at the point of registration: the Welcome Reception immediately after the Callaway Lecture/Opening Keynote on Wednesday evening, 30 November; and the Conference Dinner at nearby St. Catherine’s College on the evening of the conference conclusion, Saturday 3 December. Information about local eateries is included in the conference pack.

Computers, Internet, and Printing

Using the Conference Abstracts and Program

Delegates requiring access to computing facilities are invited to use the Arts computer laboratory 1.54 in the Arts building. Please note that printing is not available from these computers, but can be accessed through our oncampus commercial printing service, UniPrint (www.uniprint.uwa.edu.au or phone 6488 4289).

Information about this conference is presented in two publications: the Abstracts book; and the Program booklet.

For those with laptops Wi-Fi access is available in two ways: • Eduroam, a federated-service allowing personnel from participating institutions to connect to the internet via UWA’s wireless network using their credentials from their home institution; • Access to the University’s conference Wi-Fi network using a temporary login. Further details on computers, Internet and printing is available from an information sheet in the conference pack.

Assistance

The Abstracts book presents all abstracts in alphabetical order by the surname of the first-named author of the presentation. For a schedule of session times, refer to the Program booklet and index.

TIP: where authors are represented in two or more presentations, taking note of the ID number in the Abstract book will help find the correct session in the Program booklet and its index.

The Program booklet provides an overview of the conference sessions, together with information on venues, and a comprehensive index to identify the session times of specific presentations that interest you.

Team members wearing Conference T-shirts will gladly assist you during your time at the conference.

About the Conference p5

Keynote Speakers The ‘Power of Music’ conference is delighted to welcome four esteemed scholars to deliver the program’s keynote sessions. Professor Nicholas Cook from the University of Cambridge delivers the opening keynote address for the conference, the Callaway Lecture. Proudly supported by the Callaway Family this annual lecture series honours The University’s Foundation Professor of Music, Sir Frank Callaway. Renowned Harp virtuoso, Professor Andrew LawrenceKing, launches the first full day of sessions with the second keynote address, and the final day of the conference program begins with keynote addresses from internationally recognised musicologists, Associate Professors Dorottya Fabian and Emery Schubert.

Nicholas Cook University of Cambridge, United Kingdom

Nicholas Cook took up the 1684 Professorship in the Faculty of Music, University of Cambridge in 2009. He was formerly Professorial Research Fellow at Royal Holloway, University of London, where he directed the AHRC Research Centre for the History and Analysis of Recorded Music (CHARM), and before that taught at the universities of Hong Kong, Sydney, and Southampton, where he also served as Dean of Arts. A musicologist and theorist, he holds separate degrees in music and in history/art history. His articles have appeared in leading British and American journals, and cover topics from aesthetics and analysis to psychology and pop. A former Editor of the Journal of the Royal Musical Association, Nicholas Cook was Chair of the Music Panel in the Higher Education Funding Councils’ 2001 Research Assessment Exercise. He is a Fellow of the British Academy and of the Academy of Europe. Date: Wednesday 30 November 2011 Times: 6.30pm Venue: Social Sciences Lecture Theatre Session #: 1A

Keynote Speakers p6

Andrew-Lawrence King

Dorottya Fabian

Emery Schubert

Guildhall School of Music and Drama, United Kingdom The University of Western Australia, Australia Royal Danish Academy of Music, Denmark

The University of New South Wales, Australia

The University of New South Wales, Australia

Dorottya Fabian is a musicologist researching the stylistic history of music performance as evidenced on sound recordings. She was born and educated in Hungary, graduating from the Ferenc Liszt Academy of Music in 1984. She moved to Australia in 1986 and obtained post-graduate qualifications at The University of New South Wales where she currently lectures in music history and research methods and serves (from 2012 onwards) as Post-Graduate Co-ordinator of the School of English, Media and Performing Arts. Recently she spent a year at Cambridge University as Visiting Fellow to Clare Hall where she worked on two forthcoming books: an edited volume on expressiveness in music performance (co-edited with Renee Timmers and Emery Schubert) and a monograph on studying music performance and recent trends in playing solo Bach on the violin. In 2010 she was elected Fellow of the Australian Academy of Humanities.

Emery Schubert is Associate Professor in the School of English, Media and Performing Arts at the University of New South Wales in Sydney, Australia and Co-leader of the Empirical Musicology Group. His research interests are concerned with the ‘scientific’ study of aesthetics, including measuring and predicting emotional responses to music continuously. He is on the Editorial Board for Empirical Musicology and Journal of New Music Research and is a founding member of the Australian Music and Psychology Society (AMPS).

Early Harp virtuoso, imaginative continuo-player, Baroque opera and orchestral director, Andrew LawrenceKing is one of the world’s leading performers of Early Music and the most recorded harpist of all time. He has directed opera and chamber music at La Scala, Milan; Sydney Opera House; Casals Hall, Tokyo; Berlin, Vienna and Moscow Philharmonics; New York’s Carnegie Hall and Mexico City’s Palacio de Bellas Artes. Accolades include a UK Gramophone Award, German Echo Prize, Dutch Edison Award, US Noah Greenberg Prize and the 2011 Grammy for ensemble performance directed by Jordi Savall. Senior Research Fellow at The University of Western Australia, Professor at London’s Guildhall School, and at the Royal Danish Academy of Music, Andrew investigates and teaches early harps, medieval music-drama and baroque opera. His ensemble, The Harp Consort, combines period detail with stylish improvisation and entertaining stage presentation. Together with dancer/guitarist Steven Player, he has founded Il Corago, a production team for early opera.

Date: Saturday 3 December 2011 Times: 9.00am Venue: Social Sciences Lecture Theatre Session #: 4A

Date: Saturday 3 December 2011 Times: 9.00am Venue: Social Sciences Lecture Theatre Session #: 4A

Date: Thursday 1 December 2011 Times: 9.00am Venue: Social Sciences Lecture Theatre Session #: 2A

Keynote Speakers p7

Musicological Society of Australia Forums MSA’s forums and think tanks are sites of open discussion in which all delegates are welcome to share their experiences and insights on an aspect of our discipline in a characteristically Australian, informal atmosphere.

Gender and Sexuality Forum

Indigenous Music Think Tank

‘The socially transformative power of music’ Chair: John Phillips

Chairs: Katelyn Barney and Aaron Corn

The purview of ‘gender studies’ has been redefined in recent years in light of the growing realisation that gender and sexuality are only two of the many components involved in the performance of personal identity. A moment’s reflection reminds us that music can play a huge role in these performances. This year’s Gender and Sexuality Forum will take as its theme music’s power to create sites of radical, yet safe social interaction that can transcend and transform potentially divisive representations of identity such as sexuality and gender, but also race, class, age, etc. If it is true that ‘music gives us a real experience of what the ideal could be ... constructs our sense of identity through the direct experiences it offers to the body ... defines space without boundaries’ (Frith, 1996), we may all be aware of musical representations, ‘ideal yet real’ spaces, that bring people together across boundaries of otherwise divisive class, race, gender. All are welcome to contribute to the broad discussion theme of music’s power to socially transform. Date: Thursday 1 December 2011 Times: 7.30-9.30pm Venue: Music – Tunley Lecture Theatre

Musicological Society of Australia Forums p8

The Indigenous Music Think Tank will provide the opportunity to discuss current research practices and issues relating to the study of Indigenous Australian music. The Think Tank will also explore ways to further improve Indigenous participation in MSA conferences and will provide a forum to consider funding avenues and collaborations between Indigenous and non-Indigenous music scholars. All conference attendees with an interest in Indigenous music making are welcome. Date: Friday 2 December 2011 Times: 6.00-7.00pm Venue: Music – Tunley Lecture Theatre

Collaboratory

performance The ARC Centre of Excellence for the History of Emotions presents:

“The power of music” Date: Time: Venue:

1 December 2011 14:00 Alexander Lecture Theatre, Arts Faculty, University of Western Australia

Music and mourning In this one and a half hour collaboratory, participants will discuss the role of music in mourning rituals across time and culture. Key questions include: How do we use music to modify our thoughts and feelings about loss? How did we do it in the past and how we will do so in the future? This collaboratory will investigate the use of music in a variety of ceremonial and formal contexts as well as more family-oriented and personal contexts that surround mourning. This discussion is timely, considering the following: i) Our knowledge of the strong emotional use and function of music in previous times and cultures; and ii) The power of music in everyday experiences across cultures to generate as well as regulate intense emotional experiences – offering the opportunity for expression as well as social affiliation between peer groups. The discussion will include historical investigations to explore the use and function of music for mourning across different periods and places (1600 to present day) focusing mainly on European heritage. It will also include presentations drawing out the relevance of music to mourning in contemporary Australian Society by looking at Indigenous and migrant cultural groups through anthropological investigations. The session will also explore experimental approaches that have employed several kinds of survey techniques and are based on psychology research paradigms.

performance

change

Date: Time: Venue:

2 December 2011 09:00 Alexander Lecture Theatre, Arts Faculty, University of Western Australia

Text, rhythm, gesture: emotional meaning and communication in sacred and theatrical European music, 1600-1750 Presented in two parts, this three hour session is based on the collaboratory practices adopted in Science. European vocal music (specifically Italian, French, German and English) created for sacred and theatrical contexts, spanning the period 16001750 is investigated focusing on practices for conveying emotion through musical means. Inevitably, this project reassesses previous views on ‘authentic’ meaning and performance practices in light of new insights from readings of historical documents on philosophy, the science of music, performance etiquette, gesture and poetry. The central focus will be to investigate what sorts of communication were intended for affective outcomes at the point of composition and how these intentions were realised. Discussion will go on to explore the means through which contemporary twenty-first-century performers can achieve convincing emotional communication of the repertoire, making it meaningful to contemporary audiences. In this session, there will be formal contributions from top international researchers and practitioners: Emeritus Professor David Tunley; Dr Andrew Lawrence-King; Dr Rosalind Halton; Dr Janice Stockigt; Dr Alan Maddox and Dr Samantha Owens.

shaping the modern

meanings

www.emotions.uwa.edu.au

Emotions make history

ABSTRACTS A-z

Hallgjerd Aksnes University of Oslo, Norway

Svein Fuglestad Oslo University College, Norway

Client vs. control imagery in GIM: can music therapy research teach us about everyday music listening? ✢✢✢ The paper is based on a comparative study of transcriptions from 58 GIM (Guided Imagery and Music) sessions – a music-therapeutic method in which clients listen to selected music programs, focusing upon the imagery evoked by the music. We have established a linguistic corpus to facilitate the comparison of the transcriptions, which contain a vast amount of data. In this sub study the imagery reported by clients who have sought GIM to alleviate psychological distress, is compared with the imagery of a control group participating in GIM sessions without therapeutic aims. (Problems pertaining to the demarcation of musical images are to be discussed in the paper.) All of the subjects – 5 clients, 5 controls – listened to the same order of GIM music programs, being offered 6 GIM sessions each; all conducted by the same GIM therapist, following the same procedure. This study is a follow-up on several earlier findings that clinically depressed subjects tend to focus more upon dark, sad, or sinister imagery than healthy subjects. Another aim of the study is to investigate how relevant GIM transcriptions are to the understanding of everyday music listening. In earlier studies we have found that when invited to focus on visual imagery, higher level music and musicology students (who are often taught to refute visual associations as ‘naïve’) have reported elaborate, ‘GIM-like’ visual imagery also within neutral, non-GIM listening contexts. Thus, although the GIM setting is more focused upon imagery than non-therapeutic music listening, we believe that ‘GIM-like’ visual imagery also plays a significant role in many everyday musical experiences. Keywords: GIM (guided imagery and music); musical imagery; linguistic corpus; cognitive metaphor theory; GIM imagery vs. everyday musical experience Format: Single paper (#110)

Conference Abstracts p 10

A. Bulent Alaner

Christopher Alomes

Anadolu University, Turkey

University of Tasmania, Australia

The role of Turkish modes used in musical therapy: a document analysis in terms of historical musicology

Do as I do, not as I say: the influence of musical recordings on learning ✢✢✢

✢✢✢ Throughout history people have used music for various purposes such as religious rituals or the expression of emotions such as anger and happiness. One of the fields where music has been used successfully is in the therapy of mentally handicapped people. The use of music this way, especially with children, was an approach used in the Ottoman Empire. The modes (makams) that were used played an important role since each mode might have a different effect on the specific malfunction. Thus, the aim of this paper is to present how the Turkish musical modes were used in the therapy of mentally handicapped children during the Ottoman Empire. This presentation will focus on an analysis of a document by Gevrekzade Hasan Efendi, who was the head Doctor of the Ottoman Palace during the reign of Sultan Selim III. In order to reflect the power of music in the therapy of mentally handicapped children, 23 Turkish musical modes identified in the document are presented together with their purposes and fields of treatment. Through this analysis the researcher aims to contribute to the understanding of the role of music in the therapy of children as well as presenting a viewpoint about the power of music in the therapy of mentally handicapped children. Keywords: music therapy; musicology; Turkish modes; music therapy in children; power of music in therapy Format: Single paper (#57)

The power of musical recordings to influence learning and interpretation of musical works can clearly be shown in the following paper, with findings that have a potentially large impact on even the most rudimentary aspects of the music learning process. Understanding the influence that musical recordings have on music students can help to shape and inform practice and teaching methods. As recordings have increasingly become an indispensible part of the music learning process, it is surprising that there has been little to no research done in this area, specifically on the degree of their influence on tertiary music students and the learning process. Examined is the extent to which musical recordings influence the way music is learned and reproduced, specifically the impact that listening to a recorded version of a piece of music has on the student asked to learn and perform it. It was hypothesised that listening to errors and non-notated rubato in a piece of music would influence the learning process of the student and the features of their subsequent performance. An experiment was designed and undertaken to test this, with the results highlighting a new level of importance of musical recordings in the learning process. The ideas and findings of this work have important implications for music educators, students, and the institutions they inhabit. A change is needed in the way we listen to musical recordings, bringing to bear a more well-informed and objective filter. This finding alone may have a significant impact on the learning process – an impact that has not been analysed until now. Keywords: musical performance; neuroscience; musical recordings; tertiarylevel learning; performance creativity Format: Mini-presentation (#260) and Poster (#260P)

Conference Abstracts p 11

Lucy Bailes The University of Newcastle, Australia

Getting it together: an examination of co-artists’ body language in performances of ‘Morgen’ by Richard Strauss

Jane Balme Sandra Bowdler The University of Western Australia, Australia

The archaeology of music, performance and the earliest expression of emotion ✢✢✢

✢✢✢ As a singer, I am acutely aware of a performer’s need to use reflex and intuition to relate to co-performers on stage. But we often fail to notice the intricacies of how we perform and how we relate to other co-artists. By analysing our gesture, breath, stance, gaze and expressions we can begin to explore the symbiotic relationship between co-artists on stage. I plan to highlight and examine these behaviours in both their intuitive and rehearsed forms within ‘Morgen’ by Richard Strauss. The genre of Lieder itself implies an equal performance partnership and the exquisitely difficult, interwoven melodies of ‘Morgen’ require highly developed communication and ensemble in both performance and in rehearsal. To deconstruct these behaviours, I will film and compare a sequence with five different pianists. Each sequence will be made up of an unrehearsed performance, a rehearsal and finally a rehearsed performance of ‘Morgen’. I will highlight key behaviours in the observed performance of both the pianists and myself that will develop our understanding of successful co-artist partnerships. Keywords: performance; rehearsal; gesture; partnership; stage craft Format: Mini-presentation (#103) and Poster (#103P)

Music is common to all historically and ethnographically known human societies. Where musical instruments are simple or even lacking altogether, humans sing and dance. This universality in itself suggests the significance of music to our species, and its power in our lives. Anatomically modern humans (AMHs) appeared in Africa sometime between 200-100,000 years ago and then spread throughout the world from about 80,000 years ago. While the precise timing of this is controversial, less controversial are the suggested dramatic behavioural changes that emerge with AMHs. Prime amongst these is the earliest incontrovertible evidence for symbolic behaviour represented by, for example, personal ornament, art, trade networks and deliberate burial. We have previously argued that some of this symbolic evidence demonstrates the emergence of social institutions such as gender and kinship systems. Here we suggest further that such social institutions not only have to be able to be described but have to be supported with symbolic communication by ritual performance in all present day societies. We argue that one of the characteristics of music is, by its very nature, performance, as sounds can only be ‘music’ when they are in the context of performance. We link the earliest evidence for music with the earliest evidence for ritual and argue further that, as early AMH burials provide evidence for emotional response to the dead, the emergence of music is associated with the earliest evidence for emotion. Keywords: archaeology; anatomically modern humans; antiquity of music; antiquity of evidence for emotion; music and ritual Format: Single paper (#164)

Conference Abstracts p 12

Daniel Bangert Dorottya Fabian Emery Schubert The University of New South Wales, Australia

Inside intuition: a case study of musical decision-making

Nicholas Bannan The University of Western Australia, Australia

The evolution of psalm singing in western liturgy: case studies in the invention of a performance practice tradition

✢✢✢ ✢✢✢ The interpretation of a notated score involves a complex process of musical decision-making. When asked to explain these processes, musicians often refer to concepts such as musical intuition in contrast to more analytical, deliberate methods of decision-making. Through a case study of a professional period cellist, this paper examines the nature and role of intuitive and deliberate processes of musical decision-making in historically informed performance. Conducted over two years, the case study traces the development of a musical interpretation of the Suites for Solo Cello by J.S. Bach. Retrospective think-aloud data were collected through a process of repeatedly viewing video footage of performances. These data were coded using interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA) to identify intuitive and deliberate methods of decision-making. Overall, deliberate decision-making accounted for approximately two thirds of all musical decisions raised by the performer, although deliberate decisions directly informed by historical information were only identified in a small number of cases. Intuitive processes were categorised as being responsible for the remaining one third of musical decisions, and a proportion of these decisions described the use of procedural knowledge, suggesting that the performer had assimilated or built-in various aspects of their interpretation through practice. The paper defines intuitive and deliberate methods of decisionmaking through recent psychological literature on intuition and dual process theories of cognition, and compares this literature with writings by performers.

Psalm singing and the solution of musical problems associated with the liturgies based upon it have played a central part in the development of Western Art Music and JudaeoChristian religious observance as these have spread across the world, especially in the globalising migrations of the last two centuries. Traditional accounts of the continuity of the chant traditions of the early church have begun to be revised as forensic musicology has assembled documentary evidence of the development of the varying practices through which psalmody has retained a function in the liturgy over the last two thousand years. Two choirs have been formed in Perth during the last five years that have had to establish from scratch the capacity of their members to sing psalms within the traditions of Anglican chant. This poster illustrates, with reference to the often contentious debate in the church music literature, the issues of performance practice that need to be addressed in order for a living chant tradition to become established. Additionally, consideration is given to the pedagogical function that chant performance may play in the formation of a choir’s distinctive sound as a form of collective creativity. Keywords: chant; psalm; choir; pedagogy; performance Format: Poster (#45)

Keywords: music performance; Bach; decision-making; intuition; phenomenology Format: Single paper (#276)

Conference Abstracts p 13

Nicholas Bannan

Linda Barcan

The University of Western Australia, Australia

Edith Cowan University, Australia

John Blacking’s Te Deum : revealing the creative voice of an academic

Mozart tenor arias and tessitura ✢✢✢

✢✢✢ The social anthropologist John Blacking trained as a Cathedral chorister and piano soloist prior to pursuing the career in ethnomusicology for which he is best known. Research into the archive he bequeathed to The University of Western Australia has revealed a small but significant corpus of Blacking’s compositions, on which it appears he continued to work during his period of residency in South Africa prior and subsequent to his fieldwork with the Venda. Outstanding amongst these works is the a cappella setting of the Te Deum, assumed to be written for the choir at the University of Witwatersrand. The work proved difficult to perform: a hand written note on one copy in the archive tells of the need to provide an organ part. This session aims to present Blacking’s Te Deum through analysis supported by live performance with the intention both of illuminating stylistic features of the work itself, and of illustrating questions of editorial judgement and performance practice that have arisen in preparing the work for publication. The presentation will conclude with a complete performance of Blacking’s work by The Winthrop Singers led by Associate Professor Nicholas Bannan. Keywords: performance; Blacking; Te Deum; choir; style Format: Performance (#212)

Conference Abstracts p 14

Tessitura is a term used to define the prevailing range of notes in a vocal line. It may be used in reference to a singer’s voice, a song or a role. Tessitura is distinct from range, which describes the entire compass of a voice or piece, from lowest note to highest. When assigning repertoire to a student of singing, it is advisable for a voice teacher to match the tessitura of the singer with the tessitura of the song. Modern technology may aid the voice teacher in making appropriate repertoire choices using the tessiturogram, a computer-generated graph which displays the frequency and duration of note occurrence within a piece. Inspired by Titze’s analysis of the tenor aria from Don Giovanni, ‘Il mio tesoro intanto’, this research uses the tessiturogram to analyse key Mozart tenor arias and to rate them according to degree of difficulty. Many of these arias lie in the passaggio zone, an area of register transition which requires advanced technical skills to negotiate. The advisability of giving such arias to young male tenors in their original key is therefore explored. Using this analysis as a basis, a light-hearted hypothesis is formed as to why Mozartian tenor roles are considered to be ‘boring’! Keywords: tessitura; passaggio; tessiturogram; repertoire choice; Mozart tenor arias Format: Poster (#145)

Katelyn Barney

Kerry Fletcher

Arya Bastaninezhad

The University of Queensland, Australia

Songwriter, Australia

Monash University, Australia

Julie Rickwood Australian National University, Australia

Singing sorry: performing emotion and reconciliation in Kerry Fletcher’s Sorry Song

Acquiring competence in learning to perform a new piece: the traditional Iranian and the modern Lotfian methods compared

✢✢✢ ✢✢✢ Musician and songwriter Kerry Fletcher wrote Sorry Song in 1998 and since then it has been performed by many choirs across Australia. The song has become an anthem for reconciliation in Australia because it calls for a formal apology to Indigenous Australian people for the injustices suffered through colonisation. Both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal musicians describe the powerful emotions they experience when performing the song. After the National Apology to the Stolen Generations occurred in 2008, Fletcher added a new verse to the song to celebrate the Apology. This roundtable explores how Kerry Fletcher’s Sorry Song captures the emotions surrounding the Apology and how the song attempts to enable and strengthen healing processes for Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians. We also consider the ways the song provides a platform for recognition and education about Australia’s colonial history and the ways the song makes space for relationships and collaboration between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians to occur. Facilitated by Barney and Rickwood, the roundtable will begin with a performance of the song by choir Madjitil Moorna, and will be followed by short presentations by members of the panel and conclude with a participatory element. Fletcher will reflect on the process of writing Sorry Song and her own emotional experiences performing it; Barney will discuss how the song is being used as an educational tool for teaching people about the Stolen Generations; Rickwood will explore how Sorry Song facilitates reconciliation through community music making; and Indigenous and non-Indigenous members of Madjitil Moorna will discuss their experiences of singing the song. Finally we will open up discussion between the panel and the audience about the emotional power of music and the ways songs like Sorry Song (www.sorrysong. com.au) can promote healing and break the silence about the history of Stolen Generations.

This paper focuses on the use of the modern Lotfian pedagogical method used in teaching students to learn to play a new piece in the Music School of Tehran Arts University. It compares the Lotfian method with the mainstream traditional method which is based on the master-pupil relationship. The Lotfi’s method aims at greater efficiency in acquiring musical competence. However, some modern teachers and performers regret the associated decline in the students’ ability to learn the Radif (Persian music repertoire). A demonstration of the two methods applied to learning a new piece played on the Ney, a Persian flute, will illustrate the merits and demerits of the two methods. Keywords: Iranian; traditional; Lotfian; pedagogy; compared Format: Single paper (#12)

Keywords: community singing; reconciliation; Stolen Generations; healing; music and politics; race relations Format: Roundtable (#19)

Conference Abstracts p 15

Nena Beretin University of New England, Australia

Laura Bishop Freya Bailes Roger T. Dean University of Western Sydney, Australia

‘I want to be a soldier too’: the power of opera as propaganda during the cultural revolution

Musical expertise and the planning of expression during performance

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In China during the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution from 1966 to 1976, under the dictatorship of Mao Tse-Tung, opera and all the arts were primary vehicles for the dissemination of political, social and moral attitudes to a nation of 800 million people. Mao’s cultural policy commanded that art and literature should serve the proletariat – the workers, peasants, and soldiers. In keeping with this policy, Mao opposed the elaborate and grand productions of the traditional Peking Opera and denounced this art form as feudalistic and bourgeois. Mao’s wife, Jiang Qing, a former professional stage and screen actress, was one of the driving forces of the Cultural Revolution. Madame Mao’s reformation of traditional Peking Opera was seminal to the modernisation of Chinese popular culture and the dissemination of ideas approved by the regime. The transformation of Peking Opera, a national genre, was of particular significance because the modernisation of this extremely popular art form would lead to the transformation of China’s literature and visual arts. This paper focuses on the interactions between Communist ideology, art and politics in the construction of a new art form. By selecting thematic examples from traditional Peking Opera, I will discuss the significant changes in the five operas, two ballets and one symphony personally approved by Jiang Qing. For ten years, these approved operas were an integral part of a revolutionary and modernising project promoted by the Communist Party. It was propaganda as art.

Expert musicians are precise but flexible in their use of performance expression and better able to communicate their intentions than non-expert musicians. They often say that the ability to imagine a desired sound is integral to expressive performance. Research suggests that musical imagery abilities improve with increasing musical expertise and that online imagery may guide expressive performance when sensory feedback is disrupted. However, both the effects of sensory feedback disruption on online imagery and the relationship between online imagery ability and musical expertise remain unclear. This study tests the hypotheses that imagery can occur concurrently with normal performance, that imagery ability improves with increasing musical expertise and that imagery is most vivid when auditory feedback is absent but motor feedback present. Auditory and motor feedback conditions were manipulated as pianists performed two melodies expressively using the score. Dynamic and articulation markings were periodically introduced into the score and pianists indicated verbally whether the marking matched their expressive intentions while continuing to play their own interpretation. MIDI pitch, duration and key velocity data were collected for comparison against baseline performances, given under normal feedback conditions using scores devoid of expressive notation. Preliminary analyses suggest that, as expected, expressive profiles are most accurately replicated under normal feedback conditions, but that imagery is most vivid in the absence of auditory feedback. The improvements to online imagery ability expected to co-occur with increasing musical expertise, if observed, will support the idea that enhanced imagery abilities contribute to expert musicians’ extraordinary control over expression.

Keywords: great proletarian cultural revolution; Jiang Quing; communist ideology; model operas; propaganda Format: Single paper (#187)

Keywords: musical imagery; expertise; sensory feedback; expression; planning Format: Single paper (#134)

Conference Abstracts p 16

John Bispham

David Bollard

Macquarie University, Australia

University of Tasmania, Australia

The human motivation for music

Human distress and suffering: a musical perspective

✢✢✢ ✢✢✢ This paper explores the question of what motivates us to make music. Within a framework of evolutionary theory a broad comparative perspective on ‘musical motivation’ is presented with a particular emphasis on the predominantly social and interactive nature of musical engagement worldwide. Arguing against views of music as being primarily functional in expressing emotion, the functionality of music is instead seen to be rooted in individual, interactive and group emotion-regulatory processes. In accordance with previous comparative approaches on ‘musical pulse’ and ‘musical pitch’, areas where the motivation for music appears psychologically and/or functionally distinct from other human and animal communicative behaviours are highlighted. The view is presented that ‘music’ delineates itself from other communicative behaviours in that it is intrinsically motivated towards achieving a group convergence of context-appropriate affective states. Finally, the relevance of this perspective to debates on the evolutionary and modernday functionalities of music is briefly discussed in terms of an individual’s ability to function within a group and in terms of the biological costs of emotion regulation and social engagement. Keywords: music; motivation; emotion; emotion regulation; evolution Format: Single paper (#262)

It is difficult, if not impossible, to describe, explain or express the direct musical experience, simply because there is no true equivalent to that experience, whether in terms of composing, performing or listening. Charles Baudelaire compared music to the sea in one of his poems (La Musique) from his masterpiece Les Fleurs du Mal: the free rhymed and scanned translation by Professor Laurence Lerner skilfully captures the spirit of the original, revealing in the final couplet the exact connection between human distress and this particular utterance. The oft-stated view that music has the power to express a wide variety of human emotions, and differs from the other arts in the directness and simplicity with which it moves us, leads us to conclude that perhaps the latter utilise more cerebral processes in their transmission than does music: ideas rather more than emotions. There follows a select list of 20 composers who all experienced profound distress and suffering in their professional – and especially personal – lives, ranging from Bach and Handel to Bartók and Shostakovich. They are presented in chronological order of birth dates, and details of their individual situations are provided. During the presentation I introduce pertinent musical examples which illustrate the ways whereby three vastly contrasted creators expressed their feelings about human distress and suffering. The composers represented are Enrique Granados, Franz Schubert and Anton Bruckner; the historical background and context place the music in an appropriate setting. Keywords: suffering; description; literature; mourning; communication Format: Single paper (#44)

Conference Abstracts p 17

Sophie Boyd-Hurrell

Mary Broughton

The University of Melbourne, Australia

The University of Western Australia, Australia

Catherine Stevens University of Western Sydney, Australia

Two ‘torn halves’: understanding Adorno’s critique of popular music

Deconstructing solo marimbists’ bodily expression through effort-shape analysis

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We all know what’s wrong with Adorno. He is a left-wing elitist, an ill-informed snob and a champagne-sipping pessimist. Within both musicology and the social sciences Theodore Adorno’s ideas have served as a convenient scapegoat against which an apparently more progressive engagement with popular culture can be neatly juxtaposed. Within Adorno’s vast output of music sociology, it is his essays on jazz and popular music that have attracted the most critical attention. Despite the fact that Adorno’s work on jazz is both a tiny and methodologically uncharacteristic slice of his work, it is nonetheless presently the main point of entry into his writing on music. This paper argues that Adorno does not seek to patrol the border between the popular and high arts. Rather, for Adorno, the traditional separation of high and low arts no longer carries any meaning, as the separation of genre is now driven by the culture industry and represents little more than marketing innovation. Art music’s autonomous status is, for Adorno, paramount, as it is only autonomous art that is able to forge a creative space outside the reach of instrumental reason. This paper explores Adorno’s characterisation of ‘high’ and popular forms as the ‘torn halves of an integral freedom, to which, however, they do not add up’, offering some Adornian speculations on the possibility for popular music to signify something other than capital’s triumph over human experience.

As a sonic phenomenon, the power of music to communicate and connect within, and across cultures is well established. However, musicians’ expressive bodily movement, as the silent aspect of musical performance, can powerfully influence our perception of musical attributes, and communicate performers’ expressive and emotional intentions to an audience. Decoding the communicative mechanics of performers’ expressive bodily movements has proved a complex issue. In this paper Laban Movement Analysis, specifically effort-shape analysis, is offered as a system to study musicians’ bodily expression. It proposes others’ intentions are manifest in expressive bodily activity and understood through shared embodied processes. Sixteen audio-visual excerpts of marimba pieces performed by two professional solo marimbists’ (female and male) served as stimuli. Inter-judge reliability for effort-shape analyses was assessed through three different tasks: 1) verification task, 2) independent analysis task, and 3) signal detection yes/no task. Professional musicians, two percussionists, a violinist, and a French hornist, acted as raters. High inter-judge reliability was observed for transformation drive and shape, but not basic effort action, components of the system. Mixed interjudge reliability results for basic effort actions and, differences between frequency observations, point to differences in observer’s embodied expertise, task implementation, and training issues. Effort-shape analysis may potentially drive comparative and predictive research of a fine temporal grain regarding musicians’ bodily expression maintaining ecologically-valid performance sequences.

Keywords: Adorno; aesthetics; popular music; jazz; capitalism Format: Single paper (#250)

Keywords: bodily expression; music performance; embodied processes; Laban movement analysis; inter-judge reliability Format: Single paper (#136)

Conference Abstracts p 18

Reuben Brown

Pamela Bruder

The University of Sydney, Australia

The University of Melbourne, Australia; and Emmy Monash Aged Care, Australia

Singing and dancing them into the ground: the role of kun-borrk song in facilitating the repatriation of bones to Kunbarlanja (Oenpelli), 2011

Ageing, attunement and transformation: the role of song in changing states of consciousness and enabling meaningful human connection

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In 1948, American anthropologist Frank Setzler took bones from Injalak Hill during his stay at Kunbarlanja (then known as Oenpelli) as part of the American-Australian Scientific Expedition to Arnhem Land. 63 years later, the spirits of the bones were finally returned to their country through a re-burial ceremony that I took part in, as part of my fieldwork returning digital copies of film, photographs and musical recordings taken during the same expedition. Drawing on recordings of the ceremony and subsequent interviews with the musicians about the significance of the event, this presentation examines the crucial role of song and dance in mortuary ceremonies in Western Arnhem Land. Known in Kunwinjku, the main language spoken in the area, as kunborrk, these songs are sung until the final stages of interment of the bones, in order to manage the safe passageway of the spirits of the dead back home to their country.

My PhD research investigates individual transformation for people living in a residential aged care institution, through their participation in a community choir, approached here as a ritual performance. The themes of stigmatisation, marginalisation and bodily and cognitive decline are explored within the physical and phenomenological context of the institution. Film is a key ethnographic method used to explore communal singing, to understand the complexity of selfhood, and the factors that threaten to destabilise or sustain it. The film will demonstrate how visual methods have captured the phenomenon of individual and group unification within the choir context, including vital spontaneous interactions between people. This is perhaps the only way to explore the embodiment and meaning of communal singing for this group of socially excluded individuals, a good proportion of whom are now struggling for coherent articulation, yet articulate through means such as facial expressions, gestures, spontaneous interactions, and most beautifully, through song. Film forms the narrative for these marginalised people, taking them from a place of community exclusion, to the centre of a research framework, to explore an alternative to the reality of their current social roles, to a site where this status is suspended and clinical classifications are neutralised.

Keywords: repatriation; traditional Aboriginal music; kun-borrk; ceremony; West Arnhem Land; spirits; deceased; 1948 American-Australian Expedition to Arnhem Land (AASEAL) Format: Single paper (#258)

Keywords: stigmatisation; marginalisation; choral-articulation; transformation; inter-connectedness Format: Film (#22)

Conference Abstracts p 19

Susan Buchan

Mary Buck

Victoria University, Australia

University of New England, Australia

Marimbas, children and well-being – what’s the connection?

Why music? ✢✢✢

✢✢✢ Teaching practices in some Australian primary schools have responded to contemporary research which emphasises the value of music education in enhancing children’s development and in contributing to their well-being. However, the majority of children in Australian government primary schools have no access to music education. Teachers often lack the confidence or skills to make music with children, resulting in the perpetuation of a cycle of non-participation in music-making. This paper will discuss the responses of children to playing specially designed marimbas (large Zimbabwean-style xylophones) and non-conventional instruments in a primary school setting with Artist-In-Residence, Jon Madin. It is an approach which is participatory, accessible and inclusive. It differs from a presentational approach to music education which is more likely to place greater value on the creation of a finished artistic product. Although under-researched, the approach of Jon Madin is known and valued by a comparatively small number of practitioners in Australia and New Zealand. Data will be presented about the personal, social and cultural meanings that children make of their involvement in marimba and non-conventional instrument playing, and about the processes of social interaction and synchrony inherent in a non-scripted, aural approach to music-making. The paper will discuss the potential of such an approach to facilitate powerful music-making experiences. The implications of the participatory nature of the artist’s work for the musical development and social well-being of the participants and the community will be discussed. Keywords: children; marimbas; participatory; music-making; meaning Format: Single paper (#34)

Conference Abstracts p 20

In this paper the aim is to explore the relations between a theory of music listening that employs the cognitive emotions, and the challenges of listening to absolute music. The cognitive emotions are emotions that frame and motivate cognitive processes. As such, they are employed in the activities of thinking, remembering, and the senses. These are critical functions in listening to music. The cognitive emotions are also closely related to the notion of expression and expectation. The cognitive/emotive content of listening to absolute music is affirmed to be a dynamic of space and place. The paper will conclude with an examination of P.F. Strawson’s philosophical account of hearing sounds in alternative dimensions. Keywords: cognitive emotions; absolute music; space; philosophy Format: Single paper (#270)

Music is an outburst of the soul. Frederick Delius

Conference Abstracts p 21

Mindy Buckton

Sarah Butler

University of Victoria, Canada

The University of Sydney, Australia

Poetic and metrical complexities in ‘Letzte Hoffnung’ from Schubert’s Song Cycle Die Winterreise

Music inside the walls: a case study of Mapuche expressive culture and identity in a boarding school in southern Chile

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Franz Schubert’s song cycle Die Winterreise contains many interesting and complex compositional techniques that intensify the inherent meaning of Wilhelm Müller’s poems. As the title suggests, the storyline of the poems describes the winter’s journey of a man, forced to leave the town of his beloved in the dead of night. As the poetry unfolds, we come to understand both the physical and emotional trials the character faces. Schubert’s musical setting exploits and accentuates the subliminal meanings of the words. Using theories developed by Harald Krebs in his book, Fantasy Pieces: Metrical Dissonances in the Music of Robert Schumann, this paper develops the ways in which Schubert uses displacement and metrical dissonances within ‘Letzte Hoffnung.’ This song represents one of the emotional breaking points of the protagonist’s hopes and dreams during his journey. With the use of metrical complexities, Schubert is able to directly represent and create physical events that happen within the poem, including the wind in the trees. Schubert further enhances the poetic meaning of Müller’s poem by deviating from the basic rhythmic declamation. This paper uses terms and processes found in Yonatan Malin’s Songs in Motion: Rhythm and Meter in the German Lied. By comparing the natural stresses of the poem with the musical setting, we see how Schubert exploits the meaning of the words. ‘Letzte Hoffnung’ is a representation of the complex nature of rhythm and meter that can be found throughout Die Winterreise. Schubert’s uses of metrical dissonances illustrate his powerful enhancement of the poetry of Wilhelm Müller.

This paper examines the role of Mapuche music and dance in nurturing a sense of cultural identity among Mapuche students at the boarding school Liceo Technico Guacolda, Chol Chol, in the Temuco region of Chile, South America. The paper examines the place and significance of expressive culture in the broader school curriculum, and the impact this curriculum has on students over their six-year residence, that is, how participating in an indigenous inspired program contributes to the students’ sense of ethnic identity and their understanding of what it means to be Mapuche. Mapuche indigenous expressive culture is to date under-researched. Based on data collected during recent fieldwork, the paper discusses the effects of integrating expressive culture with educational policy.

Keywords: Franz Schubert; Die Winterreise; metrical dissonance; declamation; rhythm and meter Format: Single paper (#70)

Conference Abstracts p 22

Keywords: Mapuche; indigenous; education; expressive culture; identity Format: Mini-presentation (#32)

Genevieve Campbell

Julianna Chan

The University of Sydney, Australia

The University of Sydney, Australia

Ngariwanajirri – The Strong Kids Song: Awarra pupuni ngirramini. Awarra wurraningurimagi. This important culture. Wherever they go it’ll be with them

Mental gymnastics and ‘rainbow messes’: a case study of a young musician with synaesthesia ✢✢✢

✢✢✢ The Strong Women’s group from the Tiwi Islands, northern Australia have been singing all their lives. A collective sense of identity through their custodianship of songs keeps them strong and proud. As elders in their community they have become increasingly concerned that young Tiwi people are straddling two cultures while losing their own language and are finding it difficult to engage with ‘western’ methods of knowledge transmission. This has led to a renewed determination to preserve the song practice of the ancestors and connect the younger generation with their elders. The Strong Women believe song is the way to teach messages of empowerment while inspiring pride in Tiwi culture and language. The Strong Kids Song is the result. Together the women and their grandchildren have composed lyrics with positive messages for life as well as concepts of ancestry and connection to country. English has been translated back into Tiwi song language and old Tiwi melodies have been incorporated into new musical styles. A hip-hop dance mix samples a recording made in 1912, bringing together Tiwi voices that span a century. In this presentation the Tiwi Strong Women will share and sing their story of producing a song that speaks across generations. Keywords: Tiwi; song; preservation; culture; language Format: Performance (#224)

The neurological phenomenon known as chromaesthesia is a form of synaesthesia (cross-modal perception) in which sounds elicit a coloured, visual experience. This study seeks to understand the implications synaesthesia poses on musical learning experiences by exploring the chromaesthetic idiosyncrasies of a 17-year-old music student, ‘Audrey’, who plays the viola da gamba and majors in composition. Through a series of interviews and observation sessions, it became clear that Audrey possesses multiple forms of synaesthesia that evoke a complex interplay of shapes and colours when she interacts with music. Preliminary analysis of the data has found significant themes that suggest crossmodal perception holds the potential to serve as creative inspiration, and act as an aid for memorisation, pitch and interval recognition, tuning, and textural understanding. Whilst the educational advantages outweigh the disadvantages in this participant’s case, the issue of poor concentration and additional cognitive confusion was also apparent. This study set out to explore the implications synaesthesia poses on music education, but in doing so, has also found that music education has clear implications on the participant’s synaesthesia. Audrey has perceived auditory information visually her whole life, and she describes the experience as a ‘rainbow mess’. However, when she is analytically aware of what she is hearing the colours become less ambiguous; thus her knowledge of musical concepts has helped clarify what she experiences visually. Audrey has a keen interest in the creative arts and has a particularly powerful connection to music that is mediated through her synaesthesia. Keywords: synaesthesia; music education; perception; multisensory processing; learning aids Format: Mini-presentation (#74) and Poster (#74P)

Conference Abstracts p 23

Ian Chapman

Jade Chen

University of Otago, New Zealand

Nanyang Technological University, Singapore

David Bowie looks a scream – hang him on my wall

‘You’ve got such great/horrible taste in music!’: a sociological analysis of music taste

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Pictures convey information to a viewer at several levels of cognition, ranging from shallow and obvious to deep and subtle. Twelve-inch, 33rpm record covers offer performers a unique canvas through which they can visually communicate themes central to their music. This paper is an iconographical analysis of the cover of David Bowie’s third album, The Man Who Sold The World. The carefully contrived image, created in 1971, one year prior to the artist becoming established as a bona fide (glam) rock star via his breakthrough album The Rise and Fall of Ziggy Stardust and the Spiders from Mars, was pivotal in the initial development and early establishment of the artist’s now widely celebrated methodology. As has often been the subject of scholarly debate, the image of the artist reclining in a dress confronted head-on the heteronormative gender image of rock stars of the day. In addition, however, and providing the primary focus of this paper, it visually situated the artist within a specific context borrowed from art history, Pre-Raphaelite art. My analysis of Bowie’s parodistic picture considers its adherence to and/ or deviation from the conventions of Pre-Raphaelite art and also aligns it to the iconic femme fatale figure as represented within art history. I seek to determine to what degree the borrowed context preloaded Bowie’s image with inferences that, while historical, were nevertheless still pertinent to his cause. In addition, I explore the notion that the true power of the album cover lies in the interplay between the front cover image and the seldom-regarded photograph that appears on the rear of the cover.

We all have our favourite music; the CD-rack containing an eclectic mix of punk, soul and classical or perhaps a rare collector’s treasure trove of vintage jazz albums. We display them lovingly, proudly, proclaiming silently to fortunate visitors: this is my personal collection of music, my musical taste, and this is who I really am! Often, an emotional reaction to the music we love, or come to love, is reason enough. But just what is considered a good or bad ‘taste’ in music? It is precisely because emotional impulses can be so arbitrary that musical likes (and dislikes) can become somewhat impervious to conscious thought. Musical taste as conceptualised here runs contrary to popular belief that one’s taste is a stylised expression of uniqueness. Instead, I hope, through a sociological perspective, to transcend the subjective realm and demonstrate that this ‘taste’ is at once personal and social.

Keywords: iconography; art history; rock; David Bowie; Pre-Raphaelite Format: Single paper (#1)

Conference Abstracts p 24

Keywords: music; sociology; taste; context; consumption Format: Mini-presentation (#248)

Tan Chyuan Chin Nikki Rickard Monash University, Australia

Emotion regulation as a mediator of the relation between music engagement and well-being

Andrew Cichy University of Oxford, United Kingdom

Music, martyrdom and metamorphism: the transforming power of music in a seventeenth-century English seminary

✢✢✢ ✢✢✢ Music is increasingly recognised for its positive effects on health and well-being. In our earlier study, high levels of music engagement and listening were associated with favourable and adaptive emotion regulation strategies. This follow-up study further examines the relationship between active music engagement and well-being, and whether emotion regulation mediates this relationship. Music engagement was assessed via the 32-item Music USE (MUSE) Questionnaire, which measures both quality and quantity dimensions of active music production and reception. Participants also completed a battery of well-being measures which comprised of the World Health Organization Quality of Life – BREF, a measure of physical and psychological health, environmental and social relations; Mental Health Continuum – SF, a measure of emotional, social and psychological well-being; Depression Anxiety Stress Scales, as well as the International Positive and Negative Affect Schedule Short-Form and the Satisfaction With Life Scale. The Emotion Regulation Questionnaire assessed both self-regulatory strategies, Reappraisal and Suppression. It is predicted that high levels of music engagement would be positively correlated with the various measures of psychosocial well-being, and that these relationships would be mediated by adaptive emotion regulatory strategies. Data collection is currently ongoing and findings will be discussed at the conference. The results of this study can further elucidate how active engagement with music, as a means of regulating mood, may be able to promote positive health and mental well-being. Furthermore, the findings may provide more support for the value of active use of music in community and therapeutic settings.

For students at the College of St. Alban in Valladolid, passing by graphic paintings of their martyred classmates in the College’s corridors – and sometimes also receiving their dismembered remains – must have made them very conscious of the horrors that awaited them on their return to the English Mission. Martyrdom – gruesome and confronting when cast in purely human terms – was reconceptualised in the College as a result of its association with music, which served as both the crucial adornment in solemnising liturgical ceremonies and, in the hands of the College’s Jesuit administration, as a special tool for teaching the students to internalise and meditate upon particular religious texts. Music was also used to inform, condition and reframe emotional responses to representations of martyrdom in ways that aligned closely with privileged discourses on suffering and death. The musical aspects of the College’s devotion to La Vulnerata – a statue of the Virgin defaced by English troops at Cadiz – demonstrate how images of suffering can be transformed into objects for veneration and emulation. Research on music in English seminaries has often been reduced to a catalogue of musicians employed with some speculation about the kinds of music that they played. Taking the influence of music on life at St. Alban’s College, Valladolid, during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries as its point of departure, this paper will critically evaluate the role of music in preparing seminary priests emotionally and spiritually for the English Mission. Keywords: reformation; diaspora; martyrdom; art; education Format: Single paper (#37)

Keywords: music engagement; emotion regulation; well-being; mental health; music listening Format: Mini-presentation (#131) and Poster (#131P)

Conference Abstracts p 25

Eric Clarke

Sue Cole

University of Oxford, United Kingdom

The University of Melbourne, Australia

Music, virtual space, and subjectivity: an auditory proxemics

R.R. Terry and the revival of early music at Downside Abbey: a reassessment

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The microphone and recording studio have made possible a powerful acousmatic domain of virtual spatial relationships between performers and listeners. These relationships have obvious consequences for the ‘staging’ of recorded music, but more significantly are a means of conveying or constructing a range of subject positions for the listener that have powerful psychological consequences. A number of other authors have discussed the impact of perceived spatialisation, with a particular focus on the human voice, including Nicola Dibben, Serge Lacasse, Allan Moore, and Trevor Wishart. Framed within an ecological approach to perception, I outline a theory of ‘auditory proxemics’ – based on the theory of proxemics developed by Edward Hall, but which has so far not been developed in an auditory or specifically musical domain. The paper combines principles of proxemics with ideas derived from conceptual metaphor theory to illustrate and explain the ways in which the relative position in virtual space of a musical source (often the voice, but not only the voice) can create powerful psychological effects. Focusing on a number of specific sound examples, the paper will make the case for auditorily perceived spatial proximity as not the symptom, but the cause, of a range of powerful intersubjective psychological phenomena. It is particularly the technologies of the modern recording studio that make these effects possible, and which constitute a new, powerful, and increasingly imaginatively exploited musical resource.

Richard Runciman Terry is widely recognised as one of the driving forces behind the revival of early English sacred music at the turn of the twentieth-century. While Terry’s most important contribution was at Westminster Cathedral (19011924), he revived Byrd’s Mass for Five Voices, Tallis’s Lamentations and other similar works while he was music master at Downside Abbey. Hilda Andrews, in her Westminster Retrospect, a source still heavily quoted in most studies of Terry, tells how the pile of editions of early music that Terry prepared at Downside ‘mounted higher and higher’, and reports revivals not only of the works already mentioned, but of ‘Taverner’s Western Wynde, the Gradualia and Cantiones Sacrae of Byrd and Philips, motets by Tye, Shepherd, etc.’ Yet a careful examination of contemporary reports of Terry’s activities at Downside presents a rather different picture. He published relatively few editions of early English music, which are heavily dependent upon the work of others, particularly William Barclay Squire. Similarly, the Downside repertoire, although unarguably extremely adventurous for the time, is less extensive than was later claimed. In this paper, I will present a less flattering and more realistic assessment of Terry’s revivals of early repertoire, both at Downside and in his early years at Westminster Cathedral. In the process, however, I hope to give a clearer sense of just how foreign and difficult this music was, and, paradoxically, of the significance of Terry’s contribution to its revival.

Keywords: virtual space; subjectivity; proxemics; metaphor Format: Single paper (#208)

Conference Abstracts p 26

Keywords: Tudor music; church music; early music revivals; English music; historiography Format: Single paper (#138)

Alisabeth Concord

Nicholas Cook

University of Victoria, Canada

University of Cambridge, United Kingdom

Victoria’s sacred spaces: musical events and the shaping of community in a late-nineteenthcentury Canadian frontier town

Beyond hidden persuasion

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Following an Adornian approach that was already obsolete in the social sciences, the ‘New’ musicologists of the 1990s saw social meaning as encoded within scores. As a result, their enlarged disciplinary agenda did not do justice to music’s ability to construct social relationships. There are various ways in which music does this. For example it can create contexts within which community can be forged; it can act as a symbol of community; and it can enact community in the real time of performance. The last of these is a particularly appealing idea, because it implies a direct cross-mapping of musical and social relationships, and this is the vision that underlies such utopian projects as the South Oxney Community Choir or the West-East Divan Orchestra. In my paper I develop this idea through exploring the parallels between music and two other environments within which social relationships are constructed. The first is virtual worlds, within which real-life behaviours, socialities, and meanings are reconfigured in contrafactual ways for purposes of personal or collective discovery. The second is the built environment: architecture and urban planning can be seen as scripting social interactions in much the same way as musical scores do. Yet a sober assessment of projects for conflict resolution through music reveals more woolly optimism than concrete achievement: the musical enactment of community may be of less significance in its own right than for the symbolic capital it brings to social action in the real world.

In many societies, musicians have functioned as mobile cultural capital, defying boundaries of race, ethnicity, and background to make music together. A perfect example of this phenomenon can be found in the musical life surrounding religious institutions in colonial Victoria, located in present day British Columbia. Late-nineteenth-century Victoria was a relatively new and fairly cosmopolitan British outpost struggling to define itself within the context of North America and against the backdrop of the British Empire. While churches, temples, and synagogues could be places of separation, many of their public events served to bring together disparate members of the community, particularly through the medium of music. This paper will scrutinise two musical events connected to Victoria’s religious institutions: the 1863 consecration of the Congregation Emanu-El Synagogue and the dedication concert of the Church of Our Lord in 1876. After briefly setting the scene of both events, this paper will unpack the impact that each had upon the creation of community within the racially plural town of Victoria, as evidenced by the attendees, participating musicians, repertoire, and reception in local newspapers, lore, and diaries. This presentation will conclude by taking a look at the different ways in which the modern congregations of these institutions are currently displaying, talking about, and using this musical history to define their place in Victoria’s joint community history. This talk will uncover fascinating musical events, while at the same time raising issues of cultural consciousness, intermixing, and community within the context of Victoria’s late-nineteenth-century soundscape.

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Keywords: social relationships; virtual worlds; built environment; community Format: Keynote paper (#281)

Keywords: musical events; Victoria; nineteenth-century; religious institutions; community Format: Single paper (#120)

Conference Abstracts p 27

Georg Corall

Imogen Coward

The University of Western Australia, Australia

University of New England, Australia

Ann Coward Independent scholar, Australia

The ‘Sonsfeld Collection’ – music for ‘Hautboisten’ ✢✢✢ ‘Hautboisten’ are known to be one of the most important groups supplying musical and ceremonial entertainment in German speaking countries at the beginning of the eighteenth-century. Derived from the name ‘hautbois’ (=oboe), which in France was used for any high doublereed instrument during the centuries before and after the baroque era, the term ‘Hautboisten’ has often been translated by contemporary researchers as ‘oboe band’. Indeed, when musicians started focusing on one instrument alone at the end of the eighteenth-century, these groups developed into wind bands known as ‘Harmoniemusik’; however, in earlier periods ‘Hautboisten’ were trained to play a number of different wind instruments as well as string instruments. The investigation of music for ‘Hautboisten’ – particularly the ‘Sonsfeld Collection’ – and the study of the employment situations for these broadly educated musicians, will provide insights into the functional and representative music at courts, in church, in the battle field and at any other occasion where music was required. A distinction between ‘Hautboisten’ and musicians of the ‘Capelle’ or the ‘Stadtpfeifer’, for example, is often difficult to discern as their work fields overlapped and on many occasions they played together. Analysis will draw conclusions on the balance of instrumentation showing that the modern view of a ‘typical Baroque Orchestra’, that is a string orchestra of possibly eight violins, three violas, two violoncellos and one double bass, with a harpsichord for the Basso continuo and two oboes and one bassoon added for tone colour, was the exception rather than the norm. Keywords: Hautboisten; Sonsfeld Collection; oboe band; orchestration; military music Format: Single paper (#102)

Conference Abstracts p 28

‘The heart that feels music will feel people’: rethinking the concept of the transformative power of music in the writings and practices of Shinichi Suzuki ✢✢✢ In the 2011 film, Mrs Carey’s Concert, by the Australian award-winning documentary maker Bob Connolly, Karen Carey is driven by a belief that music has a transformative power, a widely held notion that can be traced to the writings of Plato some 3,000 years ago. One of the twentiethcentury’s greatest music educators, Shinichi Suzuki, is often quoted as saying that it was through music that children might attain sensibilité and that this was linked to his desire to develop ‘character first, ability second’ in the education of children. These features, and the centrality of music to his aspirations, are directly linked to Suzuki’s own education and the period in which he lived. Yet, given that many examples may be found of ‘great’ composers and performers who are worthy of admiration musically, but are of dubious merit in other facets of their lives, one should perhaps question whether and in what way exposure to ‘fine’ music might facilitate transformation. If, for example, pedagogues such as Suzuki had been as familiar with Mozart’s scatological songs as he was with his other works, would he have hoped that by studying Mozart’s music one might ‘catch his heart’? Through engaging with Suzuki’s writings, the paper will argue that the difficulties in reconciling the goal and approach derives from an incomplete picture of Suzuki’s view of the role and power of music. Keywords: high art; transformative power; Suzuki; philosophy Format: Single paper (#196)

Leon Coward Imogen Coward Taliesin Coward University of New England, Australia

Kelly Curran Jonathan Paget Edith Cowan University, Australia

Alice in Wonderland: from nonsense to nonsensical

Off the pedestal: an exploration of postmodernism and the string quartet

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It has taken Carroll’s Alice in Wonderland a little over a century from being regarded as nonsense, to become nonsensical, as is so vividly highlighted by the book’s songs/poems. Kenneth Rothwell, in his History of Shakespeare on Screen, lists seven kinds of derivatives a film may take when a literary work is adapted for the screen, none of which presupposes ‘accuracy’ with the original text. While the Disney adaptation may take credit for much of the confusion in the modern mind (even to the point where David Crystal accredits the Mad Hatter with the concept of a Happy Unbirthday), we need to look further afield to understand the failure of present-day audience’s to connect with the aesthetic of Carroll’s book. Adaptation for subsequent generations of a book Carroll wrote for an audience who were well-versed in the songs he was parodying, and who were informed about the people and events to whom references were being made, demands interpretation. While visually, iconic images from Alice may still be employed to satirise people and events, the power of the songs/poems has been lost in transmission, such that they now bemuse rather than amuse. The paper draws upon resources outlining the reception of Carroll’s book in his time, and attempts to examine the failure of the songs to resonate with today’s ‘audiences’, while other works written at the same time, notably those of Gilbert and Sullivan, have continued to be relevant.

There is something powerful about the string quartet as a genre: encompassing the four ranges of the human voice, and like an orchestra in miniature, it offers unique flexibility and expressive possibilities. Indeed, many of the great composers have written their most seminal masterpieces for this idiom. But the very prestige of the string quartet is also its potential undoing. Symbolic of the elitism of a passing era, many professional string quartets in the late twentiethcentury restricted their repertoire to canonical works, refusing to engage with new music, and facing the growing reality of ever-dwindling audiences. In recent decades, however, a small number of professional string quartets have dared to be different, bringing the string quartet ‘off the pedestal’ (so to speak) to experiment with alternate performance venues, embrace technology and multimedia, and explore improvisation, or cross over into popular musical genres such as jazz and rock. Following in the wake of Kronos, a host of new quartets, from Balanescu to Turtle Island or Fourplay, have taken the string quartet into new realms of musical postmodernism. These groups have reinjected new life into the string quartet, garnered new audiences, and ultimately contributed to the continued viability of the idiom. Keywords: string quartets; postmodernism; relevance; genre-mixing; genre-defying; technology Format: Single paper (#189)

Keywords: Alice in Wonderland; song; interpretation; parody; Victorian era Format: Mini-presentation (#190) and Poster (#190P)

Conference Abstracts p 29

Mudzunga Junniah Davhula University of Pretoria, South Africa

Indigenous music healing: a case study of Vhavenda musical practices in South Africa

Jane W. Davidson The University of Western Australia, Australia

Music and mourning ✢✢✢

✢✢✢ The presence of ancestral spirits is widely acclaimed amongst the Vhavenda, a culture group in the northern region of Limpopo province, South Africa. Among the Vhavenda, it is believed that the ancestral spirits of the chiefs transmigrate, that the soul of the dead pass on to occupy other living bodies. The state of being possessed by the ancestral spirits provides individuals with the highest socio-political and religious status. Among the Vhavenda the ancestral spirits are believed to exert a great influence on the living. The ancestors protect the interests of their descendants and possess special powers which they can wield to bring about illness and misfortunes to their descendants who fail to venerate them. Such a close relationship between the living and the dead is demonstrated through a number of rituals. One such ritual is called malombo, a dance which is only performed by the non-royal kinship groups within Vhavenda. It is indisputable that the current engagement with the dance is as old as the origins of the Vhavenda tradition. Although malombo is a common practice amongst Vhavenda, there is no sufficient understanding of its fundamental relationship to music. This paper will demonstrate that indigenous Vhavenda music (an integrated form of dance, music and drumming) plays a significant role in the malombo ceremony, and that music in traditional healers’ religious ceremonies affects the patient both spiritually and physically, transforming a person’s spiritual state. Keywords: Vhavenda; South Africa; possession; healing Format: Single paper (#38)

Conference Abstracts p 30

In this one and a half hour collaboratory, participants will discuss the role of music in mourning rituals across time and culture. Key questions include: How do we use music to modify our thoughts and feelings about loss? How did we do it in the past and how will we do so in the future? This collaboratory will investigate the use of music in a variety of ceremonial and formal contexts as well as more family-oriented and personal contexts that surround mourning. This discussion is timely, considering the following: i) Our knowledge of the strong emotional use and function of music in previous times and cultures; and ii) The power of music in everyday experiences across cultures to generate as well as regulate intense emotional experiences – offering the opportunity for expression as well as social affiliation between peer groups. The discussion will include historical investigations to explore the use and function of music for mourning across different periods and places (1600 to present day) focusing mainly on European heritage. It will also include presentations drawing out the relevance of music to mourning in contemporary Australian Society by looking at Indigenous and migrant cultural groups through anthropological investigations. The session will also explore experimental approaches that have employed several kinds of survey techniques and are based on psychology research paradigms. Keywords: mourning; emotion; history; psychology Format: ARC Centre of Excellence for the History of Emotions Collaboratory

Jane W. Davidson

Brian Dawson

The University of Western Australia, Australia

The University of Western Australia, Australia

Text, rhythm, gesture: emotional meaning and communication in sacred and theatrical European music, 1600-1750

Peter Stone (1930-2003) and the book of the American musical ✢✢✢

✢✢✢ Presented in two parts, this three hour session is based on the collaboratory practices adopted in Science. European vocal music (specifically Italian, French, German and English) created for sacred and theatrical contexts, spanning the period 1600-1750 is investigated focusing on practices for conveying emotion through musical means. Inevitably, this project reassesses previous views on ‘authentic’ meaning and performance practices in light of new insights from readings of historical documents on philosophy, the science of music, performance etiquette, gesture and poetry. The central focus will be to investigate what sorts of communication were intended for affective outcomes at the point of composition and how these intentions were realised. Discussion will go on to explore the means through which contemporary twenty-first-century performers can achieve convincing emotional communication of the repertoire, making it meaningful to contemporary audiences. In this session, there will be formal contributions from top international researchers and practitioners: Emeritus Professor David Tunley; Dr Andrew Lawrence-King; Dr Rosalind Halton; Dr Janice Stockigt; Dr Alan Maddox and Dr Samantha Owens. Keywords: voice; text; gesture; historical performance practices Format: ARC Centre of Excellence for the History of Emotions Collaboratory

The American musical stage has a tradition stretching back to the beginning of the eighteenth-century. Its popularity has never waned, and in 2008/09 the Broadway League reported sales of 9.6 million tickets followed by a further 14.2 million tickets when those shows toured nationally. Despite this popularity, or perhaps because of it, studies in musical theatre have been slow to emerge, restricted mostly to history, musicological analysis, sociological scholarship (especially gender and race studies), and some performance analysis. A comprehensive study of the field has not been undertaken, due in part to the absence of scholarship on a key element – the libretto, or the book as its writers prefer to call it. Peter Stone (1930-2003) was one of the few writers who maintained a living by writing books for the American musical theatre. The son of movie producer John Stone, his early success in television and film led to Emmy and Oscar Awards (1962 and 1964), before Broadway gained his full attention. With the Tony Award success of 1776 in 1969 he became the first writer to hold all three prestigious awards. This mini-presentation is built on archival research of the Peter Stone papers, recently made available at the New York Public Library, and it chronicles the career of one of Broadway’s leading exponents of book-writing. Significantly, it provides insight into the role of the book, and suggests this overarching structure may provide explanation for the success of many works of musical theatre that do not generally withstand musicological scrutiny. Keywords: musical theatre; book; libretto; Broadway; Peter Stone Format: Mini-presentation (#202)

Conference Abstracts p 31

Craig De Wilde National University of Singapore, Singapore

Roger T. Dean Freya Bailes University of Western Sydney, Australia

Finding the Singaporean groove: The Quests and the rise and fall of the local rock music industry from 1963-1971

Influences of intensity and other acoustic and structural features on perception of musical affect

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Prior to the 1960s, the performance of both folk and popular music in Singapore was dominated by a variety of ethnic musical traditions, including Chinese, Indian Malays, and Tamil. In particular, the Peranakans – Chinese immigrant merchants who were loyal to Britain and among the more elite classes in Singapore from the sixteenth-century onwards – were especially notable for their use of English language verses in Malay-inspired folk tunes. It was not until 1963 that a local music industry started to emerge, with young Singaporean musicians inspired by the recordings of Chubby Checker, The Ventures, The Blue Diamonds, Neil Sedaka, Paul Anka, Pat Boone, and especially Cliff Richard and the Shadows. What these young local musicians lacked in technical musical skills they more than made up for with their enthusiasm, and a number of guitar-based bands were formed throughout Singapore. By far the most successful of these bands was The Quests, consisting of the standard rock quartet of lead / rhythm / bass guitars and drumkit. The Quests was the first Singaporean rock group to compose and record the country’s first number one hit, ‘Shanty’, as well as recording the first ever long-playing record produced in Singapore. This presentation will look at the history and development of this group and their influence on Singaporean rock music of the period, as well as examining the perceived threats and later official pressures brought to bear on the local rock music industry by government sanctions in the early 1970s.

We have recently applied in depth time series analysis techniques to show that the continuous profiles of musical intensity and to a lesser degree spectral flatness are significant predictors of the perceived affective qualities of several works studied. We followed this up by a causal perturbation study, in which the predicted impact of intensity on perceived affect (notably arousal) was confirmed (in collaboration with Emery Schubert) when the profile of a Dvorak Slavonic Dance was inverted, and when the original profile was applied to three other stylistically heterogenous pieces. We describe some of this work together with subsequent developments. The latter concern differences in perception with varying musical expertise; time series studies on a wide range of pieces, including music from non-Western traditions, improvised music, and performance text works (in collaboration with Hazel Smith); and a comparative assessment of the role of spectral centroid. Our studies of Trevor Wishart’s classic electroacoustic work Red Bird show an important impact of specific categories of animistic sounds; these operated as musical agents in the perception of affect. These studies are followed up by our new work in relation to possible agency of soloist-orchestra protagonist roles, and of formal large-scale structural features. The power of the analytical approach to reveal empirically assessable potential causal relationships is demonstrated.

Keywords: Singapore; rock music; The Quests; guitar band; music industry

Format: Single paper (#162)

Format: Single paper (#230)

Conference Abstracts p 32

Keywords: affect; acoustic properties; music; performance text; time series analysis

Helen Dell

Cynthia-Louise Dellit

The University of Melbourne, Australia

The University of Newcastle, Australia

The voice of the past: the power of song for nostalgia

The building blocks of artistry: does auditory biography influence a musician’s perception of patterns of emphasis in live music performance?

✢✢✢ My paper will consider the power of music, in particular vocal music, to evoke nostalgia in listeners, even when the past to which the music belongs has no bearing on their personal past. The singing voice calls to an unidentified othertime, when, we feel, we were at rest. The theoretical framework for the paper is psychoanalytic theory. Jacques Lacan added two more to Freud’s objects of the drive: the gaze and the voice. Lacan called them ‘object-causes of desire’, referring to the duplicitous nature of the supposed object. What lures desire in the form of an object is really its cause, what drives desire on. No real object can ever satisfy desire and so desire is eternal. Nostalgia, as a longing for the past, is necessarily unsatisfiable. Yet, listeners (myself included) keep heeding the call, listening to particular recordings many times over, and each time re-experiencing the sense of something missing, a loss that cannot be made good. For those of us afflicted in this way something draws us back, we keep looking for something that cannot be explained in terms of any tangible aspect of the song. There is, for me, a continuing puzzle; the song is always more than the sum of its parts and that something more eludes comprehension. My paper will explore, through the lens of Lacanian theorisations of the voice as object-cause of desire, the intense power of the singing voice to evoke a lost past. Keywords: nostalgia; psychoanalysis; voice; song; desire Format: Single paper (#277)

✢✢✢ A musician’s ability to express and communicate emotional nuance in solo and ensemble contexts is a major contributor to performance success. If one accepts that these aspects occupy a significant role in the practice of music performance, it becomes essential for musicians to develop the ability to execute micro-expressional nuances and have the auditory acuity to perceive and adapt to them with other instrumentalists in ensemble contexts. There is much anecdotal evidence connecting the instrument genre and pitch family of a performer’s instrument of specialisation with their auditory acuity. This study is investigating accenting or emphasis as an interpretive tool for the performer, as well as forms of involuntary and perceptual accenting that can compromise a performer’s artistic intention and efficacy of communication in ensemble contexts. The perception of accenting patterns is being investigated using live instrumental performance of complex music as the trial stimuli and expert listeners as trial subjects. Data gathered will be analysed to see if there is an affect discernable for the instrument played by participants, or the pitch family of instrument played (high pitch vs. low pitch), ensemble experience and length of study. Previous trials investigating accent perception have mainly been conducted in clinically controlled environments using synthetically generated sound events as the musical stimuli. The current model seeks to capture perceptual data using ecologically valid stimuli resulting from an acoustic environment of live instrumental performance, a novel aspect which brings with it all the complexities and variables of a natural performance setting as well as the possibility of findings that are relevant to practising musicians. Keywords: auditory biography; accenting; perception; emotional nuance; communication Format: Single paper (#279)

Conference Abstracts p 33

Louise Denson

Andrew Deruchie

Griffith University, Australia

University of Otago, New Zealand

Bittersweet salsa: living in between jazz and Latin music communities

Saint-Saëns, eclecticism, and the Third Symphony

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This presentation will feature an original composition which reflects my involvement with jazz and Afro-Cuban music. It will serve as a springboard for an examination of my experiences playing in Latin dance orchestras in Montreal in the 1990s, and the enduring effect this has had on my musical identity. Using personal memory as a primary data source and an autoethnographic method, I seek to understand my experience within the context of the jazz and Latin music communities in which I lived and worked. While many jazz musicians worked in salsa and merengue orchestras, these were usually regarded as ‘money gigs’ and as separate from jazz, the musicians’ main area of interest. There was also a clear social divide between the two communities. My involvement with the Latin community went far beyond playing a few ‘money gigs’ as I learned to speak Spanish, musically directed a number of bands and projects, and counted several of my band mates among my close friends. Afro-Cuban music is a key influence in my music today. But straddling these two professional and personal worlds was sometimes uncomfortable and often confusing as I experienced variously both inclusion and isolation.

Documentary evidence and contextual factors suggest that behind Saint-Saëns’s Third Symphony (1886) lurked French Wagnerism, then at its apogee. Although the composer admired much in Wagner, he considered the Wagnerian rigid dogmatism and restrictive historicism to be despotic. In this paper, I argue that the symphony polemically countered this with an aesthetic of eclecticism, manifest in its form and narrative, which embodied a more inclusive aesthetic rooted in French intellectual tradition. Critics have often noted the symphony’s use of ‘thematic transformation’. I show that Saint-Saëns underpinned the large-scale form of the symphony with another technique which he derived from Liszt’s symphonic poems. In this process, the formal and tonal premises of the syntactically incomplete first movement develop through the inner movements and resolve in the finale. The four movements of the cycle thus express a sustained, overarching form. The symphony’s narrative similarly hinges on the assimilation of difference. Throughout, transformations of the main theme alternate with passages featuring timbres traditionally foreign to the genre – organ and piano – or ‘anachronistic’ pastiches of baroque idioms (which historically antedate the genre) and Wagner’s (putatively post-symphonic) Tristan style. In the finale, the main theme assimilates these eclecticisms to bring about a spectacular apotheosis in the tonic major, the symphony’s telos. I juxtapose Saint Saëns’s work with the thought of Victor Cousin, the influential father of French eclecticism. Cousin sought to transcend particular viewpoints by recognising a broad range of philosophical positions, with an eye to providing a basis for unity in a divided nation. The symphony advocates a similarly inclusive cultural politics by way of its genre-mixing form and its narrative (in which Wagner became but one stylistic element among many), which together celebrate plurality and allegorise its transformative potential.

Keywords: autoethnography; jazz; Latin music; identity; community Format: Single paper (#119)

Keywords: Saint-Saëns; Third Symphony; form; eclecticism; narrative Format: Single paper (#109)

Conference Abstracts p 34

Samantha Dieckmann

Cheryl Dileo

The University of Sydney, Australia

Temple University, United States of America

Filipino, Sudanese and Anglo-Australian musical identities: community music, social capital and acculturation in Blacktown

Cochrane reviews concerning music interventions ✢✢✢

✢✢✢ Various studies have identified the power of music in the re-establishment of individual and collective identity postmigration. In particular it has been found that music has the ability to: provide a metaphorical space for the socially displaced; facilitate emotional expression as a coping mechanism; and enable the construction of imagined ethnicallybased communities. Building on this body of literature, this paper draws on acculturation theory to examine the power of music in identity formation during resettlement. Acculturation considers the changes enacted in (initially) culturally distinct communities as a result of cultural exchanges, and the various strategies that the host and migrant communities can use in response to migration. The strategy either group chooses is dependent on two primary issues: the extent to which maintaining heritage culture and identity is prioritised; and the extent to which the groups seek relationship with one another. This paper investigates the role of music in the acculturation of the Filipino, Sudanese and Anglo-Australian communities in Blacktown, New South Wales. In what contexts do these communities practice music of their heritage culture and identity, and in what contexts do they engage in musical experiences with each other? In what ways do these musical experiences inform their preferred acculturation strategies? Can music be used as social capital to address the economic, numerical or political power differences that identify these communities as either ‘dominant’ or ‘non-dominant’? This paper addresses these questions in the preliminary findings of a qualitative multi-case study conducted in 2011.

This presentation offers information on emerging evidencebased clinical practice and research concerning music interventions with individuals who have heart disease, are receiving mechanical ventilation, have cancer, have acquired brain injury, are terminally ill or who are awaiting surgery. This information comes from the findings of six new Cochrane reviews co-authored by the presenter. Cochrane reviews examine research evidence on interventions using agreed upon criteria for quality evaluation. The steps involved in Cochrane reviews will be described briefly. Procedures for the analyses will be described, and a summary of the results of the reviews will be presented. A distinction will be made regarding the two main categories of music interventions for medical patients found in the reviews: music medicine and music therapy. Recommendations for future research, via a research agenda, will be presented. This agenda will include important topics and areas for future research that have been neglected in the literature thus far. In addition, considerations for future research methodology and designs will be emphasised to enhance the evidencebase in the field. Keywords: Cochrane reviews; clinical application; music therapy Format: Themed panel (#214)

Keywords: community music; identity; migration; acculturation; social capital Format: Single paper (#167)

Conference Abstracts p 35

Cheryl Dileo

Steve Dillon

Temple University, United States of America

Queensland University of Technology, Australia

Andrew R. Brown Griffith University, Australia

The power of music at end of life

Applying meaningful engagement theory to music making and well-being

✢✢✢ ✢✢✢ In this presentation, the emotional power of music within a music therapy context will be described as it contributes in a unique way to the achievement of a ‘good death’. Starting from a scientific perspective, the results of a recent Cochrane review (co-authored by the presenter) concerning the outcomes of music therapy interventions for hospice patients are reported. Following, a description and conceptual model of the various functions of music to both evoke and contain emotion is presented. The role of music in eliciting and enhancing the identification and expression of emotions relevant to ‘relationship completion’ is emphasised, as these are considered essential tasks at end of life. Specifically, the power of music in illuminating one’s identity, relationships, spirituality and legacy are suggested. Also discussed are the functions of music in maintaining emotional connections with loved ones prior to and following death and in facilitating the dying process. Time permitting, a brief case study will be presented. Implications for future practice and research are suggested. Keywords: music; terminal illness; palliative care; music therapy; emotion Format: Single paper (#21)

This paper examines the development of theory that supports observation, description and measurement of meaningful engagement with music making. A research tool called the meaningful engagement matrix was devised by combining research that studied the creative engagement of professional composers (Brown) and children’s experiences of meaning in music activity (Dillon). This analytical tool has been refined and tested in multiple contexts in twelve countries through a large CRC funded project over a four-year period. This has been primarily achieved through embedding the theory in the experience design of generative audiovisual performance software called jam2jam. The theoretical model influenced the design of the software and of user experiences to enable increased participation and accessibility for young people and the disabled. New perspectives on data collection and analysis emerged that were made possible by eData mining, improvised performance data logging, and audiovisual recording that document creative choices and interactions between players. When combined with existing musicological and ethnomusicological methods these approaches provide an increased capacity to examine the phenomenon of meaningful engagement that has emergent implications for music learning and well-being. This paper suggests that the use of this theoretical model lays in the capacity to identify meaning and engagement that leads to flow which in turn provides the opportunity to maximise participation, understanding and well-being. Insights gained from data analysis assist in iterating experience design to better target the effect upon well-being for participants and the structure and pedagogy of learning or therapy. Keywords: jam2jam; generative systems; meaningful engagement; improvisation; eData mining Format: Single paper (#240)

Conference Abstracts p 36

Conference Abstracts p 36

Performing and listening to great music allows us a few moments to walk with the gods. Emeritus Professor David Tunley

Conference Abstracts p 37

Joanna Drimatis

Roslyn Dunlop

The University of Sydney, Australia

The University of Newcastle, Australia

Exploring melody in Symphony No. 1 by Robert Hughes

Music from the ancestors: the traditional music of East Timor, a hidden culture. Can it survive?

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When we listen to a piece of music for the first time what do we hear? What key element in music can affect our emotions and the way we come to understand a new musical work? For Australian composer Robert Hughes (1912-2007), it was the creation of melody that inspired his compositional approach. There is richness and vitality in Robert Hughes’s compositions, and this is evident in his exploration of form, thematic ideas and understanding of tonality. The music of Hughes inhabits a tonal realm where chromaticism and modal ambiguities cause subtle twists of aural expectation. His melodies are driven by short motives and unrelenting ostinato figures. These are key elements found in the music of Bartók, Prokofiev and Roussel, and they hint at a symphonic tradition outside the realms of the more obvious Austro-German convention. Symphony No.1 (1951, rev.1971) by Robert Hughes is a work that could be seen as a major contribution to the Australian orchestral repertory. The work was written for the Commonwealth Jubilee Competition in 1951, was awarded second prize and received attention from such distinguished conductors as Sir John Barbirolli and Sir Eugene Goossens. The purpose of this talk is to explore the use of melody in Hughes’s first symphony, with special attention to the application of modal influences, pitch construction and phrase structure. This discussion will provide a deeper understanding of an important Australian symphony and contribute to preserving and promoting Australia’s musical heritage.

The traditional music of East Timor is a hidden culture whose survival is precarious after decades of occupation under the Indonesians – and prior to that the Portuguese. The influence of these occupiers has had some influence on the music that is identified as the traditional music of East Timor. During the past decade of rebuilding the country from ground zero, there is a desire to homogenise with the rest of the world, particularly by the youth of East Timor. The influence of the new set of foreigners in East Timor, the UN and hundreds of NGOS from all over the world, is also impacting on the traditional culture of East Timor. Dili, the capital, is a city on steroids, noisy, dusty and hot, in which the only music heard in abundance seems to boom at a deafening volume from the cheap speakers of the taxis, microlets and Chinese run shops – pop music of a dubious quality from various parts of the world. Dili’s occupants are fast losing touch with their traditional culture, to the dismay of elders in remote villages. These remote villages are rich in traditional music and culture, albeit hidden and difficult to get to. The youth of East Timor do not appear to be interested very much in this culture, to the dismay of their elders. Is there a way forward for the traditional music and culture of East Timor? Can it survive or will it eventually die out, or be morphed into another style of music which assimilates with the western world and all that the young impoverished Timorese aspire to? Keywords: East Timor; traditional; music; survival

Keywords: symphony; Australian; twentieth-century; musicology; analysis Format: Single paper (#63)

Conference Abstracts p 38

Format: Single paper (#78)

Prudence Dunstone

Jane Edwards

Wesley Institute, Australia

University of Limerick, Ireland

Schumann’s Gedichte der Königin Maria Stuart, op. 135: emotional power in small packages

Motivational states and music choice

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Many people consider music listening as an essential of everyday life. For many more music listening occurs frequently whether deliberately or through circumstances such as driving in the car and choosing a radio station, or incidentally such as through hearing music in the background when engaged in shopping or socialising in public places. This paper presents findings from a Grounded Theory study of music listening. The first data in this project was collected from 37 people who responded to an online request to describe why they listened to music. Responses were analysed using Grounded Theory Method. Respondents’ motivational states and the influence of these in music selection emerged as a core category of the research. Further categories that emerged in analysis of the responses, and theorising about music listening will be presented.

Schumann’s Gedichte der Königin Maria Stuart, op. 135 was composed in December, 1852, and was a Christmas gift to Clara. The composition of this, his final song cycle for voice and piano, represents a moment of clarity in a year otherwise clouded by illness. This same illness was eventually to see him admitted to a private sanatorium in Endenich, where he remained for the rest of his life. This paper examines Schumann’s setting of the poems, and how his compositional techniques have interpreted and heightened the powerful emotions contained therein. It also looks at parallels between the poems supposedly penned by the doomed queen, and Schumann’s situation with his deteriorating health. This analysis takes a performer’s perspective in the search to honour the composer’s intention. The succinctness of these songs, with their intense use of motives and dramatic use of text, stands in strong contrast to the lyricism of the ‘year of song’, 1840, and especially to Frauenliebe und Leben, the most obvious work for comparison. There are no comforting postludes here, and yet the part for the piano certainly acts as a commentary. Whilst the structural forms used are often very simple, within this framework the motives and text are used very sensitively and with a great deal of craftsmanship.

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Keywords: music listening; motivational states in choosing music to which to listen Format: Single paper (#272)

Keywords: Schumann; lieder; performance; analysis; text Format: Single paper (#86)

Conference Abstracts p 39

Vahideh Eisaei

Andrea Emberly

The University of Western Australia, Australia

The University of Western Australia, Australia

Techniques and articulation of Radif of Persian music on Kanun, a Persian musical instrument

Performing the ‘rainbow nation’: exploring the impact of local, national and global media on children’s musical cultures in South Africa

✢✢✢ ✢✢✢ Persian classical music repertoire (radif ) is organised in modal structures (dastgah) as a whole, which are subdivided into smaller pieces (gushehs) that are non-rhythmic but have an internal metric nature. A clear understanding of the set of short melodies, motifs and variants, repetition, melody sequences, phrases, pauses, and other features is essential in performing the radif. The basis of teaching, learning and improvising radif comprises creating interrelationships of materials in a gushe and in a dastgah. Radif is monophonic which emphasises unity as well as minutiae. It is founded upon ornamentation and phrasing. The radif has been handed down to children and students by the nineteenthcentury master of the setâr and târ, Mirza Abdollah. There are also different expressions and performances of radif on other Iranian musical instruments such as santur. Although radif has been performed on kanun, there is no solid recording or performance as a reference for kanun. This paper attempts to present an introduction to radif of Persian music and its origins. It also aims to demonstrate how to play radif on kanun. This is a unique approach because nobody has ever attempted to perform the exact same techniques and articulation of radif on kanun. In doing so, the author will conduct a comparative and analytical study on recordings of radif played by a technically similar instrument (santur). The focus of the paper will be on a main dastgah in radif called Shur. Selected sections of radif will be played on kanun along with many examples of other Iranian instruments performed for the audience

Music is indicative of the continuing and powerful social transformation in South Africa and the manner in which children create, disseminate, and consume music represents the significant impact of media on the musical lives of children in both rural and urban South Africa. The songs, games and musical lives of South African children embody the social, cultural and political landscapes of the world around them. In particular, children articulate a need for poly-musicality, that is, the ability to engage with a multitude of musical styles that centre them within their own communities, the rainbow nationhood of South Africa and the globalised musical world. Within South Africa, where the celebration of the ‘rainbow nation’ stands central to the success of the country, the representation of race, class, culture, and ethnicity is distinctly approached in children’s musical worlds. In addition, the representation of the nation can be found in ‘edutainment’, television and radio programming produced for local broadcast that attempts to overcome barriers of language, race, culture and class. Furthermore, ideas, thoughts, and newsworthy information are filtered into children’s musical languages as they attempt to situate themselves as global musical citizens. Based on my research with young children in the Limpopo province of South Africa, this paper is indicative of how children identify with the idea of South Africa as a nation and how media impacts children’s use of music as an educational tool to engage with their social and cultural identities.

Keywords: Radif; Persian music; oral tradition; articulation; improvisation

Keywords: children; South Africa; media; ‘rainbow nation’

Format: Mini-presentation (#81) and Poster (#81P)

Format: Single paper (#36)

Conference Abstracts p 40

Paul Evans

Gary McPherson

Michael Ewans

The University of New South Wales, Australia

The University of Melbourne, Australia

The University of Newcastle, Australia

Jane W. Davidson The University of Western Australia, Australia

Music, learning, motivation, and achievement in children and adolescents

How music illuminates drama in opera: a case study from Janá ek’s The Makropulos Secret

✢✢✢ ✢✢✢ Music is important in the lives of adolescents, and musical skills are highly regarded. Why is it that some people are able to persist through difficult, boring practice and acquire impressive and rewarding musical skills, while others do not, but wish they had? This paper examines some of the major explanations for sustained motivation in music, as well as providing empirical foundations for a theoretical framework based in self-determination theory. A study of children and adolescents over a 10-year period is described. The approach to the study was pragmatic, taking data that had previously been gathered, studying the potential to explain music education further, and developing research questions according to the kind of data that could be gathered from the sample. Results supported some of the previous findings in the study, namely that commitment and practice are key ingredients for ongoing success in music learning. The study also found that greater feelings of fulfilling three basic psychological needs – competence, relatedness, and autonomy – appeared to result in ongoing motivation, while participants who ceased experienced less of these feelings and more of the feelings of being thwarted around the time they ceased learning. For those who continued to engage in music throughout adolescence, music learning became a deeply psychologically rewarding experience.

The emotional power of music is particularly open to analysis in opera, because in this medium music is played simultaneously with words and actions. It is therefore possible to ask in what ways the music illuminates the drama, including especially the emotions of the characters onstage. Out of the eight main ways in which music complements stage drama in opera (outlined in the taxonomy which I presented in my plenary address at the 2009 MSA conference), I shall focus in this paper on the use of music to illuminate a monologue. The example for musico-dramatic analysis will be the scena sung by Emilia Marty/Elina Makropulos at the conclusion of Janá ek’s Ve Makropulos (The Makropulos Secret). Keywords: opera; drama; scena; Janacek; Makropulos Format: Single paper (#26)

Keywords: motivation; music; self-determination; psychological needs; education Format: Single paper (#213)

Conference Abstracts p 41

Dorottya Fabian

Robert Faulkner

The University of New South Wales, Australia

The University of Western Australia, Australia

Performance style and expressive power: evolving taste in playing and listening to Bach’s solo violin works

Fathers and daughters: musical identity and communication ✢✢✢

✢✢✢ An analysis of a century of recordings of Bach’s Solo Sonatas and Partitas for Violin provides insight into changing beliefs regarding how to best convey the power of this music. The notion of aiming to fulfil the composer’s intention has a different meaning from generation to generation. In the 1930s to ‘50s there is concern to make the violin sound like an organ, to play the polyphonic textures in as sustained a style as possible, even if it means to create a new type of bow, known as the Bach- or curved-bow. The belief that this music should sound ‘grand’ in order to create the powerfulmonumental emotional impact the composer ‘must have intended’ continues to rule during the 1950s-70s period. Tempi slow, vibrato is intensified, most movements gain an air of seriousness. During the last quarter of the century there is a gradual rediscovery of the importance of dance in Baroque music and with it comes an emphasis on rhythmic gestures and vitality. Emotional depth and variety across the movements are highlighted through greater and more detailed musical characterisation and diverse tempo choices. The celebration of Bach’s playful invention rather than solemn transcendence is further evidenced in increasing use of added ornaments and embellishments during the first decade of the twenty-first century. In this paper I explore these interpretative changes in relation to their perception and evaluation in published reviews and listeners’ responses to tease out the implications for the power of this music, how and why it affects us generation after generation. Keywords: performance; affect; violin; baroque music; J.S. Bach Format: Keynote paper (#16)

Conference Abstracts p 42

Within the context of the nuclear family, mothers most often appear responsible for the supervision of homework and music practice. Nevertheless, fathers may still play significant roles around the emerging musical identity of their children. Research has considered the impact of fatherdaughter relationships on emotional and social development and has shown how motives of pleasure and relaxation are significant to communication between teenage daughters and their fathers. This paper reports on accounts of musical transactions with fathers that emerge in teenage girls’ narrative accounts of their musical lives. These visual, autoethnographic stories and subsequent conversations about them formed part of an idiographic study of 16 girl’s (aged 15-16) stories, experiences, values and beliefs about music and everyday life, in and out of school. Following the emergence of father-daughter music stories in this study, the researcher engaged in further inquiry around musical relationships with his 16-year-old daughter. Together, these data provide interesting insights into the role that music plays in father-daughter communication, emotional and social development and emerging musical identity. Keywords: narrative inquiry; emotion; learning and teaching; composition; musical identity Format: Themed panel (#251)

Robert Faulkner Jane W. Davidson The University of Western Australia, Australia

Sam Ferguson David Taylor Emery Schubert Natasha Farrar

Gary McPherson The University of Melbourne, Australia

The University of New South Wales, Australia

The power of syzygistic influences on musical engagement

Emotion locus in continuous emotional responses to music

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For the individual generating a musical performance, a high level of physical and mental control and fluency is demanded: perhaps the strength, suppleness and dexterity of a ballet dancer combined with the mental acuity and precision of a chess player. In addition to the execution of the music, there is an expressive meaning that needs to be communicated from the performer to the audience. These different layers of skills require much refinement through focused practice. The musical expertise literature suggests that systematic as well as informal learning is crucial to learning and development. The variance in achievement is often explained through theories based on genetic predispositions. By contrast, in this paper we explore the role of syzygies – the processes of how conditions come into alignment to produce a unity of direction or purpose – in determining investment and development for musical engagement. Many elements contributing to syzgistic alignments are inter-related, often having a gravitational connection to one another that are not products of chance, but rather outcomes of the systems and structures we inhabit in our social world. To illuminate the role of the syzygies in operation, we shall draw upon famous cases of powerful musical engagement from recent musical history including Erich Korngold and Louis Armstrong. We shall also draw on data from young adults we have interviewed and whose lives are strongly invested in musical activity.

Music can both induce or express emotions. Previous research by Schubert has found that preference is correlated with the strength of the emotion felt by listeners in response to a musical stimulus, and therefore the distinction is important. This study investigated the time course of emotional responses to musical excerpts and its relationship to emotional locus. Participants listened to seven excerpts from a pool of nineteen and made emotional responses by moving a mouse as quickly as possible to point to one of six facial representations of emotions. The difference in responses by locus – internal (felt) and external (expressed) – was investigated to see how often positive relationships between loci were found. We found positive relationships in 90% of cases (that is, good matching between internal and external locus emotional responses), as opposed to a previous study by Evans and Schubert which found only 74%. The results of this investigation are discussed in the context of previous research findings. Keywords: emotion locus; emotional response; preference Format: Single paper (#180)

Keywords: syzygies; musical engagement Format: Single paper (#246)

Conference Abstracts p 43

Thomas Fienberg

Anne-Marie Forbes

The University of Sydney, Australia

University of Tasmania, Australia

‘Reconciliation’ in Australian art music: a consideration of collaborative models for co-composing with Indigenous music and musicians

In the service of shadows: music and the liturgy of Tenebrae

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The power of music to enhance religious ritual and spiritual contemplation has been recognised from the earliest times, and over the history of the Christian church has inspired some of the greatest masterpieces of Western choral music. Many of these works, however, have subsequently been divorced from their attendant liturgy, becoming concert pieces performed by secular choirs in concert halls rather than cathedrals. While the sheer beauty of the music may move performers and audience even yet, this paper considers the role of liturgy in providing a context for the reception of religious choral music and explores the symbiotic relationship between liturgy and music that may result, with each deepening the experience of the other. The Holy Week Tenebrae liturgy provided the authentic context for works such as Allegri’s famed Miserere and Tallis’s Lamentations of Jeremiah the Prophet. The role of music within this Service of Shadows will be outlined, exploring how polyphonic settings may contribute to the liturgy itself, particularly through the opportunities afforded for emphasis and heightening the expression of the text. Examples will be drawn from Miserere settings by Antonio Lotti, providing insights into early eighteenth-century Venetian practice and enabling reflection on how the Tenebrae liturgy, with its profound symbolism of darkness and light, framed by the space in which it is enacted, may in turn contribute to a deeper sensory engagement with the music.

Australian art music composers have long felt a need to respond to Indigenous music, which has provided inspiration and even a general framework for some at least to contextualise their works in search of an ‘authentic’ Australian sound. While much criticism has been made of white artists ‘borrowing’ Indigenous material, some composers have actively pursued more ethical bases for aesthetic interaction. This paper focuses on recent instances of such initiatives by art music composers and Indigenous musicians through conversations with key composers and performers. From colonial arrangements of Indigenous songs and imitations of Indigenous soundscapes, increasingly composers have sought greater participation of Indigenous musicians in endeavours. In the past decade several projects have attempted to meaningfully engage Indigenous performers within the actual compositional process. Through analysis of the works of William Barton, Iain Grandage, and the Australian Art Orchestra, a case is made for the value of reconciling the contributions of Indigenous and non-Indigenous musicians towards the creation of an Australian art music that conveys a new sense of what it means to live together as members of the same nation. Keywords: Aboriginal music; Indigenous music; Australian art music; cocomposition; reconciliation Format: Single paper (#273)

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Keywords: music; liturgy; symbolism; miserere; Antonio Lotti Format: Single paper (#259)

Conference Abstracts p 44

Catherine Foxcroft

Mace Francis

Rhodes University, South Africa

Edith Cowan University, Australia

The performers’ experienced emotions while performing: interviews with five professional concert pianists

Music in site

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Large ensemble jazz or ‘big band’ music conjures up preconceived ideas of the 1930’s and the music of Glenn Miller but like all other art forms it has evolved and progressed, influenced by other musical and artistic innovations. As a composer using the large jazz ensemble as a creative vehicle outside of these preconceptions, this author is always searching for innovative ways of creating and presenting new music. Site-specificity is one such area that jazz ensembles have rarely experimented with. There are challenges in taking this art-form on site which raise the following questions. Is it possible to successfully integrate elements of the performance site into the compositional process? Can the performance site be just as integral to the ensemble as the musicians? Can performing on a specific site affect the emotional responses of the listener, composer and the musicians? This paper examines three performance sites according to what they can offer: a natural outdoor environment, a man made environment and a pre-existing, site specific sound art installation. Each site has unique acoustic and physical qualities as well as challenges which require necessary pre-compositional experimentation to control and incorporate these qualities into successful compositions. Composing music this way requires a very different creative process to what the author, and many other composers in the genre follow when creating music for traditional performance spaces. These processes and experiments have led to a variety of ideas for new musical works. The background to such works, including some of the author’s, will be discussed.

Do professional pianists always engage emotionally with the music they are performing in concert? And if so, is this the key to an emotionally expressive performance? Research on performers has shown that musicians in general recognise the need to connect emotionally with the music they perform in order to play it expressively. Research has also shown that performers experience different kinds and degrees of emotions when preparing for an emotionally expressive performance. But whether professional performers engage emotionally with the music they are performing during a concert performance, has not yet been researched. Designed as an exploratory study for a DMus research project, the aim of the present research was to explore pianists’ perspectives on whether they experience emotional engagement with the music they are performing, and whether this contributes to an emotionally expressive performance. Four professors in piano from the University of Cape Town, Wits and the University of Pretoria (South Africa) and one from the University of Michigan (USA) were interviewed in open-ended interviews at the 2010 International Piano Symposium held at the University of Stellenbosch (SA). All the research participants had established careers as soloists and teachers. Findings from the study revealed that the pianists sometimes experienced emotional engagement with the music during an expressive performance. However, not one of the pianists considered experiencing emotions during the performance a necessity (or desirable) for an expressive performance. Rather, the pianists were unanimous in emphasising the need for strict emotional control throughout a performance.

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Keywords: composition; site-specificity; large ensemble; jazz; interaction Format: Mini-presentation (#165) and Poster (#165P)

Keywords: performance; emotional engagement; felt emotion; expression; control Format: Mini-presentation (#178) and Poster (#178P)

Conference Abstracts p 45

E. Kamala Friedrich Stephan Bongard Emily S. Frankenberg

Kiyoshi Furukawa

Takayuki Hamano

Tokyo University of the Arts, Japan

Goethe-University Frankfurt, Germany

Tomasz M. Rutkowski

Japan Science and Technology Agency, Japan RIKEN Brain Science Institute, Japan Tamagawa University, Japan

The emotions while learning an instrument – scale (ELIS)

Music performance with ‘imagery instrument’ by real-time categorisation of brain activities

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Children are emotionally influenced by learning an instrument. Feeling joy and pride while learning an instrument is as well reported as feeling anxiety or stress, for example while performing in front of a group. Until now, no standardised questionnaire has been published to measure these kinds of emotions in children. In total, 537 German 2nd and 3rd grade pupils completed 23 items asking for emotions while learning an instrument. The mean age of the children was M = 7.63, SD = 7.38. Ten months later, participants completed 21 items of the original questionnaire again and six new items. Additionally, they completed the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS), a questionnaire measuring stress and coping in children (SSKJ), and a questionnaire measuring emotional and social school experiences (FEESS). At both assessment times the items of the Emotions while Learning an Instrument – Scale (ELIS) showed a two-factor solution with 37.4% of variance being explained by the two factors. The first factor describes positive emotions while learning an instrument (PELI), the second factor includes negative emotions while learning an instrument (NELI). Internal consistency was a = .81 (NELI) and a = .87 (PELI). Retest reliability was r = .36 (PELI) and r = .13 (NELI). Construct validity seems to be good, as can be seen by correlations with subscales of SSKJ, PANAS and FEES. These results show that children are emotionally affected by learning an instrument. The ELIS seems to be a reliable and valid questionnaire in measuring these emotions in children.

We introduce a new musical performance system based on the brain-computer interface (BCI) technology which transforms the brain-wave patterns of musical-chords-imagination into structures of music, and presumably, of musical emotion. ‘it’s almost a song...’ is a live performance piece demonstrating this new instrument.

Keywords: music; children; psychology; emotions; psychometric Format: Mini-presentation (#160) and Poster (#160P)

Conference Abstracts p 46

University of Tsukuba, Japan RIKEN Brain Science Institute, Japan

Much previous brain-wave generated music converted EEG signals to sounds directly, which gives the least control of musical context. However, in our system, we control and play music by imagining musical chords sequentially. We have developed a new music performance system which maps the categorised patterns of the human brain activity to a set of basic elements of music and musical chords. The piece is based on the structured chain of musical chords, an arrangement of the chords in time so that they relate to each other. Our performance is based on this chain, which is a fundamental music structure. We believe that the essence of music, such as emotion and expression, emerges out of this chain. ‘it’s almost a song...’ is performed by a Brain Player (BP) with EEG system and a Clarinet player (CP) on the stage. The BP wears an EEG-measurement cap with electrodes, imagines a chord at a time to play one of three sound categories without physical movement, and produces sound from speakers using the system. The system extracts and

Hidefumi Ohmura

Hiroko Terasawa

Sandra Garrido

Japan Science and Technology Agency, Japan

University of Tsukuba, Japan Japan Science and Technology Agency, Japan

The University of New South Wales, Australia

Reiko Hoshi-Shiba The University of Tokyo, Japan RIKEN Brain Science Institute, Japan

Kazuo Okanoya The University of Tokyo, Japan Japan Science and Technology Agency, Japan

Waldo Garrido Macquarie University, Australia

Music and grief: a case study from Chile ✢✢✢

categorises individual brain activity patterns for each sound category using a machine-learning algorithm. The sound is generated in real-time by Max/MSP. The performers play music by repeating this sequence of tasks. The EEG data of the BP is also visualised on the screen in real-time. During a training period preceding each session, the performers practice to produce stable brain activity patterns for three sound categories. Performers for this presentation are Takayuki Hamano (brain player) and Nobuaki Motohama (clarinet), with sound operator, Kiyoshi Furukawa. Keywords: brain-computer interface (BCI) technology; real-time categorisation of brain activities; machine-learning algorithm; a structured chain of musical chords; imagery instrument Format: Performance (#155)

Grief at the death of a child is amongst the most poignant experiences suffered by humankind. This article considers the interesting case of the ‘cantos de angeles’, a particular song form used for the funerals of small children in various parts of Chile. The songs were originally brought by Spanish Jesuits during the colonisation of South America. The ritual has thus been followed for centuries in parts of the country in various forms. It will be argued that the belief by the parents that they are aiding the child’s ascension to heaven makes the ritual a ‘task-based’ coping activity. The psychological function of such rituals within the grieving process will be discussed along with the loss of such strategies within the growing secularisation of Chilean society. Keywords: grief; music; grieving process; funerals; rituals Format: Single paper (#54)

Conference Abstracts p 47

Sandra Garrido Emery Schubert The University of New South Wales, Australia

Mark Gasser Edith Cowan University, Australia

Rumination and sad music: the anomaly of maladaptive listening habits

Ronald Stevenson and the lost art of transcription – from John Bull to Wozzeck

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While many people exhibit a preference for music that will diminish a bad mood or sustain a good mood in accordance with mood management theory, others show a distinct attraction to sad music. Most proposed solutions to this paradox, including that of ‘catharsis’ by Aristotle, argue that there are benefits to be gained from listening to sad music. While some listeners may derive such benefits, this paper presents the argument that people with a tendency to ruminate have maladaptive methods of mood regulation and may therefore choose music which perpetuates dysphoria. Qualitative data were gathered in an online survey as part of a larger study into the enjoyment of sad music. Of the 59 participants in the initial study, 31 reported listening to uplifting music. Of those who reported being attracted to sad music, 9 believed they had derived some benefit or enjoyment. In contrast, for 11 other individuals who listened to sad music, it was unclear whether the experience was pleasurable or if the music resulted in an improved mood. One such participant was therefore invited to be the subject of an in-depth case-study to investigate this anomaly. The subject completed a psychometric measure of rumination and was interviewed as to listening habits and preferences. The results support the hypothesis that the trait of rumination may be connected to a tendency to make psychologically maladaptive listening choices.

Scottish composer and pianist Ronald Stevenson is the most prolific transcriber for piano of the twentieth century. However, for much of his lifetime the art of transcription and arrangement has been much maligned, its emotive power undervalued. As Busoni noted, there is a sort of doublestandard in practice: ‘the arrangement is not good, because it varies the original; and the variation is good, although it arranges the original’. Furthermore, Busoni argues that composition itself is ‘a transcription of an original idea’ and therefore arrangement should not be morally inferior when it re-clothes the original abstract idea in new and innovative ways. This paper argues for a re-evaluation of the transcriber’s art through an investigation of the genius of Ronald Stevenson, described by Malcolm MacDonald as ‘the greatest transcriber, notwithstanding Beethoven, since Bach’. As a virtuoso pianist of the highest calibre, Stevenson has an intimate knowledge not only of the repertoire but the instrument itself, its capabilities, its inherent strengths and weaknesses, and the multitudinous possibilities of texture and sonority. His intimate knowledge of piano technique (associated with his philosophy of’ ‘three hands’, ‘three pedals’ and ‘twelve fingers’), his innovative figurations, his desire to use the piano to emulate the human voice, and his ability to orchestrate symphonic textures on the keyboard, make him a virtuoso of the transcribers art in the lineage of the great Romantic pianists. This research will include many unpublished manuscripts that have been made available by the Ronald Stevenson Society and live performance of selected works.

Keywords: rumination; mood-management; sad music; depression; listening preferences Format: Poster (#53)

Keywords: transcription; emotion; composition; emulation; salutation Format: Single paper (#149)

Conference Abstracts p 48

Kirsty Gillespie

Gerald Ginther

The University of Queensland, Australia

University of Canterbury, New Zealand

Stories, songs and emotion: exploring the power of the sung refrain in Lihirian oral literature

The power of music: ballet in the Soviet Union 1917-36 ✢✢✢

✢✢✢ The people of the Lihir Island Group (New Ireland Province, Papua New Guinea) are the custodians of significant oral traditions which encode their culture and their history. These oral traditions include songs and dances, and stories. One particular genre of story is the genre known as pil. These stories are part mythological and part historical – in straddling this space between fiction and experience the stories both entertain and educate. Pil provide information about places, people’s relationship to the land, and what is important for correct moral behaviour. While all pil have spoken narrative as their essence, many feature a sung refrain at pivotal moments in the story. These songs serve to enhance the text by providing a kind of musical illustration. But what kind of illustration? Why do some pil feature these songs and others not? Why is there only one song per narrative, sung several times, rather than a variety of songs? Are those pil which feature song more valued than those that do not, and if so, why? What is the nature and function of song that add value to narrative? This paper presents Lihirian pil to an academic audience for the first time, and attempts to answer these and other questions about the genre in order to contribute to a broader understanding of the power of music across cultures. Keywords: ethnomusicology; orality; narrative; song; Papua New Guinea Format: Single paper (#39)

The performing arts were a significant vehicle in the battle for hearts and minds after the 1917 Revolution in Russia. Initially modernism, no longer restrained by Tsarist censorship, was allowed free reign but this was constrained by the advocates of proletarian art. Soon after the end of the Russian Civil War in 1923, rival organisations the RAPM (Russian Association of Proletarian Musicians) and ACM (Association for Contemporary Music) were formed. Music soon became a battle of rival ideologies. Of the performing arts, ballet was the least affected, with its traditions largely remaining intact, but there was a growing anxiety amongst the Bolshoi in Moscow to commission a revolutionary ballet. It seemed that it was impossible for the Soviet Union to recreate the splendour of the Tchaikovsky ballets first performed in Imperial Russia. Eventually in 1927 a ballet was commissioned which rivalled the popularity of Tchaikovsky – The Red Poppy by Reinhold Glière. This paper examines the initial steps in the formation of The Red Poppy, and the response by the young Shostakovich – the unsuccessful Age of Gold and the relationship between the two works. Shostakovich’s third ballet The Quiet Stream and its shattering denunciation by Pravda in 1936 is often overshadowed by ‘Muddle instead of Music’, the editorial written as a response to the opera Lady Macbeth. Of great significance though is the fact that Shostakovich did not attempt another ballet after The Quiet Stream and instead concentrated on the symphony and string quartet. Keywords: ballet; Soviet Union; Glière; Shostakovich; The Red Poppy Format: Single paper (#263)

Conference Abstracts p 49

Denise Grocke Sidney Bloch The University of Melbourne, Australia

Annette Guillan Sultan Idris University of Education, Malaysia

David Castle St Vincent’s Hospital, Australia

Songs for life: group music therapy for people with severe mental illness. A controlled study

‘Arrrghhh..ku’: an exploration of angry emotions as explored in a contemporary Malaysian composition

✢✢✢ ✢✢✢ People who live with severe and debilitating mental illness often experience social anxiety that impacts on their integration into the wider community. Group therapies are known to foster social interaction skills. Additionally, by engaging in creative endeavours, participants enjoy greater quality of life. The aim of our study was to determine the effect of group song-writing on the quality of life (primary measure), symptoms, social integration, self-esteem, and spirituality, of people living with severe and enduring mental illness. The study was designed as a randomised controlled trial, and was funded by the Australian Research Council. Ethics approval was granted by the University of Melbourne and four associated hospital ethics boards. Participants gave written informed consent to be involved in the study. This paper reports on our project, which ran for 12 weeks and comprised 11 weekly group music therapy interventions of song singing and original song-writing. In the final week the original song/s was/were recorded in a professional studio, and participants were engaged in a focus group interview designed to capture qualitative data about the experience of the project. There were 14 groups in the study, with an average 3-4 people in each. Forty-five participants completed the study; all participants had been living with mental illness for more than 2 years. The measures taken pre and post the 12-week intervention, and at a 3-month follow-up, indicate significantly improved quality of life. Themes from focus group interview data and lyric analysis of the songs will also be presented, and brief samples of the songs will be played. Keywords: songwriting; music therapy; mental health Format: Single paper (#95)

Maconie in his book entitled The Concept of Music writes ‘music is a field of human expression which has successfully resisted analysis in terms of conventional theory’. Human expression comes in many forms and is revealed in different situations. In our daily life we deal with people who express themselves in a way that can result in others feeling mistreated or hurt. These negative emotions may not be able to be verbalised or expressed clearly. To purge ones anger, some people resort to other forms of expression such as stomping, crying, shouting and punching. ‘Aaaarrghh..ku’ is an expression of anger using many parts of the human body as a medium of sound. Sounds that are produced by each part of the body deliver a particular message of anger. Making music here is a fundamental channel of communication – it provides a means by which people can share emotions, intentions and meanings (Miell et al.). Some feelings just cannot be expressed through words. Therefore, unspeakable, unexplainable feelings can be shown through action (body language) and sound. ‘Arrrggghhh..ku’ is an experimental concept music group that highlights the use of body percussion, using feet, hands, eyes and voice to deliver the message. This group was formed in April 2011 by Mr. Kamarulzaman lecturer in the Sultan Idris Education University. ‘Arrgghh..ku’ means a sighing in the Malay language. Hence, we express anger in our native language to show the variety and the richness of our Malaysian culture. We also included traditional, well-known Malaysian percussion instruments such as kesi (used in shadow puppetry), kompang (also known as tambourine), and many more. In 2011, a group of Malaysian students called NoStand Experimental group explored anger to develop a new composition. The fifteen students worked on layers of sound, form, and structure to produce a fifteen minute piece called ‘Arrrggghhh... ku’. Through the use of body percussion and instruments, they developed a musical work that displayed anger from the perspective of Malaysian youth. Keywords: emotion; anger development Format: Poster (#241)

Conference Abstracts p 50

Take a

music bath

once or twice a week

for a few seasons. You will find it is

to the soul what a water bath is to the body. Oliver Wendell Holmes Conference Abstracts p 51

Aaron Hales

Catherine Hallett

The University of Western Australia, Australia

University of New England, Australia

Glitter and be glee! Secondary school musical theatre education in Perth, Western Australia

Music in Kamigata Rakugo performance ✢✢✢

✢✢✢ The 1980s witnessed an educational development in Western Australia with regard to the way in which performing arts were taught in secondary schools. There began a trend to ‘hot house’ students that displayed potential in their chosen field of performance be it dance, drama, or music, by designating particular schools around the metropolitan area as specialist schools for the study of the performing arts. One school that was earmarked for such developments was John Curtin College of the Arts (JCCPA) a secondary school located in the port city of Fremantle, south of Perth, Western Australia. The school has had much success with its gifted and talented programs and has since instigated further courses of study in areas such as sport and academic excellence. One specific program developed by JCCPA is that of musical theatre, and it is this genre of performing arts – as a separate subject to that of conventional western art music, dance and drama – that is the main focus of this paper. Drawing on the various theories of Foucault, Gagne and Connerton, this paper examines how visibility, surveillance and memory are used as learning devices in the teaching of the musical theatre genre. The theories provide insight into the power and ongoing popularity of the musical theatre genre in society, especially within secondary institutions. The paper considers the impact of the genre on students currently enrolled at the school with an aim to understand why the music theatre genre is such a marketable and competitive area of study. The themes for this paper are drawn from fieldwork undertaken at JCCPA in 2010. Keywords: musical theatre; secondary education; Foucault Format: Single paper (#235)

Conference Abstracts p 52

Rakugo is the Japanese tradition of staged comic storytelling associated with small urban variety theatres called yose found in the Osaka-Kyoto (Kansai or Kamigata) and Tokyo (Kanto or Edo) regions. This mini-presentation examines the music and musicians in rakugo performance of the OsakaKyoto region, specifically the role of ‘theme songs’ known as debayashi which are played before professional storytellers (hanashika) come on stage. Every storyteller acquires, selects or composes their own theme song upon qualifying as a professional, and in earlier times audiences were familiar with the lifelong association between a specific tune and an individual storyteller. While research suggests that this is no longer the case, these theme songs continue to be an indispensable part of rakugo performance. All apprentice storytellers are required to learn to play percussion or flute in the variety theatre’s off-stage music ensemble called hayashi, and most professional storytellers openly tell of the power and importance of the accompanying ensemble’s rendering of theme songs for their own performance practice. While the majority of theme songs derive from traditional Japanese music genres, in recent years some Osaka-Kyoto region storytellers have chosen to use tunes from modern popular music and western music as their individualised song, despite there being only traditional Japanese instruments in the off-stage ensemble. Keywords: Japan; rakugo; storytelling; theatre; theme song Format: Mini-presentation (#62)

Rachel Hallett Alexandra Lamont Keele University, United Kingdom

Age, music preferences and exercise: does the music matter?

Rosalind Halton The University of Newcastle, Australia

‘The power of harmonical combinations’: emotional response at the Handel Commemoration of 1784

✢✢✢ ✢✢✢ Most existing work on the motivational effects of music has explored the effects of tempo and preference on exercise ability mainly amongst under-25s with above average levels of fitness. The research suggests that music provides a powerful motivational boost to exercise adherence, improving exercisers’ affect, skill acquisition and output. Older and less fit populations are rarely studied; these groups form the sample for the current research. This paper tackles the important issue of how music can improve affect and outcomes in older gym-attendees, using an exercise-setting to explore attitudes towards music in exercise and then manipulating different types of music in an experimental study. Data from interviews highlights that music may play less of a role in exercise routines for older participants, with the social elements of gym attendance emphasised in preference to exercise goals. However, this is partly due to the fact that gyms tend to play music which older participants have less connection with and often actively dislike. An experiment is currently being conducted to compare a range of performance-related variables as well as perceived mood in two music conditions; more moderate tempo music which relates more closely to participants’ preferred music, and the up-tempo music which tends to be used in a range of exercise settings. Results will be available at the conference and will shed light on how emotions evoked by music listening play a role in motivation for exercise. Keywords: music listening; motivation; exercise; music preference; older population Format: Poster (#7)

The festival of five concerts in Westminster Abbey and the Pantheon that made up the 1784 Commemoration of Handel in London has been described as ‘the most important single event in the history of English music’. An outstanding aspect of the Commemoration was the extraordinary emotional response of both performers and listeners, as documented in reports of the concerts. What new factors of performance and audience interaction produced this unprecedented level of response? Can the festival be seen as a turning point in the history of physical and emotional reactions to public musical performance? The paper will look at some of the ingredients described by eyewitnesses as powerful and moving. The discussion includes analysis of two choruses from Israel in Egypt, known as The ‘Hailstones Chorus’ and ‘The Horse and his Rider’; and consideration of the solo singing, above all the ‘grace and power’ of Madame Mara, who had been en route from the Berlin court of Friedrich der Grosse, reaching London just in time to make her name as principal soprano soloist. With Haydn’s visits to London just a decade after the Commemoration, the element of the ‘attentive audience’, prepared to withstand physical discomforts and crowded venues to reach sublime experiences, may be seen as an emerging phenomenon that links the two eras in London’s musical experience. As the vehicle through which we learn about this newly emotive impact of musical performance at public concerts, press reportage and eyewitness accounts in late eighteenth-century England form a central element of this study. Keywords: emotional response; Handel Commemoration; eyewitness accounts; singing; turning-point Format: Single paper (#94)

Conference Abstracts p 53

Kathryn Hardwick-Franco

Scott Harrison

Independent scholar, Australia

Griffith University, Australia

The power of Slovenian folk music over the migrant memories and identities

Welcome aboard the emotional rollercoaster: experiences of research higher degrees in music

✢✢✢ ✢✢✢ Slovenian folk music is a powerful cultural element for those Slovenians who migrated to Port Lincoln, South Australia. The music enables the migrants and their children to maintain a sense of belonging to a Slovenian cultural community despite a small number of Slovenians living in a small regional town. The music has a powerful influence over the emotional connection these people have towards their cultural heritage. The connection is so powerful that these people do not need to listen to the music when using the music to reconfirm their cultural heritage. Instead, these people need only to remember instances of Slovenian folk music performances in order to reconnect with their cultural heritage. They call on memories of performances of Slovenian folk music that were performed in both Australia and Europe. It is through remembering the music that these people are empowered to reconfirm their membership with an imagined Slovenian community. Memories of Slovenian folk music, therefore, are powerful enough that they enable Port Lincoln residents with Slovenian cultural heritage to reconnect with an imagined Slovenian community in which they reconfirm their membership with their Slovenian cultural heritage. Keywords: ethnomusicology; identity maintenance; imagined community; cultural heritage; musical memories Format: Poster (#18)

The doctoral experience has been described as an emotional rollercoaster. From the moment of the ‘ah-ha’ idea, through proposal, admission, confirmation, data generation, analysis and completion phases, the highs and lows of engagement with a research program are one of the most fulfilling, yet emotionally challenging life episodes. To some extent, these peaks and troughs are exacerbated when the project has, as many do in the musical domain, a personal component. Using examples from student projects being supervised by the author, the paper explores the interplay of student emotion in aspects of project design, method, write-up and dissemination. The paper includes reference to practice-based examples, including Ph.D. by composition, as well as more standard text-based project. It aims to interrogate the role of emotion in the research higher degree in music where content and life experience collide, sometimes with fascinating musical and academic outcomes, at other times with devastating personal impact. The project has been undertaken with full co-operation of the participants, each of whom willingly shared his/her journey. The voice of the author/supervisor and his engagement with the candidates is also documented and reported on. The paper aims to illuminate this often-obscured aspect of the music learning, teaching and research, in anticipation of improved practices and outcomes in research higher degrees in music. Keywords: postgraduate; research; pedagogy; relationships Format: Single paper (#112)

Conference Abstracts p 54

Alan Harvey The University of Western Australia, Australia

Music, reward and human survival: a brief review of neuroimaging studies

Brooke Hendry Susan West Australian National University, Australia

Minima maxima sunt (The smallest things are most important): a student perspective of school music learning environments

✢✢✢ ✢✢✢ Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and other imaging methods allow an analysis of areas of the human brain that are active when particular tasks are being performed. I will review recent studies from a number of laboratories around the world that point to an overlap in regions of the human brain that are active when (i) listening to music appreciated by an individual, (ii) carrying out tasks that are pleasurable and rewarding, and (iii) performing socially interactive behaviours. The comparisons suggest strong links between such activities and support the view that, as universals, music and dance were of fundamental importance in fostering social cooperativity in early Homo sapiens. There is no reason to suggest that music is of any less importance to the well-being of human society in the twenty-first century. Keywords: reward; social cooperation; brain imaging; neurochemistry; music Format: Mini-presentation (#227)

This poster is focused on school music learning environments and the differential effects on individual students’ learning capabilities and concentration. As a child I was diagnosed with high level learning difficulties. As a result I have a heightened sensitivity to, and interest in, learning environments both in terms of physical spaces and emotional climate. This interest has been fuelled by my work as an intern with the Music Education Programme at the Australian National University’s School of Music after completing my Year 12 Certificate in 2010. The Programme works with numerous schools in the Australian Capital Territory (ACT) and with many children who have problems similar to my own. This poster will explore not only the ways in which learning environments affect ‘mainstream’ students’ capabilities, but more specifically the extent to which they may exacerbate learning difficulties. The research will be carried out through a number of case studies of selected schools in the ACT including new P-10 ‘super-schools’ and more traditional ‘K6’ primary schools. Students from each school will be taken to various locations including within their own schools, with each group experiencing each environment through singing and group discussion. Whole group surveys will be conducted as well as filmed interviews after each singing session with selected students. Interviews will focus on their individual opinion of the various learning environments in terms of physical space and emotional climate. Data will be analysed with the aim of identifying further areas of research in terms of improving school environments for greater student learning outcomes. Keywords: music; education; environment; learning disabilities; singing Format: Poster (#49)

Conference Abstracts p 55

Thomas Hillecke SRH University Heidelberg, Germany

A heuristic working factor model for music therapy ✢✢✢ Although empirical studies underpin the effectiveness of music therapy (Dileo and Bradt, Gold et al., Argstatter et al.) and basic research sheds more light upon the mode of operation, music therapy practitioners are in danger of losing the track of things or are confronted with severe translational problems of empirical results into therapeutic action. This leads to the problem of a growing gap between science and practice. Therefore the question arises as to how to bridge the gap between science and practice in music therapy. Some approaches possibly deliver answers: (1) therapy manuals; (2) differential therapy research; (3) education of scientistpractitioners; (4) defining specific working ingredients. All four are necessary on the way to an empirically supported music therapy but each contains pros and cons. Therapy manuals (Hillecke and Wilker) contain the advantage of describing concrete actions in defined areas of application and usually are justified by empirical results. However, they are limited to the defined field of application and therefore strictly restricted to generalise. Differential therapy research as the use of comparative empirical studies helps to make decisions in the context of indication and application, but it is useless in treatment planning. The education of music therapy students as scientist-practitioners supports the personal competencies of practitioners to translate research results into practical strategies, to recognise limitations of results, to reflect therapeutic action within the light of scientific perspectives, and to formulate treatment strategies as scientific hypothesis. At first sight there is no problem. But teaching scientist practitioners means to teach treatment theories, which leads to the problem that theoretical assumptions are as necessary as empirical results. Without reflected theoretical frameworks the scientist-practitioner

Conference Abstracts p 56

model is arbitrary. But theoretical models in music therapy are extensive. Many theories of psychoanalytic therapy, humanistic approaches and behavioural therapy models as well as medical treatment theories were applied to music therapy during the last decades. All of them broadened the music therapy perspective but also transported many incommensurable basic assumptions and contribute to the danger of confusion. What is really necessary is a heuristic model which is more specific to music therapy and allows relating (empirically supported or hypothetical assumed) effects of music to practical treatment requirements. Such a heuristic model would have the additional advantage that it might be a step on the way to a specific music therapy theory. The heuristic model we have been working on for eight years consists of the definition of five working ingredients of music therapy (Hillecke et al., Hillecke and Wilker): (1) Attention Modulation; (2) Emotion Modulation; (3) Cognition Modulation; (4) Behaviour Modulation; (5) Communication Modulation. Most music therapeutic interventions integrate all of the factors but with different goals or main foci. If a practitioner is confronted with a clearly defined practical problem the model may help to choose or develop a specific treatment strategy. Using the heuristic model means to bring order to empirical results in relation to the practical use. It is not thought to be a well formulated theory but a starting point to develop an interface between empirical results, clinical requirements and musical phenomena. Keywords: clinical application; music therapy; working factors Format: Themed panel (#214)

Holly Holmes

Katherine Honeybun

University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, United States of America

The University of Melbourne, Australia

‘With a voice like a gun’: Brazilian popular music, censorship and strategies of resistance during the military dictatorship, 1964-85

‘A complex of tendencies’: the evolution of the tritone and its use in the music of Wagner, Debussy and Bartok

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While military leaders and politicians plotted to overthrow the Goulart administration, a youth collective of popular music composers was coalescing on the street corners of Belo Horizonte, Brazil. Led by Milton Nascimento, the Clube da Esquina began to use music as a form of protest against the military regime (1964-85), its policies of censorship and suspension of civil rights. The regime censored a majority of Nascimento’s Milagre dos Peixes (Odeon). When he resolved to release the album without lyrics – featuring rich wordless melodies, anguished shouts and a soaring falsetto – the censors condemned the ‘aggressive’ sound of the voice. The release went ahead, and Nascimento described the impact of the voice como uma arma (‘like a gun’). Using ongoing ethnographic data and archival research, this paper explores the Clube da Esquina’s contribution to Brazilian canção de protesto (protest song) and how musical sound, song text, and individual action communicated political messages during the harshest years of the dictatorship (1968-78). The Clube da Esquina used textual themes as allegories to communicate political dissent in combination with regional, national, pan-Latino, and international musical styles. Heard in the historical moment of radical clandestine movements, disappearances and torture, and divisive debates about musical authenticity, the collective constructed a diverse set of symbolic expressions relevant to the socio-political concerns of youth audiences. By emphasising the roles of individual actors within the collective, various manifestations of the balance between artist and social activist come to the fore and broaden the definition of what is protest song.

In medieval times the tritone was known as diabolus in musica or ‘the devil in music’. However, as harmonic language changed it became increasingly permissible to use the tritone in freer ways, particularly during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. This paper investigates how the tritone was used in Wagner’s Prelude to Tristan und Isolde, Debussy’s Prélude à l’après-midi d’un faune and the third movement of Bartok’s Music for Strings, Percussion and Celesta, and aims to compare the use of the tritone in order to better understand the changing definition of consonance and dissonance. By using the music analysis software MelodicMatch, the location of melodic and harmonic tritones was found; this information was then used to focus the investigation on particular sections of the music that indicated interesting tritone use. Keywords: tritones; MelodicMatch; dissonance; harmonic language; analysis Format: Poster (#252)

Keywords: censorship; dictatorship; protest song; resistance; political music Format: Single paper (#210)

Conference Abstracts p 57

Made Hood

Cat Hope

The University of Melbourne, Australia

Edith Cowan University, Australia

Defending the dialect: Cologne Carnival and the Loss Mer Singe song contest

Sensuality as sound object: the possibilities of drone music

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Loss Mer Singe is a locally produced song contest in the Kölsch dialect held annually in conjunction with Cologne Carnival, one of the largest festivals in the German calendar year. Major record labels, national broadcasting companies, and local artists and musicians promote Loss Mer Singe (Let me sing), as well as the city’s many bars and pubs that host the competition. From over 400 song entries, twenty advance to the final voting round held over thirty intense evenings of drinking, singing and dancing leading up to the Carnival. Crowds of pub patrons receive copies of song lyrics, voting ballots and a chance to sing along with recorded music. The song receiving the most votes becomes the official ‘Song of Carnival’ for the year. While the competition supports local songwriters’ use of the Kölsch dialect, its focus also upholds the commercial agenda of its organisers who promote the Carnival as a regional and national festival in order to attract increasingly larger numbers of non-Cologne patrons to the city. Many local musicians see this as a point of contention and reject both the competition and the ‘hits’ it produces. Using ethnographic interviews, sound recordings and public documents, this paper explores the dichotomy between local musical identity and regional/national festival promotion. By referencing the many viewpoints surrounding the competition, I will argue that despite various tensions that arise, it serves as a catalyst for constructive discourse between promoters, patrons and musicians who embrace Cologne’s dialect, the Carnival and its music.

As Edgar Varèse pointed out, music must live in sound. Sound is the very fabric of music, yet it has only been singled out for its own sake in the last century, through the development of electronic music, spectral composition and the development of audio technologies that have led to detailed comprehension of the physics of sound. As musicologist Joanna Demers points out, we can use technical language to pinpoint measurable data about sound, but once we begin to talk about the feelings and thoughts invoked by sound itself, we rely on metaphors. While it is common to discuss sound’s role in music as a sign (a means of communicating bigger ideas) or an object (an autonomous set of sounds pointing to nothing, sometimes flagged as providing ‘reduced listening’), this binary excludes so many other possibilities. This is most obvious in drone music, where the object of sound is the originator of a kind of sensual meaning. Drone music is perhaps one of the most under-examined areas of contemporary music practice, and it provides challenges to composers and listeners alike. Drone music tests our idea of duration and musicality. This paper discusses some significant developments in drone music over the last fifty years, as well as different possible approaches to its comprehension.

Keywords: participatory performance; competition; festivals; Germany; dialect; carnival Format: Single paper (#268)

Conference Abstracts p 58

Keywords: new music; drone; sensuality; composition; philosophy Format: Single paper (#158)

Paul Hopwood

Anita Hoyvik

Edith Cowan University, Australia

University of Oslo, Norway

Dr Summers v Rev. Duff: a case of music copyright in the Supreme Court of Western Australia, 1900-1902

Music listening as therapy

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How and with what emotional force is music felt in the body of a listener undergoing severe medical and social challenges? In my paper I present results from one year of anthropological fieldwork exploring this question in the specific site of Rivington House, a residential facility for people living with AIDS in New York City. During my fieldwork I studied the emotional effects of the Bonny Method of Music and Guided Imagery (BMGIM), a music therapy method based on music listening, among Rivington Residents. My paper pays special attention to how the listening subject imagines his or her body during the BMGIM session. Closing their eyes and lying in a seemingly inactive state on a bed in their temporary home at Rivington House, the participants in my study experienced vivid imagery locating their bodies in landscapes and places most often far outside the walls of Rivington House. What are these spaces and how are the resident’s bodies imagined to be moving in them? Who, if anyone, is imagined to be watching the subject in his or her musically induced imagery? I explore these questions through a number of interviews and music listening sessions with Rivington residents. More generally, I discuss how music scholars and medical professionals alike can view these experiences in the context of researching the agency of music in sustaining and protecting vital, individual health.

Joseph Summers (1839-1917) was a church organist, conductor, music educator, composer, mining speculator and all-too-frequent litigant. He emigrated from England to Victoria in 1865, lured by the potential wealth on the Ballarat goldfields. After an eventful and largely successful three decades in Melbourne, Summers moved to Perth in 1897. Notwithstanding that he intended to retire to semi-rural Subiaco (now a bustling inner-city suburb), Summers remained remarkably active, and to follow his activities over the years from 1897 to his death in 1917 is to gain a unique and entertaining insight into Perth’s fledgling musical life. He played a significant role in the early years of Perth’s Philharmonic and Liedertafel Societies, and argued publicly for a chair in music to be established at The University of Western Australia from its inception in 1911. While surveying briefly these activities, this paper will focus on his involvement in a legal dispute concerning copyright in music he composed for a sacred oratorio based on Milton’s ‘Paradise Lost’ entitled Two Worlds. The case was widely reported, and involved a fascinating cast of characters including a musically literate judiciary, luminaries from Perth’s legal fraternity, the prominent Perth clergyman Rev James Duff and – perhaps most colourful of all – Summers himself. While interesting from a legal standpoint, the case is perhaps even more significant as an example of the important place music held in the hearts and minds of such a wide variety of people in such a small, isolated outpost of the British Empire.

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Keywords: therapy; listening; bodily unconscious; health; reverie Format: Single paper (#59)

Keywords: colonial; copyright; Dr Joseph Summers; Perth; federation Format: Single paper (#117)

Conference Abstracts p 59

Chih-Fang Huang Yuan Ze University, Taiwan

Wei-Po Nien Hsiang-Pin Lu

Mary Ingraham Michael MacDonald University of Alberta, Canada

National Chiao Tung University, Taiwan

An automated composition system based on music power-level selection

Negotiating belonging, performing reciprocity: Kwakwaka’wakw ritual performance as practice

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An automated composition method based on the music power level section has been proposed. In this algorithm, a music piece can be generated by changing the power level. The power levels will be mapped to various music parameters; those parameters include tonality, chord, pitch interval, rhythm and tempo. Analyses of the power effects on those parameters have been made. The detailed formula is then constructed to coordinate each generated parts. Experimental results demonstrated that thousands of gorgeous pieces can be easily made without the necessity of a music database. This algorithmic composition method can be easily applied to portable music devices such as mobile phones, notebooks or mp3 players.

Central to the heritage of the Kwakwaka’wakw in Canada’s Pacific Northwest, the potlatch asserts history, family, and individual status, and provides the context for the ritualisation of all stages of life as community-building through belonging. From the point of view of Kwakwaka’wakw performativity, it is also possible to consider the negotiation of belonging that takes place in ‘potlatching’ as reflecting intercultural exchange between the coloniser and the colonised. This paper examines Kwakwaka’wakw performativity in the potlatch as a site for negotiating belonging by considering two versions of Edward Curtis’s documentation of the Kwakwaka’wakw potlatch: his 1914 film In the Land of the Head Hunters with an original orchestral score by John Braham; and a 1972 reconstruction of this footage by anthropologists Holm and Quimby, with a new soundtrack (retitled In the Land of the War Canoes). Repeated Kwakwaka’wakw engagement with this seemingly colonialist project bears close consideration, with the enactment of material and social exchange in the potlatch providing the means for understanding the uneven reciprocity of intercultural exchange. Negotiating belonging through such exchange took place on two separate occasions some sixty years apart, as the Kwakwaka’wakw defined their relationship with successive generations of filmmakers. Simply accepting a colonial critique of these films disempowers the Kwakwaka’wakw. In this presentation, we suggest a response that examines belonging and performativity from the Kwakwaka’wakw perspective as a step towards an indigenous oriented post-colonial theory of ritual.

Keywords: automated composition; music power level; music parameters Format: Mini-presentation (#96) and Poster (#96P)

Keywords: ritual; Kwakwaka’wakw; film; Canada; belonging Format: Single paper (#80)

Conference Abstracts p 60

Stuart James Cat Hope Edith Cowan University, Australia

Gesture and music composition: traversing matrices as a means of generating notated scores

Phillip Johnston The University of Newcastle, Australia

The polysynchronous film score: the relationship between narrative and music in the contemporary scores for silent film of Phillip Johnston

✢✢✢ ✢✢✢ The use of the matrix in pitch class theory has been widespread not only in music analysis, but also a major influence on compositional practice. A pitch matrix is commonly used to derive all inversions, retrogrades, and retrogradeinversions of a 12-tone row in all of its various permutations. Other relationships such as combinatoriality and row invariance were explored by Schoenberg and Babbitt, and Webern respectively. When total serialism emerged, Messiaen, Stockhausen, and Boulez used these systematic processes to not only determine pitch structures, but also rhythm, dynamics, timbre, tempo, and articulation. Due to the systematic nature of this process, many later developments in this area involved the use of computers. Peter Maxwell Davies also explored other extensions of the use of pitch matrices in his compositional practice by using plainsong melody as a source of melodic material in his Ave Maria Stella (1974) and A Mirror of Whitening Light (1976-77), as well as the use of magic squares to transform these pitch matrices in Davies’ Third and Sixth Symphonies. Along with the development of the micro-computer, algorithmic processing, and various gestural interfaces, such as the Kinect 3D, iPad, and movement and motion sensors, this poster investigates ways in which to explore these relationships in pitch, rhythm, dynamics, timbre, and articulation by generating music scores through a process of traversing these matrices by physical gesture. It is intended to explore some of the many varied tonal and atonal relationships that exist in a way that responds in realtime. Keywords: matrix; composition; computers; algorithmic; gesture

The ‘synchronous’ film score (presently the dominant model in both commercial and independent films) describes a relationship between music and image/narrative whereby whatever is on the screen is being echoed by the music. The ‘asynchronous’ model involves music which appears to contradict the image/narrative. Examples might be Stanley Kubrick’s use of Samuel Barber’s Adagio for Strings in the opening of Platoon (1986), or Francis Ford Coppola’s use of Cavalleria Rusticana in the final murder scenes of The Godfather, Part III. This too has become a cliché. The ‘polysynchronous’ film score is one which is not limited to one or the other, but chooses freely between these two approaches, and includes a third category which assumes, first of all, that music does not clearly express a simplistic point of view (happy vs sad, safe vs threatening), but is rather more complex and open; and second, that the film score is free to make more playful juxtapositions between music and image/narrative, including such elements as irony, historical reference, puns, asides, parallel narrative and other forms of subtext. Using video projection of scenes from my work as a composer of original scores for silent film over the last 20 years, this paper will discuss the ways in which my work interrogates the relationship between music and image/narrative in a more complex way than the synchronous/asynchronous dichotomy. Keywords: silent film; original score; music for film; polysynchronous; music and image Format: Single paper (#68)

Format: Poster (#132)

Conference Abstracts p 61

Daniela Kaleva

Jan Kane

University of South Australia, Australia

Australian Catholic University, Australia

Representation of intense emotions in the earliest extant melodramas

The emotional power of musical performance to mediate perceptions of musical learning and ability

✢✢✢ ✢✢✢ Combined spoken text, music, acting and visual effects (melodrama) has been used in ritual and theatre since antiquity to denote departures from reality, to bring attention to the inner world of characters and to depict supernatural events. Regardless of the genre, the function of melodrama is to intensify the expression of emotion, typically vehement passions, and to manipulate the emotional state of the listener or spectator. Being the earliest extant examples of notated melodrama, the melodrama passages in Johann Ernst Eberlin’s Benedictine school drama Sigismundus Burgundiae Rex (1751) are of central importance to music research concerned with techniques of musical encoding of human emotions. Excerpts from the drama have been preserved in a manuscript held in Kremsmünster, the music having been published in Denkmäler der Tonkunst in Österreich Vol. 55 in 1960. However, the dramatic and technical aspects of Eberlin’s melodrama writing have not been investigated so far. The paper analyses the earliest extant example of melodrama, its function in the dramatic narrative and the particular micro- and macro-structures of text and music. The incorporation of number melodrama as an autonomous number and as a transitional number within a scene as well as the employment of episode melodrama within an aria and stage effect melodrama, exemplifies melodrama functions and techniques used in opera and incidental music much later. The melodrama writing of Eberlin demonstrates the German melodrama writing style evident in the works of G. Benda, L. van Beethoven and C. M. von Weber. Keywords: melodrama; analysis; dramaturgy; J. E. Eberlin; L. van Beethoven; C. M. von Weber Format: Single paper #23)

The experience of performance is a powerful tool for change in perceptions of musical learning and ability. Confidence and competence in performance can be influenced by deeply held attitudes and beliefs about musical ability. These beliefs are often formed from two interlinked components of self-judgement of musical talent and comparative judgement with others. However, a co-operative group-centred approach to musical performance can have a mediating effect and can promote positive feelings about musical abilities and learning. The key factors of performance preparation, collaboration and creative contribution can have a powerful influence on participants. While the strength of self-efficacy related to musical ability may fluctuate during the preparation stages, it can be transformed into positive perceptions as a result of the experience of the performance itself. This paper will discuss this emotional power of performance in music through an examination of two sets of data taken from pre-service primary teacher education students. These students participated in a compulsory performance component in their teacher education program which required them to teach their peers about music through performance. The data was gathered through written reflective responses and small group interviews taken after the performances. The subjects revealed positive changes in their perceptions of musical knowledge and teaching skills, but more importantly they reported powerful feelings of pride and accomplishment which directly affected the perceptions of their musical abilities. This paper will examine these findings and discuss the educational implications of the emotional power of music to influence musical perceptions and learning. Keywords: performance; perceptions; musical ability; musical learning; accomplishment Format: Single paper (#88)

Conference Abstracts p 62

Zubin Kanga

Sally Kester

Royal Academy of Music, United Kingdom

The University of Western Australia, Australia

Negotiating authority, sharing authorship: an exploration of integrative composerperformer collaboration in Alex Pozniak’s Interventions

Psychopathology in opera

✢✢✢ In the past five years the collaborative relationship between composer and performer has emerged as an important field of enquiry. Challenging the assumptions of distinct roles and creativity in solitude, recent research publications by Östersjö, Hayden/Windsor and Heyde/Fitch have examined their own creative practices to explore many different models of collaborative relationships. This conference presentation describes and analyses a recent collaboration undertaken by the author with Australian composer, Alex Pozniak, with a view to examining how, in certain circumstances, the boundaries between the roles of the composer and performer can dissolve and an integrated approach to compositional authorship emerges. In 2009, the author, a concert pianist, commissioned Australian composer, Alex Pozniak to compose a new work combining a virtuosic pianism with theatrical elements. The work, Interventions, was created in close collaboration between composer and performer. This is a rare case where almost all facets of the composition process – the generation of material, the honing and editing of this material and the notation – were all enacted collaboratively in workshops with the performer. This paper examines how the traditional authority (power) of the composer over creative space of his compositional work was removed, allowing authorship to be shared and creating new issues for performative authenticity for the collaborating performer. Using film footage of the workshops, compositional sketches and film of the premiere performance in Sydney in 2010, this paper introduces the concept of site-specific performance practice as a tool for understanding the complexities of composer-performer collaboration in the creation of new music.

✢✢✢ Human nature has always been fascinated by its own extremes and aberrations, as may be seen through its transmutation into art as, for instance, in the canon of classical Greek tragedy. Arguably the most Dionysian of the arts, opera provides – especially in its Romantic and post-Romantic manifestations – a reasonably comprehensive textbook of the shadow side of the psyche, the DSM-IV psychiatric manual in exotic guise. Psychosis is represented in various ‘mad scenes’ from Lucia, through Wozzeck, to the schizoid disintegration of Peter Grimes, while sexual pathology is selectively created in Don Giovanni, Tosca, Carmen and Salome. Using brief musical examples, this paper will consider how clinical psychodynamics are recreated in the power and passion of text plus music in opera. Keywords: opera; psychopathology; passion; madness; sexuality Format: Single paper (#274)

Keywords: collaboration; authority; authorship; composer; performer Format: Single paper (#249)

Conference Abstracts p 63

Melissa Khong

Jan-Piet Knijff

The City University of New York, United States of America

University of New England, Australia

Composing emotions: decoding Guillaume Lekeu’s Meditation in g for String Quartet

Giuseppe Martucci’s piano transcriptions of old masters, especially J.S. Bach

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Guillaume Lekeu (1870-1894) was the James Dean of his generation, a darling of the Parisian artistic elite headed for imminent success, were it not for his inopportune death. Propelled by the philosophy of Schopenhauer and the poetry of Baudelaire and Mallarmé, the young Walloon composer’s fascination with the tragically morbid brought a heightened emotional intensity to his works that has remained characteristic of his musical language. While scholars have striven to unveil extra-musical connotations behind these compositions, substantiating a narrative is often a difficult and inconclusive task, as Lekeu seldom divulges his intentions overtly. However, a neglected early work written before Lekeu’s move to Paris provides a valuable testimony that demonstrates Lekeu’s musical concretisation of his expressive thoughts. The Meditation in g for String Quartet (1887) is an emotionally- charged work accompanied by a decadent yet explicit commentary, allowing a direct correlation to be drawn between the described intentions and their musical equivalents. In a close reading of both the score and commentary, I illustrate how extreme emotions including despair, salvation, and suffering are individually encoded into the musical themes, rhythmic profile, and harmonic nuances of the work. Further investigation into the narrative context provided by the commentary reveals the nascent stages of Lekeu’s distinctive manipulation of form and phrase lengths, stylistic features that will emerge more fully in his later works. The analysis of Lekeu’s Meditation in g breaks the enigmatic barrier between composer and listener, contributing significantly towards a more enlightened understanding of Lekeu’s expressive intentions.

In addition to symphonies, oratorio, chamber works, and piano music, the Italian composer, conductor, and pianist Giuseppe Martucci (1856–1909) – championed by Arturo Toscanini – left transcriptions for solo piano of music by (mostly) eighteenth-century masters such as Lully, Rameau, Handel, Glück, and Mozart; yet his most remarkable achievement in this field is surely the transcription of J.S. Bach’s Orchestral Suites Nos 1-3. The study of Martucci’s transcriptions offers valuable insight in the appreciation and interpretation of the music of these old masters in the late-nineteenth-century. Other than his near-contemporary Feruccio Busoni, Martucci steers clear from changing harmonies and adding ‘niceties’ to Bach’s music, translating Bach’s orchestral works into a refined post-Lisztian piano idiom. Dynamics are added, trills often spelled out; in addition, Martucci’s detailed fingering, pedalling, and tempo indications are an invaluable source for late-nineteenthcentury performance practice. With the notes themselves and the technical indications as point of departure and constant frame of reference, the paper will focus on Martucci’s tempo indications, including his metronome marks. While some of these are obviously correct (indicating a substantially slower tempo than is customary today), many others are apparently inconsistent with the Italian tempo indications and the musical text itself: when taken literally, they would make Martucci’s sophisticated transcriptions utterly unplayable. An explanation using the ‘metric’ or ‘variable’ use of the metronome proposed by Talsma and others helps to reveal the beauty of Martucci’s arrangements and, it is hoped, the power of Bach’s music.

Keywords: Guillaume Lekeu; emotional language; fin-de-siècle; analysis; aesthetics

Keywords: Bach; Martucci; performance practice; tempo; transcription

Format: Mini-presentation (#137)

Conference Abstracts p 64

Format: Single paper (#234)

Julian Koenig Thomas Hillecke SRH University Heidelberg, Germany

Alexandra Lamont Keele University, United Kingdom

Music therapy and the treatment of chronic pain

‘Making music makes me a real person’: the power of music across the lifespan

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Since the early nineties various approaches for the treatment of pain with music therapeutic interventions have been developed. Besides receptive music therapy techniques to treat acute and chronic pain (Spintge), some rather activityoriented concepts (Müller-Busch, Risch) were developed. In 1999 an interdisciplinary research group in Heidelberg started to develop the so-called ‘Heidelberg Model’ of music therapy for the treatment of chronic pain syndromes. Music therapists, psychologists and physicians investigated these concepts in various studies using standards of evidence-based research for different groups of patients. Three therapy manuals concerning the results have been published: chronic non-malignant pain (Hillecke), migraine in childhood (Leins) and malignant pain (Wormit). A manual for music therapy and the treatment of migraine and tension headache in adolescents is in progress (Baumgarth and Hillecke). The paper will present the ‘Heidelberg Model’ of music therapy for patients suffering from chronic pain according to the phase model of psychotherapeutic treatment. Each published manual will be presented by its specificity according to the treated spectrum of diagnoses or patient characteristics. Some interventions will be shown by video sequences of case examples. The research design of the past and present studies will be presented by method and criteria of outcome. Perspectives for research and practical application of music therapy in pain care will be discussed.

Involvement in music-making has many demonstrated benefits for health and wellbeing, and making music is a popular leisure activity for many adults. This paper addresses the psychological foundations of continued motivation to take part in music, exploring how the musical identities of amateur music-makers change across the lifespan and exploring how music has the power to support long-term sustained involvement amongst non-professionals. It draws on evidence gathered from key adult transitions, focusing on leaving education, entering the workplace, having a family, and retirement. Data from online surveys and followup interviews will be presented, including a wide range of amateur participants from across the world. Preliminary analysis reveals that adults’ self-expressed motivations for music-making strongly emphasise the love of music for its own sake, both in childhood and later in life, although the secondary goals of discovery about music and improving technical skills are also emphasised later in education. Two patterns of engagement are emerging: adults who continue making music throughout their lives, and those who stop for a period of time and return, who report having missed it. Having the ability to make music is seen as a resource which can be drawn on for emotional benefit throughout life, unlike some other leisure activities, and respondents comment on the immense and intense emotional benefits they gain from music making. The final results will explore the process of developing, maintaining and resuscitating a sense of musical identity, providing insight into the power and importance of music-making alongside other life pressures.

Keywords: music therapy; pain; evidence-based; manualised music therapy Format: Themed panel (#214)

Keywords: participation; motivation; biography; identity; positive psychology Format: Single paper (#5)

Conference Abstracts p 65

Bernadette Lannen

David Larkin

The University of Newcastle, Australia

The University of Sydney, Australia

From soundwaves to brainwaves: investigating the effects of choral singing on stroke rehabilitation and quality of life

Liszt’s Mephisto and the seductions of virtuosity ✢✢✢

✢✢✢ Arts/Health is a rapidly developing domain in modern medicine, with music and singing widely recognised as powerful tools for enhancing mood and well-being. A growing body of research has also highlighted the benefits of music therapy and singing for people living with chronic illness. Furthermore, recent evidence suggests that singing in a choir may provide benefits to the speech fluency and intelligibility of stroke survivors. Stroke is the second leading cause of death in Australia and a major source of disability, costing Australia over $2 billion every year. The effects of stroke can be profound and long term and it is understood that these effects cannot be rehabilitated completely within the first year poststroke. With the ever-increasing weight of community rehabilitation needs on the health care system, there are growing challenges to develop creative means of improving health in cost effective ways. This poster is based upon current research into the effects of singing upon psychological outcomes, social integration and communication. The poster analyses results of a pilot study conducted in Newcastle, New South Wales in collaboration with Hunter New England Health and the University of Newcastle’s School of Medicine and Public Health and School of Drama, Fine Art & Music. The study explores the effects of choral singing on the quality of life, mood, community participation and communication skills of community-dwelling stroke survivors. This study is the first phase in a continuing project, assessing the feasibility of a choral treatment program for the growing population of stroke survivors. Keywords: stroke; choir; singing; rehabilitation; brain Format: Poster (#139)

Conference Abstracts p 66

Since at least the time of Plato, music’s ability to influence human behaviours has evoked both wonder and fear. This uncanny power has itself been explicitly celebrated in a wide range of musical works, the most obvious instances of which are the numerous treatments of the Orpheus legend. In this paper, I will explore a work in which the demonic powers of music are given full reign: Liszt’s First Mephisto Waltz, also known as The Dance at the Village Inn (1861). In the excerpt from Lenau’s Faust which prefaces the work, the fiddle-playing of the eponymous Mephisto so works on the protagonists that they lose all restraint and are engulfed in ‘a roaring sea of desire’. The commonplace idea of music as an aid to seduction is given a more sinister cast here: the devilish tune has the effect of inducing involuntary compliance in its hearers, subjugating the rational side of man to the animalistic. I will examine this work against the backdrop of Liszt’s own career as a pianist, in which he was regularly reported to have cast a spell over his hearers, leading to scenes of unbridled enthusiasm, even frenzy. The waltz thus serves as a kind of meta-reflection on the potency of virtuosity, and the way in which it can sway audiences. Given the continued popularity of the work as a showcase for pianists (and to a lesser extent, orchestras), it is clear that these issues are as relevant today as they were 150 years ago. Keywords: Liszt; seduction; virtuosity; Mephisto Waltz; involuntary response Format: Single paper (#225)

A painter

paints pictures

on canvas.

But musicians paint their

pictures on

silence.

Leopold Stokowski

Andrew Lawrence-King Guildhall School of Music and Drama, United Kingdom The University of Western Australia, Australia

Yvonne Leung Freya Bailes Catherine Stevens University of Western Sydney, Australia

Royal Danish Academy of Music, Denmark

‘Play this passionate’: gestures of emotion circa 1600

Playing with melodies: schematic and veridical expectations in melody recall and recognition

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Muovere gli affetti – how do we measure the heart-beat of seventeenth-century Italy’s ‘new music’? Amidst poets’ and composers’ experimental Art (new genres of music-drama, new ways to embody expressive roles, new compositional techniques for dramatic musical expression) and philosophers’ theories of Nature, by what practical power did performers set about ‘to move the passions’? Seventeenth-century sources prioritise rhythm, guided by the regular pulse of tactus. Even large-scale ensembles were not conducted. Peri’s recitar cantando is built upon a rhythmic structure comparable to Shakespeare’s iambics. The mix of structure and freedoms offered by tactus and Caccini’s sprezzatura is radically different from today’s post-romantic rubato. But nowadays, performers abandon rhythm in a search for expressivity, and productions of ‘early opera’ are routinely conducted. Historical rehearsal methodologies and evidence-based pedagogy can equip performers with skills for tactus-led performance. But the presence of such glaring anachronisms as nineteenth-century rubato and twentiethcentury conducting under the aegis of Historically Informed Practice is rooted deeper, in non-musical functions fulfilled in other ways in the seventeenth-century (and with clear parallels in today’s popular culture!) Rhythm – the dramatic timing of music-theatre – builds a platform for the singingactor’s highest priority, telling the story. ‘Action’ is embodied and viewed in gestures, coded and ‘natural’. To be powerful, historical gestures must also be personally authentic, supported by the entire body, synchronised with poetic flourishes and with the composer’s musical gestures. In Renaissance theory, Visions accompany performers’ response to the material and audience’s response to the performance. Basso continuo can provide a Vision for twenty-first-century practice.

Meyer (1956) suggested that musical expectations have a direct impact on our emotional response to music. The current study investigates the interface between schematic and veridical expectations in memory for melodies. In the first experiment, we investigated the effect of familiarity and structural similarity on melody recall. Distracters were introduced during a melodic contour recall task, by the presentation of a different melody. It was expected that participants would be more distracted by a familiar melody than a less familiar melody. Melody that was more structurally similar to the test melody was also predicted to be more distracting. Results showed that participants recalled familiar melodies as well as the less familiar melodies, and were not significantly distracted by a familiar melody or melody that was structurally similar to the test stimulus. It seems that participants had developed a certain level of veridical expectations for even the less familiar melodies. In order to elucidate the establishment of veridical expectations in memory, a second experiment investigates different levels of veridical expectations evoked when we listen to melodies. It is hypothesised that participants best recognise melodic changes in a recognition task for melodies that are familiar and conform to Western musical structures than melodies with a schematically unfamiliar structure based on microtones. After increasing the possible level of veridical expectation (that is, familiarity from repeated hearings) for melodies with an unfamiliar structure, participants are expected to recognise changes to these better than changes to unfamiliar melodies with Western musical structures.

Keywords: gesture; emotion; performance practice Format: Keynote paper (#282)

Conference Abstracts p 68

Keywords: expectations; memory; familiarity; musical structures; melody Format: Mini-presentation (#150)

Sonya Lifschitz

David Lockeridge

The University of Melbourne, Australia

The University of Newcastle, Australia

A musical dialogue: creative collaboration and co-construction of new work in contemporary performance practice

Exploring the diversity of contemporary western classical percussion repertoire: preparation techniques and how they influence performance

✢✢✢ ✢✢✢ As an art form based upon sonic impulse and its perception, music is a complex web of relationships between various systems of signification: sound, notation, emotion, embodied gesture and meaning. The most intangible of arts, music can nonetheless speak to us in most profound and inexplicably compelling ways. The sustainability of art music and its relevance to contemporary societies largely rests on ways in which we engage with music making and the kinds of performance environments we create for music to inhabit. Arguably, contemporary composition and performance practices will have an indelible impact on the longevity of this art form. Gleaned through rigorous reflection of the author’s own creative practice, this paper examines the many factors that feed into creation, interpretation and performance of new work. I propose that construction and transmission of contemporary work largely draws on dialectic and embodied interplay between composition, improvisation and interpretation. In this model, the performance is a result of a shared musical thinking in which the performer is not a mere reproducer of the written artefact – the score – but an equal agency in a musical dialogue. Drawing on contemporary theories of collaborative creativity the paper will explore the notion that co-creative engagement between contemporary performers and composers yields artistic and expressive outcomes far greater than the additive power of individual skills and has profound implications of artistic identity, locus of creativity, notational practices and interdisciplinary interface.

The marimba is one of the oldest instruments in existence, with its concept and method of sound production stemming from a history of thousands of years in Africa. Despite this, percussion repertoire in western classical music has developed only over approximately the last 60 years, making it one of the newest genres in western classical music. My research looks at the diversity of western classical percussion repertoire, as well as the diverse and virtuosic nature of percussive techniques. This includes issues such as the four-mallet marimba grip and how it can be extended and used to perform repertoire of earlier periods. My current research is based on four contrasting recitals: two solo recitals, a chamber music recital and a concerto. By keeping a journal and personal reflection on the preparation before each recital, I can look for common themes occurring in different performances, and whether there is a generally applicable method that can be adopted. Gerard Brophy is a well-known Australian composer who is currently composing a concerto which I will premiere in 2012. This research will highlight the process of performing alongside a composer and how understanding the diverse techniques can push the range of both the performer and the repertoire. By using personal journals and resources, I aim to work out different methods of preparation, how they can be used in rehearsals and performances, and ultimately whether they do make a difference. Keywords: percussion; rehearsal; composition; technique; repertoire

Keywords: creativity; expression; collaboration; artistic identity; performance

Format: Single paper (#92)

Format: Single paper (#142)

Conference Abstracts p 69

Karlin Love Margaret Barrett The University of Queensland, Australia

Stephen Loy Australian National University, Australia

The first rehearsal: hearing from initial encounters of emerging composers with a professional orchestra

Beethoven and radicalism: socio-political engagement and awareness of tradition at the time of the 1970 Bicentenary

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Workshops with professional performance ensembles are significant events along the pathway from student to professional composer. In this study, the ensemble was a symphony orchestra. Emerging composers brought pre-composed works into the orchestra’s environment for rehearsal and performance. The composers describe the first rehearsal experience as terrifying, exhilarating, sickening, overpowering, numbing, deeply disappointing, and ‘just what I expected’. Accompanying them in this crucible were several established composer-tutors and a composer-conductor. This narrative is presented as an interrupted description: researcher observations are interrupted and commented upon by the emerging composers, tutors, conductor, players, and voices from expertise, learning community, and creativity literature. The resultant counterpoint suggests insights into the questions: What are they learning? How are they learning? How does this intense experience engage formal, informal, intuitive, self-regulatory, and impressionistic kinds of knowledge? What does this experience contribute to their journeys?

The high incidence of compositions of a radical persuasion that interacted with the music of Beethoven between 1968 and 1977 reflects both the close relationship between aesthetic and radical socio-political currents of the period, and the prominence with which Beethoven was used as an emblem of tradition in such radical works. Often implicit in these compositions, as in the radical social and political movements themselves, was a need to interact with elements of tradition as a means of simultaneously acknowledging a debt to, and rejecting and developing from the past. Louis Andriessen’s Nine Symphonies of Beethoven, Mauricio Kagel’s Ludwig van, and Karlheinz Stockhausen’s Kurzwellen mit Beethoven are among several compositions of the period which, as part of an engagement with contemporary social and political issues, made reference to Beethoven through techniques of collage and stylistic juxtaposition, combining a radical aesthetic with musical material that invoked the Western European classical canon. Whilst the occurrence of the Beethoven bicentenary in 1970 provided a focus, it will be argued that dual perceptions of Beethoven, as having an affinity with both the revolutionary movements of the time, and the established bourgeois social structures against which they were rebelling, was a significant motivation for the use of Beethoven as a figure of traditional reference for compositional considerations of cultural, social and political issues of the period.

Keywords: narrative inquiry; emotion; learning and teaching; composition; musical identity Format: Themed panel (#251)

Keywords: Andriessen; Stockhausen; Kagel; Beethoven; collage Format: Single paper (#242)

Conference Abstracts p 70

Geoff Luck Suvi Saarikallio University of Jyväskylä, Finland

Geoff Luck Suvi Saarikallio Birgitta Burger University of Jyväskylä, Finland

Adolescents’ recognition, experience, and bodily expression of emotion in music

Influence of the Big Five on synchronisation with music

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Music, movement, and emotion are intimately connected. Previous research has demonstrated that even young children are to some extent able to identify basic emotions expressed by music and display those emotions through bodily movement. Movement to music has also been shown to be influenced by the mood and personality of the listener. Adolescents often feel strong emotional experiences to music, but little is known about bodily expression of musical emotion in this particular age group. Here, we investigate how adolescents convert basic emotions expressed by music into bodily expression, how their movements are influenced by their perception as compared to their experience of the music’s emotional content, and how movement characteristics are affected by mood and personality. Adolescents aged 14-15 were presented with 15 short excerpts of music selected to represent five basic emotions: happiness, sadness, tenderness, anger, and fear (three excerpts per emotion covering a range of musical styles, including rock, pop, classical, and soundtrack). Body movement was recorded with an optical motion capture system. After each excerpt, participants stated the emotion they perceived, the clarity with which it was expressed, the strength of the emotion they experienced, and ratings of preference, movability, and familiarity with the excerpt. Mood and personality were assessed with PANAS and TIPI, respectively. Data collection is ongoing, with half of the planned 50 participants so far recorded. Preliminary analyses suggest relationships between movement characteristics and perceived emotion, felt emotion, mood and personality. Detailed results will be presented at the conference.

Music has the power to move us. Literally. Everywhere we look, listeners are tapping their feet and swaying their body to parse musical structure, using different types of movements to embody different metrical levels of the music. Recently, personality has been shown to affect the types of movements people make. Here, we examine relationships between personality and the accuracy with which such movements are synchronised with the music. Thirty rhythmic music excerpts representing six genres (pop, rock, Latin, jazz, techno, and funk) were presented to 60 adult volunteers. Movements to the music were recorded using an optical motion capture system. Personality was assessed using the Big Five Inventory. For each excerpt, periodicity of seven body parts (neck, right shoulder, left hip, wrists, and ankles) was derived using autocorrelation, and synchronisation error relative to four metrical levels (half, one, two, and four times the beat period) calculated. Subsequent analyses were based on the beat level with the smallest difference. Positive relationships between high vs. low personality scores and synchronisation accuracy (lower synchronisation error) were identified for Openness (ankles, wrists, shoulder, and neck), Conscientiousness (ankles, shoulder, and neck), and Agreeableness (ankles and right wrist). Negative relationships (higher synchronisation error) were observed for Extraversion (left wrist) and Neuroticism (ankles). The clearest pattern of results was observed for Openness, with body parts being synchronised along multiple planes of movement. We conclude that personality not only influences the types of movements people make while listening to music, but also the degree of synchronisation achieved.

Keywords: basic emotions; adolescence; mood; personality; motion capture

Keywords: personality; corporeality; periodicity; metrical level; motion capture

Format: Poster (#166)

Format: Single paper (#220)

Conference Abstracts p 71

Geoff Luck Suvi Saarikallio Birgitta Burger Marc R. Thompson Petri Toiviainen

Sally Macarthur University of Western Sydney, Australia

University of Jyväskylä, Finland

Nonlinear effects of music preference on amplitude of dance activity

The power of the virtual in music scholarship: composing a women’s musical future as a ‘becoming-other-than-itself’

✢✢✢ ✢✢✢ Bodily movement, such as foot-tapping, body-swaying, and dancing to a musical beat is a ubiquitous human activity. The precise characteristics of these movements will likely be influenced by a number of factors, including preference for the music being listened to. Music is an effective emotioninducing medium, and other emotion-inducing stimuli have been shown to have a U-shaped relationship with the level of physiological arousal: neutral stimuli elicit low levels of arousal and both highly liked and highly disliked stimuli elicit higher levels. Amplitude of human movement, meanwhile, is driven by level of physiological arousal. Consequently, we predicted a similarly U-shaped relationship between music preference and arousal, as reflected in amplitude of quantitative movement descriptors. Sixty adults (17 male, mean age = 24, SD of age = 3.3) were presented with 30 musical stimuli (each 30 s in length), five from each of the following genres: pop, rock, Latin, jazz, techno, and funk. Movement was recorded with an optical motion-capture system. Participants were recorded individually, and were asked to move or dance in a way that felt natural with regards to the stimuli presented. After presentation of each excerpt, participants rated it as being highly liked, highly disliked, or neutral. Subsequent analyses confirmed a nonlinear U-shaped effect of preference on music-induced dance activity. Specifically, range, speed, and jerkiness of motion, as well as estimated energy expenditure were low for neutral music, and higher to both highly liked and highly disliked music. Keywords: emotion; physiological arousal; music-induced movement; motion capture; musical taste Format: Poster (#170)

The feminist research endeavour in music, among other political agenda, aimed to improve the visibility of women composers in the concert hall. In the 1990s, a wealth of research became available. In the first decade of the twentyfirst century, however, all that had been previously achieved faded away: scholars seemed to lose interest in women’s music destined for the concert hall. Any number of reasons might be given, including the resistance of some researchers to aligning themselves with music that emerges from the elitist concert hall tradition and/or to the threat of extinction facing classical music writ large. Overriding any single factor, however, as I will argue in this paper, is the static way in which the research on women’s ‘new’ music has been conducted. The paradox of this work is its unavoidable replication of the past by envisioning the future from the standpoint of the present. Such work inevitably reinforces the status quo. While acknowledging that it is impossible to generate new ways of thinking that are entirely disconnected from the old, I will draw on Deleuze, and feminist-Deleuzian scholarship, to offer new possibilities for thought and action. In particular, I will explore the power of the ‘virtual’, suggesting that some women’s music might be understood as a ‘becoming-imperceptible’, in Braidotti’s interpretation, as the process of ‘becoming-other-than-itself’, suspended between the no-longer and the not-yet. I will illustrate the paper with examples of recent analytical work on women’s ‘new’ music, showing that the notion of ‘becoming’ allows me both to direct my thinking toward imperceptibility and toward differentiation and actualisation. Keywords: Deleuze; feminist theory; art music; women’s ‘new’ music; music scholarship Format: Single paper (#231)

Conference Abstracts p 72

Alan Maddox

Jeremy Marriott

The University of Sydney, Australia

Curtin University, Australia

Rhetorical decorum and the performance of identity in eighteenth-century dramma per musica

Music, arousal and self-injurious behaviour: a 3-stage mediating model for children with low functioning autism

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The rhetorical tradition, which lay at the heart of ideas of communication in early modern western Europe, identified four Virtues of Delivery which defined the desirable characteristics of performance: puritas (correctness), perspicuitas (clarity), decorum (appropriateness) and ornatus (speaking with distinction). Chief among these was the principle of decorum, or ‘aptness’, which dictated the parameters for embodying and presenting ideas in ways that would convey them most effectively in delivery. Decorum can also be understood more broadly as an ‘encompassing concept’ of classical rhetoric which provides a framework for decoding the multiple and overlapping identities which singers of eighteenth-century Italian opera, because of their special public and private status, performed both on and off the stage. In this broader sense, the concept of decorum clarifies what constituted ‘appropriate’ (and inappropriate) performance not only in relation to musical and dramatic delivery, but in the complex constructions of gender and sexuality, social and economic class, ethnicity, and personal and state power which singers of dramma per musica uniquely embodied, and which permeated the production and reception of settecento opera.

Research suggests that music can reduce arousal and that reducing arousal can reduce Self-Injurious Behaviour (SIB). The intention of this poster is to detail three studies designed to test a 3-Stage Mediating Model investigating whether arousal mediates the relationship between music and SIB among children with Low Functioning Autism (LFA). Study 1 involves the selection, performance and provision of music performed by David Helfgott in Rondo, Theme and Variations and Sonata forms rated by primary carers of those with autism from most to least calming. In Study 2, music rated as most calming from Study 1 will be used in a laboratory based randomised control trial designed to test the ability of Receptive Music Therapy (RMT) to reduce both arousal and SIB among children with LFA whilst watching video footage of a school bus journey. In this study, the footage forms a modified version of the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) to assess the effect of RMT on arousal via salivary cortisol and SIB frequency via observation. Then, within a six participant single-case design, Study 3 replicates the assessment of arousal and SIB in Study 2 when exposed to the most naturally occurring TSST; an actual school bus journey. It is hypothesised that salivary cortisol and SIB frequency will reduce as a result of the RMT in both Study 2 and Study 3. Further, it is suggested that the music selected in Study 1 then applied in Study 2 and Study 3, will provide the direction for identifying and/or composing music for specific clinical purpose. Results have the potential to assist children with LFA and SIB, primary carers and teachers whilst making a substantial contribution to the body of knowledge.

Keywords: decorum; identity; dramma per musica; embodiment; performance Format: Single paper (#188)

Keywords: music; arousal; self-injurious behaviour; low functioning autism Format: Poster (#275)

Conference Abstracts p 73

Philip Matthias

Eldonna L. May

The University of Newcastle, Australia

Wayne State University, United States of America

Robert Harris Northwestern University, United States of America

Choralography – the embodiment of sound for choirs with the integration of cross-over genres into choral music

Brazeal Dennard’s Legacy and the Cultural Impact of Spirituals ✢✢✢

✢✢✢ There is a widespread trend in music for the integration of diverse styles and creation of cross-over styles (for example, compositions for traditional orchestra which incorporate rock music styles). This integration has not fully reached the traditional choral music platform as the lines drawn between choral styles are usually distinct. The demarcation between choirs questions whether it is possible to create a choral sound and compositions that can stylistically accommodate a wide variety of genres and be in line with mainstream musical trends. Vocal sound is informed by embodiment, as can be seen and heard in African choral styles, Kodaly and Dalcroze Eurhythmics. Pop-styled choirs traditionally involve movement, but contain styles and/or harmonies which the ‘traditional’ choirs frown upon as banal or simplistic. Breaking these demarcation lines can be confrontational for singers, conductors, as traditionally, choirs do not borrow physical gestures usually found in popular music and musical theatre. Research has shown that movement combined with singing improves tone quality and expression (Peterson). The choral arrangements often necessitate an understanding of many styles. Examples given will include combination of textures associated with Baroque split choirs and traditional blues, and choral allusions to the musical theatre genre; these necessitate a performance style plausible enough to embrace multiple styles and genres in performance. This paper investigates the increasing use of choreography in choral performances and its empowering effect on singers and audiences alike, and how the resultant crossing of stylistic boundaries can increase musical engagement for present day audiences. Keywords: choir; movement; choreography; cross-over; style; empower Format: Single paper (#91)

Conference Abstracts p 74

Brazeal Dennard (1929-2010), who worked tirelessly to promote and preserve the works of African-American musicians through coalition building and social entrepreneurship in the arts, left behind a rich musical legacy in Detroit including the founding of the Brazeal Dennard Chorale in 1972, and the co-founding of the Detroit Symphony Orchestra’s Classical Roots concert series in 1978. Both entities are steeped in the traditions of African-American music and evidenced most notably in the spiritual. When speaking of spirituals Dennard remarked, ‘I am two generations removed from slavery’. In an interview published in The Detroit Free Press in 1997 he stated, ‘I grew up listening to the music that expressed our hopes and soothed our sorrows. It became a part of me. So in a sense [it] is the link to our past’. Both in performances of traditional works and in his own compositions, Dennard was most sensitive to embodied meaning in spirituals, along with their ability to communicate emotions through sound and structural devices. Dennard’s activities also perpetuated the Harlem Renaissance ideal by promoting the music of African-American composers and fostering the heritage of the Negro spiritual. In addition to serving as a series editor for Alliance Music Publishers, Inc., Dennard’s own compositions and arrangements of spirituals further preserved this rich legacy. Through his work as a music educator, composer and arranger, choral conductor and founder of the Brazeal Dennard Chorale, he fostered the genre of the spiritual, along with works by contemporary black composers and masterpieces by Bach, Beethoven, Brahms and others. Dennard built The Brazeal Dennard Chorale into a nationally recognised choir admired for its professionalism and wide repertoire. One

Katrina McFerran

Lucy Bolger

The University of Melbourne, Australia

The University of Melbourne, Australia

Daphne Rickson New Zealand School of Music, New Zealand

The power of musical relationships in schools: reflecting on the possibilities through the lens of community music therapy ✢✢✢ of his greatest achievements was the preservation of spirituals, the religious folk songs of African-American slaves, which he championed through performances, recordings, workshops, guest conducting, published arrangements, articles, historical research and the dialogue he maintained for decades with choral directors and singers throughout the country. This project explores the musical significance, contribution to diversity in Christian traditions, power, and cultural impact of the spiritual through critical and rhetorical analysis of selected musical works by Brazeal Dennard, including: ‘Hush, Somebody’s Calling My Name’, ‘Lord, I Want To Be A Christian’, and ‘Fare Ye Well’. Keywords: musicology; spirituals; composition; analysis; African-American music Format: Single paper (#8)

Community music therapy discourse has provided a new lens through which the traditional practice of music therapy can be re-viewed. A far greater emphasis is placed on reflexivity than on treatment within this approach, and there is a particular focus on the contexts where music helps. This supplements the more traditional approaches of behaviouralism, humanism and psychodynamic practice within music therapy and provides a richer palette for considering the value of music-making with young people in schools. This roundtable discussion will draw on community music therapy theory to examine the power of music to foster relationships within the school context – between students, teachers and the community. The consideration of relationships will also extend to those between professionals who use music within the school system, delineating the possible contribution of music therapy theory in relation to wellbeing. Expert panel members will draw on their own research in schools to illustrate how music has contributed to psychosocial wellbeing, the promotion of identity within the context of diversity, and encouraged greater recognition of the whole child within the school system. From this empirical basis, we will propose innovative uses of music within schools with an emphasis on the ‘wellbeing’ agenda that has been incorporated into policy internationally. A range of possibilities will be discussed that will be relevant to music therapists, music educators and those with an interest in how music fosters belonging, and can thus underpin development and learning. Keywords: community music therapy; music; schools; collaboration; identity; wellbeing Format: Roundtable (#218)

Conference Abstracts p 75

Jonathan McIntosh

Brett McKern

The University of Western Australia, Australia

Australian Institute of Music, Australia

Singing the dance: moving to mouth gamelan in a Balinese dance studio

Emotion as it enhances the power of liturgical music

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In Bali, traditional dance positions and movements are always coordinated with – and dependent upon – the musical accompaniment provided by a gamelan orchestra, whether supplied by a live ensemble or via a recording. During dance lessons, teachers frequently sing instructions to students in time with musical recordings. This manner of singing is commonly referred to as ‘mouth gamelan’ (gambelan mulut). The vocal instructions and corrections used as part of this teaching technique impart important information concerning the names of positions, changes from one position to another, locomotive transitions, facial expressions, details concerning the musical accompaniment, as well as the particular emotional qualities of a performance. During the early stages of learning, mouth gamelan allows children to musically and kinaesthetically navigate their way through a dance. Once having gained a certain level of performance proficiency, however, this approach enables children to execute a teacher’s instructions quickly and efficiently in the appropriate style. By drawing upon research concerning the imparting of knowledge through mnemonic practices associated with the body, this paper examines how mouth gamelan serves to articulate restrictive movement patterns that inform the practice of teachers and students in a dance studio (sanggar tari) in south-central Bali.

Liturgy, or services of the Church, are times at which people are engaged at their core levels. They are developing their core values, and trying to access their God. Liturgy has been referred to as a drama, and in order to be completely absorbing for those taking part, it uses all five senses. In sound and sight we use music. In music and the drama of the liturgy, emotion is inherent, but in order to make the liturgy its most powerful, the choice, performance and composition of music for the Church must be very aware of mood and emotion. This presentation will look at the composition of music for the liturgy and how music must be appropriately emotionally charged and its mood suited to its place in the structure of liturgy in order to impact at its most powerful on the congregation. The services of choral Evensong and Mass will be used as primary examples. By analysing the structure of the liturgy, the shape of moods intended to be created can be identified. With years of experience in the field, the presenter’s theory on the importance of mood in liturgy and thus liturgical music has been honed. Examples will be given of where the mood of the music has been appropriately matched to the liturgy and enhances it and where they are mismatched. Furthermore, the aim of giving music the opportunity to be its most effective liturgically cannot be separated from a study of the so-called postmodern paradigm of present-day worshippers. This has been studied through the writings of liturgiologists in theological and liturgical publications as well as in numerous present day worshipping situations, and will be briefly discussed and related back to the theory of the importance of mood in liturgy and thus the appropriate choice of liturgical music.

Keywords: ethnomusicology; Balinese music and dance; children’s expressive practice Format: Single paper (#157)

Keywords: church; liturgy; music; emotion; mood Formats: Mini-presentation (#13) and Poster (#13P)

Conference Abstracts p 76

Gary McPherson

Dean Merlino

The University of Melbourne, Australia

The University of Melbourne, Australia

Emotion in the lives of performing musicians

Soundlines: aural navigation of the contemporary environment

✢✢✢ ✢✢✢ Because music is often regarded as the ‘language of the emotions’ it makes sense to explore emotion in the lives of performers – those musicians who are charged with the responsibility of communicating composed or improvised music to listeners and of doing so in ways that bring to life an aural experience that can be deeply emotive for themselves and for those of us who are the recipients of their efforts. Such emotional responses during the act of performing and perceiving music seem especially important given the amount of time and effort musicians invest into refining their craft, and the difficulty many have in acquiring virtuosic technique. This presentation will cover a number of specific aspects of emotion and music performance: the role of practice and gaining expertise, the generation of expressive performance, and the off-stage emotional issues of performers. The key messages to be conveyed are that emotions play an important part in the lives of performers, and that any explanation of the art of music performance must involve more than a description of mere technical accomplishment. In my view, a more complete account of the art of performance should include an explanation of the emotional climate in which the musician works and performs. The elements of this explanation and the research into these mechanisms form the basis of this presentation.

Recent ethnographical enquiry has recognised the capacity for Indigenous knowledge systems to articulate epistemological, ontological and eschatological realities. The songlines of Indigenous Australians is a case in point. Here, articulations through song and music represent multiple layers of meaning concurrently. The songlines are a method of navigating topographical, social and temporal space simultaneously. This paper proposes a retelling of the songlines as soundlines in an attempt to recast aural perception systems in the modern environment. Beginning with Walter Benjamin’s contention in ‘The Storyteller’ that the eschatological has been lost to contemporary culture, this paper looks at the Cartesian optic fixation which has dominated cultural expression into the twenty-first century. By recognising the capacity of sound to break up and disembody spatial and temporal relationships this paper hopes to show the possibilities of sound and music to reconnect us with the timelessness of our collective stories. Keywords: soundlines; songlines; eschatology; sound and meaning; perception Format: Single paper (#163)

Keywords: emotional communication; motivation; self-efficacy; music performance anxiety Format: Themed panel (#175)

Conference Abstracts p 77

Eva-Marie Middleton

Daniel Milosavljevic

The University of Western Australia, Australia

University of Otago, New Zealand

Powerful performances of the past: recordings as a means of investigating the development of the twentieth-century early music movement

The power of pibroch : emotion and the classical music of the Scottish highland bagpipes

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Recorded archives, which now look back on more than a century of music history, are an invaluable resource for musicologists today. They provide a unique opportunity to explore how modes of performance practice and the musical tastes of audiences have changed over long stretches of time. Researchers have only in the past two decades come to avail themselves of these resources, investigating the development of instrumental and solo vocal performance and often focusing on recordings of romantic repertoire. But the possibilities of these archives are far greater. This paper turns to the resources of the British Library Sound Archive to see what it can tell us about the development of the twentieth-century early music movement, with a particular focus on the field of English a cappella choral music. While some writers of the time dismissed a cappella choral performance as impossible for ensembles of the early twentieth-century, a view reiterated by later writers and performers who saw themselves as improving on earlier faults, other contemporaries praised the achievements of the likes of R.R. Terry and The English Singers. By reflecting on recordings of similar repertoire from the pioneering ensembles of the first half of the twentieth-century and comparing them with those of established early music groups of the late twentieth-century, this paper will explore the development of the early music movement and its attitudes and values towards performance practice.

In Gaelic, the term piobaireachd (anglicised as pibroch) literally means piping, or what pipers do. However in recent times the term has come to represent the classical music of the Scottish Highland bagpipes, traditionally known as Ceòl Mór. Today pibroch still holds its literal meaning, but is widely used in bagpipe culture to refer to Ceòl Mór. Pibroch has a hazy history, but is thought to have been a musical style for the Scottish Highland bagpipes for over 500 years. Pibroch was a music historically written for and performed within contexts of celebration, mourning, victory, or warfare (amongst others). As a result individual pieces have associated stories that allow people to interpret emotion during a performance, and some of these stories come to be seen by some as highly emotional and ‘moving’. Today, significant changes have affected pibroch: where the highland clan system no longer exists; where there are now international enclaves of pibroch performance; and where romanticisation, editorialising and ‘empire’ have led to diverse interpretations of bagpiping and pibroch. As a result, the performance contexts of pibroch in contemporary society have also changed. Today pibroch is a music mostly maintained in competitive performance cultures, especially strong in Scotland, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, Canada, the United States of America, Australia, and New Zealand. This presentation will focus on the interpretation of emotion in association with pibroch performance, and the role that this process plays in maintaining pibroch cultures, particularly within Australia and New Zealand.

Keywords: recordings; early music; choral music; musical tastes; performance practice Format: Single paper (#64)

Keywords: pibroch; piobaireachd; bagpipe; emotion; Ceòl Mór Format: Single paper (#265)

Conference Abstracts p 78

Kazuma Mori

Stephen Mould

Hiroshima University, Japan

The University of Sydney, Australia

Lyric contents especially influence the emotional valence of low arousal segment in high arousal music

Fidelity to Fidelio

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Baerenreiter-Verlag are currently undertaking a historicalcritical complete Beethoven edition in association with the Beethoven Archive, Bonn. To date both a full score and vocal score of Fidelio have been published, though a Critical Report it still in preparation. The published vocal score contains a Preface, which focuses almost exclusively upon the incorporation of unwritten appoggiaturas in the vocal parts and an explanation of the traditions which inform and determine these practices. In association with the information in the Preface, a number of appoggiaturas (both upper note and lower note) are indicated in the body of the score. The preface makes clear that these are suggestions, but that the notion of adding unwritten appoggiaturas is a natural outcome of the performance practice of the time. Performers working with this edition are further encouraged to add further appoggiaturas according to what is described as ‘these rules of singing declamation’. I investigate the argument which advocates the incorporation of unwritten appoggiaturas in this work. I examine performances and recordings of Fidelio by some of the conductors of the twentieth-century whose readings of this work have come to be considered revelatory or iconic. I look for evidence of traditions of this practice in scores and performance treatises and guides. I consider the suggestions of this edition in relation to some of Beethoven’s other works which incorporate vocal parts. I conclude by considering the concept of Werktreue in this regard. I question exactly what is the work Fidelio which Beethoven composed, and draw some conclusions about how that work might best be represented in a vocal score, meant for practical study and use, within the context of a Critical Edition.

The majority of everyday listening contains lyric content. Earlier research showed that lyric content more strongly influenced the emotional valence of low arousal music in preference to high arousal music. However, high arousal music contains low loudness segments which are perceived as low arousal. The present study examines whether lyric content influences the emotional valence of low arousal (low loudness) segments in high arousal music. We set M condition in a high arousal foreign song (for example Swedish) where Japanese participants could not recognise its lyric content. We also set ML condition where the foreign song with happy or sad text lyric was translated into Japanese. Using computer technology, participants continuously rated musical emotion as happy or sad during M or ML condition. We compared time series rating between M and ML condition using fANOVA, and found that a significant result occurs in a time series. The results showed that the happy text lyric strengthened the happy emotion of a foreign song only when the loudness segment was lowered. In such segments, the sad text lyric also strengthened the sad emotion of foreign songs, suggesting that the low arousal segment in high arousal music was especially influenced by lyric content. Generally, emotional valence is more difficult to determine in low arousal music than high arousal music as the lyric content may affect emotional cues and strongly influence the listener. Keywords: emotion; music; lyric contents; arousal; time series rating Format: Poster (#76)

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Keywords: fidelity; Werktreue; performance practice; extemporisation; critical editions Format: Single paper (#278)

Conference Abstracts p 79

Katharine Nelligan

Kathleen Nelson

The University of Melbourne, Australia

The University of Sydney, Australia

Popular music and the female singersongwriter: self reflexivity as the means to empowerment

The power of the Spanish Exultet

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The Easter vigil chant, ‘Exultet iam angelica’, is part of a potent symbolic moment in the liturgy of the Roman rite. In Spain during the late Middle Ages a melody type which is sometimes referred to as the Spanish Exultet melody became widespread for this chant and appears to have become dominant in Spanish churches. Its rise to prominence however followed a period of remarkable melodic diversity for the text as is recorded in its earlier Iberian sources. This paper will discuss the move from a remarkable diversity to the dominance of the Spanish melody.

The concept of ‘female empowerment’ in popular music is sometimes measured according to industry recognition, prestigious awards, sales, popularity or even the artist’s capacity to influence consumers or the general public. While these factors are valid criteria for measuring empowerment, thinking of it in these terms often describes high-profile artists who have enjoyed wide-spread exposure and financial gain, rather than accounting for local Australian singersongwriters (such as Holly Throsby, Laura Jean, and Clare Bowditch) who do not necessarily enjoy a great deal of prominence, but are nonetheless deserving of the ‘empowered artist’ label. This paper re-negotiates the term ‘empowerment’ from external through to internal factors: external, including popularity, sales, awards and industry recognition; internal, embracing a self-reflexive concept that is realised from within the artist’s own consciousness. Based on the theories of Anthony Giddens, I present a model that can be applied to local artists who are considered marginal to mainstream popular music discourse. While this is not the only way female agency can be realised in popular music, the model presented in this paper can be considered one of the many ways female ‘empowerment’ is constituted. Keywords: empowerment; popular music; feminism; agency Format: Single paper (#256)

Conference Abstracts p 80

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Keywords: Exultet; Spain; chant; medieval; Easter Format: Single paper (#186)

If music be the

food of love, play on.

William Shakespeare

Marian Nelson

Shaun Ng

The University of Western Australia, Australia

The University of Sydney, Australia

The role of music in surviving poverty in the Philippines

Performing the trill in Marin Marais’ Pièces de viole

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This presentation investigates Filipinos’ engagement with music as an adaptive approach to survive poverty. According to the 2009 statistics report by the Philippine Overseas Employment Association (POEA), there is a total of 1,990 composers, musicians, and singers employed outside the country. The highest deployments are in Asia, followed by the Middle East. Two groups of band members working in Singapore and another two groups of band members working in the United Arab Emirates will be interviewed to verify that working outside their country as musicians brings about earnings that will meet the poverty threshold in the Philippines as indicated in the 2009 official poverty statistics. Complementing this data, the presentation examines the Filipinos’ musical behaviour. Using questionnaires, it seeks answers to questions such as: Are Filipinos genetically musical or are their talents nurtured by their social, economic, and cultural conditions? Considering its music history being heavily influenced by Spanish and American culture, do Filipino band members consider themselves to have a distinct musical style of their own? The conclusion of this study prompts reflection on possible revisions to music curricula in the Philippine education system. If the role of music assists in surviving poverty in the Philippines, then every Filipino citizen should be given a chance to learn and participate in music-making as a step towards encouraging and supporting one of the abilities that can become useful to the economic growth of the country.

It is generally assumed in modern performances of Baroque music that all trills should begin on the upper auxiliary note. This idea is often supported by a quote by the harpsichordist Francois Couperin from his L’Art de toucher le clavecin, which states: ‘Trills of any considerable length have three parts, which are not the same thing in execution as their appearance. 1. Stress (dwelling upon) [appuy] which should be placed on the note above the main note. 2. Repercussions [reiterations]. 3. The stopping-point.’ These words by Couperin are also cited in Grove Music Online to define the general anatomy of the trill or tremblement. After further study of the evidence pertaining to ornamentation in French Baroque music, I realised that this issue is not a straightforward one. I discovered that violists of the Baroque era had slightly different ideas about ornamentation. Almost every violist used a different name for the same kind of ornament. This is further complicated by their irregular use of symbols. Fortunately, for the tremblement, there was some uniformity as far as the symbols used; however, most violists, including Marin Marais, did not discuss its execution. This paper will discuss and analyse both historical and modern sources that discuss the tremblement in an effort to better understand this ornament and attempt to explain its usage in the context of the viol pieces of Marais.

Keywords: musical behaviour; adaptation; poverty; history; economic growth Format: Poster (#69)

Conference Abstracts p 82

Keywords: Marin Marais; baroque; viola da gamba; ornamentation; trill Format: Single paper (#232)

Le-Tuyen Nguyen

Jessica O’Bryan

Australian National University, Australia

The University of Queensland, Australia

Salil Sachdev Bridgewater State University, United States of America

Vietnamese gong culture in contemporary compositions

‘Oh oh oh, be still my beating heart!’ Narratives of singing teaching and learning

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Vietnamese Gong culture was recognised by UNESCO as a Masterpiece of Intangible Heritage of Humanity in 2005. Music is considered to have a sacred power and is used in various rituals of Vietnamese community life. Gong ensemble music is a divined language for the highlanders to communicate with the gods and the supernatural world. GuiHANGtar is a duo performing contemporary compositions inspired by Vietnamese Gong culture. The duo comprises guitarist Le-Tuyen Nguyen and percussionist Salil Sachdev. Traditional melodic and rhythmic idioms of the highlands are brought to life with a new voice through compositions for the guitar. To this are added an array of percussive sounds through instruments from various parts of the world. The lecture-recital demonstrates how Vietnamese musical materials and cultural contexts are used as a source of inspiration in the compositional process. The performance includes compositions with influences from Vietnamese melodic and rhythmic features, tone colour of the gongs, the sounds and activities of the harvesters, and the ritual rhythms of a highland festival.

The process of mediating emotion in one-to-one singing lessons is complex. It includes the development of musical expression; the pedagogical and personal relationship between student and teacher; song texts and their contexts; and the embodied act of singing itself. Songs and their emotional derivation and impact have been the source of frequent analysis within musicological studies, but rarely have the effects of emotion on the relationship between teacher and student been explored within the one-to-one singing lesson. This paper reports on a case study of a singing teacher and her singing student, where the interlacing threads of musical expressive development, emotional features of song texts and the embodiment of singing are explored through a narrative account that courses the path of the student’s singing lessons over one semester. Through semi-structured interviews with the participants, their written reflections on learning and teaching and an analysis of critical events in the videoed lessons, this account reveals how emotion is expressed, realised and negotiated over time within the unique setting of the one-to-one singing lesson.

Keywords: Vietnamese Gong culture; GuiHANGtar; highlands

Keywords: narrative inquiry; emotion; learning and teaching; composition; musical identity

Format: Performance (#14)

Format: Themed panel (#251)

Conference Abstracts p 83

Tom O’Halloran

Hidefumi Ohmura

Kazuo Okanoya

Edith Cowan University, Australia

Japan Science and Technology Agency, Japan

The University of Tokyo, Japan Japan Science and Technology Agency, Japan

Takayuki Hamano Japan Science and Technology Agency, Japan RIKEN Brain Science Institute, Japan Tamagawa University, Japan

Kiyoshi Furukawa Tokyo University of the Arts, Japan

Gesture as emotion: pre-composition with improvisation

Software for assessments of dynamic transitions in musical emotion

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Experiencing the emotional content of a piece can be likened to identifying and understanding the composer’s micro and macro musical gestures at play. The technical content of musical phrases, their background and context form distinct lines of communication with the listener and trigger emotional experiences. Improvisers deal with musical gestures very rapidly and spontaneously, and the most successful of these exhibit artistic expression freely without self-hindrance. It follows then, that improvisation is a useful tool for formal composition – as it often contains the kernel of a gesture (in an uninhibited state), which can then be refined, processed with other systems or extrapolated. Perhaps musical ideas that are borne through improvisation can be said to preserve an innocence or rawness that is worth preserving: as it is ideas that occur in unobscured music making that often speak with the most honest emotive content. If taken one step further, it is interesting to consider pieces that take advantage of improvisation proper within a predominately pre-composed work. Therein lies the fascinating combination of two compositional styles: the contemplated and the playful. A rich musical and emotive landscape can emerge through the interaction and synthesising of these practises. Results can be harnessed toward a common goal or allude to differing musics. In this presentation, several works by the author that have been composed using both organised systems and improvisation as a doorway to gesture and emotion shall be discussed: in terms of architecture, instrumentation, influences and their harmonic and rhythmic properties.

We present novel software for the psychological measurement of musical emotion, which implements an optimised design to capture its multidimensional and dynamic characteristics. There have been many methods proposed for quantitative evaluation of musical emotion. In the earliest time, listeners used a dial or a slider in real time to report the musical emotion. With recently proposed methods, listeners select a point in a two-dimensional space of musical emotion in real time. Although these methods provide easily analysable data for researchers, the framework of the measurement can be improved to better capture the reactions of the musical emotion. In such measurement, listeners are demanded to evaluate the music within a pre-defined scaling with consistency. Our software instead allows the user to ignore the scale and move around to any direction as they wish in the course of the measurement. This software offers a graphical user interface of two-dimensional emotion space (valence and arousal). The participants listen to music and report the movement of mind with mouse or other external devices such as a touch sensor. They can select a direction from eight directions, and move around to any point in the two-dimensional space flexibly just like a driving game. A grid-like background helps to indicate where the pointer is located in the space. This software integrates the premise that musical emotion is a temporal movement of mind, and allows the users to report such movements with extended flexibility and agility.

Keywords: gesture; emotion; pre-composed; improvisation; synthesising Format: Single paper (#169)

Conference Abstracts p 84

Keywords: measurement of musical emotion; continuous self-report method; dynamic transitions in musical emotion; response collection interfaces; computer software for self-report Format: Mini-presentation (#181) and Poster (#181P)

Rachel Orzech The University of Melbourne, Australia

Margaret Osborne Gary McPherson The University of Melbourne, Australia

Jane W. Davidson The University of Western Australia, Australia

Opera and nationalism in the Judaen desert: a production of Verdi’s Nabucco in Israel, 2010

Creating musical futures in Australian schools and communities: step 1 – What students think about studying music at school

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‘Va pensiero’, the famous Act III chorus from Verdi’s Nabucco, is commonly understood as a musical symbol of the Italian nationalist aspirations that preceded the revolutions of 1848. Despite the fact that musicologist Roger Parker has disproved widely-held assumptions about the political significance of the chorus and its status as metaphor for the Italian people’s political condition, ‘Va pensiero’ continues to be recognised as a powerful ‘vehicle of nostalgia’ for this period of Italian history and the nationalistic sentiments with which it is associated. In June 2010, the Israeli Opera, in an incredible technical and organisational feat, performed Nabucco at the foot of Masada, a UNESCO World Heritage protected site of ancient ruins on the edge of the Judaen desert. The performance of this opera, and particularly of the chorus of the Hebrew slaves longing for their lost homeland, took on a whole new level of meaning in this new context. According to Israeli national mythology, Masada was the site of a Jewish mass suicide in the first century, and this narrative has provided Israeli society with a nation-building myth since its founding as a state. The decision to choose Nabucco, with its story of exiled Hebrew slaves, as an appropriate work to perform at this site, was evidently a powerful political statement. This paper will explore the way in which the Israeli Opera’s production at Masada added a new dimension to the reception history of Verdi’s opera.

Almost no research exists that establishes how and why children develop the desire to pursue music as a school subject, and how their beliefs and attitudes about music are shaped by socio-contextual influences that may differ from other school subjects or areas of student engagement. This study draws on an expectancy-value theoretical framework to explore how and why there is significant variation between beliefs and attitudes toward music learning (in and outside of school) as compared with other areas of school learning. Students in grades 6 - 12 were sampled from Australian schools across low, medium and high socio-economic strata to determine their beliefs and attitudes about music as compared with other enrichment school subjects (visual arts, physical education/health) and so-called core academic subjects (mathematics, science, English, history). Students completed surveys which assessed their motivation (competence beliefs, values and task difficulty) and perceptions of interest, enjoyment, importance, usefulness of each subject and confidence, difficulty, and competence for and mastery of each subject. Through repeated measures analyses, comparisons of the students’ beliefs about music (in and outside school) as well as other areas of their learning (both formal and informal) and leisure/recreational activities, are examined according to gender, school grade, school type, interest and competence perceptions for all activities, and previous musical exposure. This research aims to develop targeted strategies to address misconceptions about music education and music in everyday life.

Keywords: opera; nationalism; Verdi; Israel; mythology Format: Single paper (#233)

Keywords: expectancy-value theory; motivation; music education; school subjects; attitudes Format: Single paper (#67)

Conference Abstracts p 85

Margaret Osborne

Ayako Otomo

The University of Melbourne, Australia

University of Otago, New Zealand

Managing music performance anxiety – research versus practice

Music, the Longinian sublime and Franco-Anglo aesthetics

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The life of a performing musician is intensely emotional. Not only is the performer required to reconstruct the emotional experience of the composition and deliver it faithfully to an audience, but they must also overcome their fears and worries surrounding the potential for performance failure and subsequent negative evaluation from the audience. Such cognitions contribute to performance anxiety, which is not necessarily, but often, experienced negatively. The musical and psychological research literature frequently recommends that clinicians working with musicians experiencing performance anxiety incorporate cognitive restructuring and exposure, as per the cognitive-behavioural method. However, both scientific and anecdotal evidence continues to be generated indicating that behavioural strategies alone may be all that is required to enhance performance quality for performers with mild to moderate music performance anxiety. Furthermore, recent transdiagnostic cognitive-behavioural anxiety treatment protocols may have new implications for the conceptualisation and treatment of music performance anxiety. This paper will tease out the individual factors that affect the relative importance of addressing cognitions versus behaviours in managing music performance anxiety. This will be done in reference to the triple vulnerabilities of emotion theory (genetic predisposition, generalised psychological vulnerability and specific, learned psychological vulnerabilities), as well as other psychological variables known to be associated with performance anxiety such as attention focus and self-efficacy, pedagogical strategies and musical skill and competency factors.

By the time of the 1674 re-dissemination of Longinus’s treatise On the Sublime (a new French translation by Nicolas Boileau), the concept of the sublime was declining in parallel with the power of the French monarchy. As the treatise was used to defend the idea of the ‘Ancients’ in the querelle des Anciens et des Modernes, the controversy itself mirrored the anachronistic nature of French Classicism during a period of transition with regard to monarchic power. Subsequently, however, the treatise was better received in England, as it was an ideological match for the views of the emergent middle class of the long eighteenth-century, including the liberal arts. This paper examines aesthetic elements of the sublime as reflected in the keyboard repertoire of both France and Britain from the seventeenth-century up to the point of the French querelle, when the core concept went in contrary directions in the two countries as the coming century loomed. Due to the shared scholarship and aesthetics between the regions and the artistic dominion of the French court both on the Continent and in the British Isles, this discussion will focus on the interrelation of the ideological and materialistic components of selected repertoires.

Keywords: emotional communication; motivation; self-efficacy; music performance anxiety Format: Themed panel (#175)

Conference Abstracts p 86

Keywords: aesthetics; seventeenth-century; France; Britain; music Format: Single paper (#98)

Jonathan Paget

Eleni Papalexiou

Edith Cowan University, Australia

University of Peloponnese, Greece

Avra Xepapadakou University of Crete, Greece

‘Little tastes of secret marvels’: notation and performance issues in the chitarriglia works of Stefano Pesori

Revisiting Wagner: the mise-en-scène of Romeo Castellucci’s Parsifal ✢✢✢

✢✢✢ Rhetorical defences of music’s power to move the soul are fairly ubiquitous in seventeenth-century books for lute or guitar, and Toccate di Chitarriglia by Stefano Pesori (a rare guitar book) is no exception. Stranger perhaps are his ‘secret’ instructions for delaying the effects of greying hair. Arguments regarding music’s affective power can fall flat (and appear as vanity) when the music fails to live up to these expectations. Such is the judgement that could easily be meted out to Pesori. The chitarriglia, a treble guitar not unlike the modern ukulele, achieved a remarkable albeit shortlived popularity. Much of Pesori’s music consists of primitive alfabeto notations (some texted and unrhythmed, some rhythmed but untexted), whose music we cannot hope to fully recreate. Moreover, Pesori’s more complex solo works have been mostly avoided by modern performers and editors because of their apparent notational ambiguities. This paper attempts a re-examination of Pesori, the ways that his alfabeti provide glimpses into a popular oral musical culture, and proposes possible solutions to the rhythmic conundrums in his mixed tablatures. As exemplars of later alfabeto practice, Pesori’s music provides fascinating insights into a musical culture of dancing, singing, improvisation, and the glorification of youth. It provides clues to the uses of chitarriglie in serenading, in ensemble and dance performance, and many exemplars of different ways of elaborating ground bass patterns. When re-evaluated in the light of these practices, his more complex solos can be seen (to quote his own words) as ‘little tastes of secret marvels’.

The proposed paper attempts to explore the relation between the libretto, the music and the image in the recent heretical mise-en-scène of the distinguished Italian theatre director Romeo Castellucci for Wagner’s opera Parsifal, which was staged in Brussels Opera in January 2011, under the musical direction of Hartmut Haenchen. Romeo Castellucci is well known for his provoking perception of theatre and his occupation with major tragic, classical and theological literary works. In his spectacles every kind of human knowledge, science and art, such as music, painting, opera, theology, history, medical science and philosophy turns to a scenic image. His aim is to subject the spectator’s gaze in a new reality that is disclosed by the deep meaning of the images presented on stage. Parsifal begins with the projection of a giant portrait of Nietzsche. A live white python is coiled around his ear to recall the notorious crisis and conflict between the philosopher and the musician. Three psychic spaces that follow form a set of metamorphosis. A dark forest with dense foliage brings us back to our childhood and the loci mystici of German mythology. A white sterile space that resembles a chemical laboratory plunges us into a world of sorcery and magic. An enormous human wave in ceaseless movement lures us into the eternal quest and peregrination of humanity. Wagner’s music, like a violent flow, floods the stage with ecumenical images, creating a new visual text. Romeo Castellucci’s personal mythology produces images that impinge on the sub-consciousness and the imagination of the audience, offering them the potentiality to interpret the Wagnerian Gesamtkunstwerk under a multisided philosophical and aesthetic prism.

Keywords: guitar; Pesori; Alfabeto; mixed tablature; improvisation Format: Single paper (#148)

Keywords: Wagner; Castellucci; Parsifal; opera; mise-en-scène Format: Single paper (#204)

Conference Abstracts p 87

Tim Patston

Priyeshni Peiris-Perera

The Peninsula School, Australia

University of the Visual & Performing Arts, Sri Lanka

Performance anxiety in musicians – the tyranny of perfectionism

Teaching musical expression to music students (piano) utilising twentieth-century piano music

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Music performance anxiety (MPA) is acknowledged as having high levels of prevalence across all populations of musicians; however the origins of MPA are poorly understood. Musicians often begin their studies at a young age, which makes the understanding of the developmental trajectory of critical importance. There has been little research into the cognitive mediators of MPA, those particular thinking styles which trigger feelings of anxiety related to music performance. The traditional view is that MPA is caused by mediators such as self-efficacy, level of preparation, and negative cognitions due to the presence of important others. Recent findings however suggest that self-oriented perfectionistic cognitions may be significant predictors of MPA. This paper will support the thesis that musicians demonstrate significantly higher levels of self-oriented perfectionism than the general population. It is also proposed that, despite high levels of preparation, musicians are dissatisfied with their performance. In fact, excessively high levels of preparation may only serve to reinforce perfectionistic beliefs, and generate high levels of anxiety. It is of concern that despite years of training, high levels of practice and performing experience, musicians are anxious individuals who fail to meet high selfimposed standards.

How often have we heard performances that were played with absolute faithfulness to the score but failed to convey the character of the music? Studies conducted on teachers’ opinions about musical expression showed that teachers thought that musical expression was one of the most important elements in music making and teaching. However, many teachers did not know about tools that could aid in the development of musical expression. Therefore this presentation will explore and examine recent studies in music and emotion in order to develop successful teaching strategies that can be used to teach expression in piano literature. It will demonstrate why twentieth-century piano literature is a good vehicle for teaching musical expression to music students because the style of the music provides a good platform for the students to express their feelings. In his study, the Five Facets of Musical Expression: A Psychologist’s Perspective on Music Performance, Patrick Juslin constructed the GERMS model, which is used as the foundation model in this presentation to demonstrate ways to analyse parameters in musical expression in performances and to apply them in teaching and learning piano repertoire. In the past two decades or so, many articles on developing musical expression in music students have been published, but unfortunately none has specifically dealt with teaching expression using twentieth-century music styles due to the complexity and rapid development of a diversity of styles by composers. This presentation will explore the criteria, teaching/learning strategies and musical parameters and cues that can be used to maximise the learning potential of musical expression using twentieth-century piano repertoire.

Keywords: emotional communication; motivation; self-efficacy; perfectionism; music performance anxiety Format: Themed panel (#175)

Keywords: musical expression; music; students; piano; teaching Format: Mini-presentation (#205) and Poster (#205P)

Conference Abstracts p 88

John A. Phillips

Carolyn Philpott

The University of Adelaide, Australia

University of Tasmania, Australia

The power of music compels you – the numinous in music, and the search for the finale of Bruckner’s Ninth

The sounds of silence: musical responses to the Antarctic landscape and experience ✢✢✢

✢✢✢ Expressly conceived as his last symphony and musical testament, Anton Bruckner characterised his Ninth Symphony as ‘Homage to Divine Majesty’ and dedicated it to ‘the dear Lord’. Traditionally presented in three movements, its fourth was discounted as mere sketch. Only recently has research established that Bruckner completed its conception months before his death, leaving a partly orchestrated score from which fragments were later ‘souvenired’. The Performing Version of the Finale on which I and my colleagues Nicola Samale, Giuseppe Mazzuca and Benjamin-Gunnar Cohrs have been involved since 1989, required over twenty years and innumerable successive revisions to arrive at its present state. It led to the decision by the Bruckner Complete Edition to publish a reconstruction of the surviving fragments of Bruckner’s autograph score, resulting in the first performance of the Finale fragments in Vienna (by the VSO under Harnoncourt 1999). Our Performing Version has been documented in over fifty performances and a dozen CD releases, a journey to culminate next year in performances by the Berlin Philharmonic under Simon Rattle. What is it about this musical enigma and its compelling character that has sustained our interest for so many years? Stylistically the Ninth marshals musical gestures that Bruckner found prefigured in the first movement of Beethoven’s Ninth and raised to heights of terrifying spiritual power. How did the fascination exercised by this music relate to the ‘numinous’ – the ‘wholly other’, that feeling of awe, mystery or terror that man experiences on confrontation with the divine or transcendent?

Since the beginning of the ‘Heroic Age’ of Antarctic exploration in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, first-hand experiences and second-hand impressions of the Antarctic landscape and environment have prompted powerful artistic responses from writers, landscape artists, photographers, film-makers and composers. In turn, these artistic interpretations have played a significant role in enhancing our knowledge and influencing our perceptions of Antarctica, which for many centuries prior remained something of an unknown, or even ‘imagined,’ place. This paper will explore various types of musical responses to the Antarctic, from a series of ballads and sea shanties composed by Gerald Doorly and J.D. Morrison on board the vessel ‘Morning’ (which was sent to locate and re-supply Captain Robert Falcon Scott and company aboard ‘Discovery’ in 1902), to the soundscape projects of Douglas Quin and the Antarctic-inspired symphonic works of Ralph Vaughan Williams and Peter Maxwell Davies. It will also include a discussion of the contribution of Australian composers, such as Nigel Westlake and Scott McIntyre, to the field of Antarctic music and offer insights into their personal visions of this unique landscape wilderness and its impact upon their creative work. Keywords: Antarctic; Antarctica; music; composers; landscape Format: Single paper (#140)

Keywords: historical; musicology; philosophy; theology; composition Format: Single paper (#135)

Conference Abstracts p 89

Georgia Pike Australian National University, Australia

Georgia Pike Nicole Mengel Robert Crisp Australian National University, Australia

Altruism in action: exploring concepts of excellence through a multi-disciplinary and multi-media analysis of critical incidents in altruistic music making

Family ties – whole family engagement in music making and its effect on student confidence and wellbeing ✢✢✢

✢✢✢ This presentation will focus on the use of film within my doctoral thesis, involving the analysis of critical incidents and case studies documented within the Australian National University’s Music Education Program. My thesis aims to explore the many facets of excellence in music in order to re-define and re-conceptualise excellence within a broad historical and social context. The Music Education Program has been in partnership with film production and distribution company, Ronin Films, since 1998, resulting in over 300 hours of archival footage. The footage documents the evolution of the Program’s Music Outreach Principle – from its beginnings within a single classroom through to its current dissemination to over 450 teachers, 28,000 students and countless community members. Selected critical incidents from the footage will be used to illuminate, analyse, evaluate and describe aspects of the Music Outreach Principle, which, through its alternative priorities and philosophies, offers a unique view of excellence in music. The initial findings from the film analysis will be discussed in light of an exploration of the beginnings of formal music making in Ancient Greece, and the etymology of relevant terms. The onehour presentation will be made up of 30 minutes of footage interspersed with commentary and discussion. Keywords: altruism; film; excellence; case studies; music

This paper will outline a project undertaken by the Australian National University’s Music Education Program (MEP) in the context of evaluating approaches to encouraging engagement in music from school to family to community in the lead up to Canberra’s 100th anniversary in 2013. The project focuses on the way in which family musical culture impacts on student engagement and confidence in music making. Schools have been selected to represent a crosssection of socio-economic status and ratings on the My School website. There was a time in Australian socio-cultural history when it was not uncommon for families to share time together making music. Nowadays, music is largely experienced passively and individually, through media such as iPods, television and the internet. Have we lost the art of sharing music as a family? Are the family road trips with the kids singing in the back of the car now a thing of the past? Parents and students from a selection of Australian Capital Territory schools will be surveyed about their musical backgrounds and their participation in music as a family unit. Each school will then host a family singing event, where whole families will be facilitated in music making through the MEP’s Music Outreach Principle. The sessions will be evaluated particularly in terms of the effect the sessions have had on student confidence and level of engagement. This paper will describe the methodology of the evaluation and outline the initial findings.

Format: Film (#48) Keywords: music; education; family; community; confidence Format: Mini-presentation (#126) and Poster (#126P)

Conference Abstracts p 90

Rebekah Plueckhahn Australian National University, Australia

Duut Soum in Concert: stage musical performances, the power of musical creativity and musical enculturation in Duut, Mongolia

Tijana Popovi Mladjenovi University of Arts in Belgrade, Serbia

The power of music: the possibility of positioning oneself towards the world and time ✢✢✢

✢✢✢ The performance of music in Duut Soum, Khovd Province Mongolia, has a causal dimension. The ‘good’ performances of key genres are viewed as having the ability to determine future social outcomes and assist in the creation of good fortune. In nairs, celebrations or feasts held at lifecycle events such as weddings, the singing of songs is a collective responsibility of all members present, where there is an expectation that they will sing well and bad singing is not allowed. The practice of this form of musical sociality results in young children being enculturated into this musical social life, where they are encouraged to perform and sing from a young age. Part of this enculturation process are stage concert performances, which play an integral part of musical and social life amongst the Altai Urianghai people of this rural mountain district. Fusing together both communist and post-communist performance processes, these performances form an important part of the rich and multifaceted value systems of which music, singing and performance is now a part in this post-transition context. Through the exploration of a stage concert performance and an example of nair musical sociality, this paper will examine the relationship between this stage performance practice and the causal role of musical sociality as it occurs in ritual occasions and wider Duut social life. I will propose that while not specifically a ritual occasion, these stage performances form a pivotal part in the creation of and enculturation into a form of Duut musical sociality. Keywords: performativity; musical sociality; Post-communism; socioeconomic change; Mongolia

Music is universal from a human aspect, but seems to be a strangely useless activity. Thus, what power does it have to be so naturally integrated in us that we cannot be free from it, even if we wish, or that when we hear music we listen to ourselves through it? Proceeding from the view that music is the matrix that integrates and embodies the dynamic effects of cultural processes and emotional meanings, the phenomenon of music is treated as the possible monistic personal world map or delocalised, non-linear, dynamic network of relationships, personified by a constant structural and functional flux. For it seems that music finds its place on the edges of the field of consciousness, penetrates that consciousness which separates the waking world from the dream one, relies on contemplating in those other dimensions which extend deeper than the relationship between the subject and the object, and works on the creation of all possible worlds within ourselves, but as the structure, sense or insignia of the Lebenswelt. In that context of the power of man’s musical dimension, seeking the truth and the desire for the truth are directed to the world which reveals itself in front of the work, such as Debussy’s ‘La Puerta del Vino’, in the processes of condensation, splitting and ambivalence, as well as in the phenomena of echo, silence and pulses of life and death, or in the process of rendering specific musical expressiveness and emotional climate of Debussian music unfolding in time. Keywords: emotional meaning; echo; phantasm of time; split reference and world of musical work; Debussy`s ‘La Puerta Del Vino’ Format: Mini-presentation (#101) and Poster (#101P)

Format: Single paper (#253)

Conference Abstracts p 91

Jonathan Powles

Costanza Preti

Australian National University, Australia

University of London, United Kingdom

Music as discourse of power

Live music as a means of managing stress in a paediatric healthcare setting

✢✢✢ ✢✢✢ When considering the status of the musical ‘work’ as art, or as the object of analytic inquiry, or as a cultural/historical artefact, or as a component of an educational canon, it is common to overlook the fact that such a work (if separable from any particular realisation) is essentially an instrument of power and control. A musical score is a set of instructions in which a composer explicitly inscribes his or her control over performers’ actions, body and identity. Think of Berio’s score of the Sequenza for solo voice, a demonstration of (male) compositional authority that demands exhibitionistic and possibly masochistic contortions of the (female) performer. Such a reading is central, rather than peripheral, to the work’s power. But this notion is extensible: the notion of Beethoven’s Ninth as an instrument of political crowd control, or U2’s ‘One’ as an emblem of totemic separation (‘them’ and ‘us’) similarly brings to the fore the power of a musical text, as an instrument of discourse, to control. This is a conception of musical signification that is essentially Foucaldian: musical as a web of discursive relations between subjectivities; personae as subjects created by the musical discourse and subject to the control of that discourse. This paper explores this notion of musical text as discourse of power in music performance (vs prime donne, ‘rank and file’), composition (‘authoritative’ editions) and education. Keywords: power; theory; semiotics; Berio; education Format: Single paper (#239)

The literature supports the notion that listening to music, and live music in particular, can affect hospitalised children, by enhancing relaxation, providing distraction and helping them to verbalise the hospital experience in order to cope better with it. Furthermore, seen through the lens of Lazarus’s transactional stress theory, music, through its distracting and soothing qualities and the familiarity of the repertoire, may function as a form of ‘social support’ and impact positively on the coping mechanism of the hospitalised child. Music, therefore, may influence the child-patients’ perceptions of the hospital environment and, consequently, of any perceived threat associated with it. This research looks at the impact of live music on children and their caregivers in a paediatric hospital, in Italy. Observations were carried out over a period of four weeks involving 162 children and 146 caregivers. In addition, interviews were conducted with 14 children and 22 caregivers. Subsequently, thematic analysis and content analysis were performed on four modes of data (observations, videos, interviews, field notes) with the support of Atlas.ti software. Results suggest that, in this context, there is evidence that the musical intervention helps children and their families to focus their attention on something that is external to the illness. Through the familiarity of the repertoire, children’s perceptions of the hospital environment turn into something more familiar and less threatening. Consequently, the music constitutes for children and their families a psychosocial space where they can interact without the anxiety and stress elicited by diagnosis-feared perception and illness. Keywords: active and receptive music approaches in paediatrics; music health and wellbeing; psychosocial music interventions; live music in hospitals Format: Single paper (#116)

Conference Abstracts p 92

Jon Prince James H. Sunderland

Lena Quinto William Forde Thompson

Murdoch University, Australia

Macquarie University, Australia

Pitch and temporal contributions to melodic expectancy

The contributions of compositional structure and performance expression to the communication of emotion and expressivity in music

✢✢✢ Research on melodic expectancy has largely focused on responses to single notes following a musical context, however expectancies may occur over a longer time period than single notes. Additionally, the role of pitch and time (and how they combine) in forming melodic expectations is unclear. Therefore this research investigates the relative contributions of pitch and temporal information in judgements of melodic expectancy. Melodies were split into halves (based on complete musical phrases) and the pitch and temporal content of the second half was manipulated independently. Each dimension could consist of the original sequence (of pitches, or durations), a neutralised sequence (isochronous, or monotonic), or a random arrangement (atonal, or ametric). Factorial variation yielded 9 stimulus conditions based on these manipulations. Participants rated how expected the second half of the melody was, but with one of three instructions (varied in blocks): attend pitch (ignore time), attend time (ignore pitch), or attend both. Expectancy ratings are examined for effects of pitch, time, and pitch-time interaction for each instructional condition. This design allows for tests of selective attention failure, and linear or interactive contributions of pitch and timing to participants’ responses. Data collection was ongoing at the time of writing, but preliminary indications were that both pitch and temporal content influence ratings in all conditions. Furthermore, the pattern of contribution of each dimension should vary across instructional condition. This research contributes to the literature on musical expectancies and pitch-time integration. Keywords: melodic expectancy; pitch-time integration; music cognition; psychology; selective attention Format: Poster (#66)

✢✢✢ In Western classical music, composers use compositional structure (pitch and rhythm) to convey emotion while performers use performance expression (changes in dynamics, tempo, timing and pitch). These two channels are usually combined but each may contribute differently to listeners’ perceptions of emotion because composers and performers control different acoustic and structural attributes of music. This study examined the contributions of each channel by creating stimuli in which musicians attempted to communicate discrete emotions in three ways: performance expression, composition and the combination of both. In a series of experiments, we examined how composition and performance each contribute to: a) the ability to interpret intended emotional meanings, b) perceptions of emotional dimensions (valence and arousal), and c) perceptions of overall expressivity. Results showed that accuracy of emotional decoding depended on the emotion and channel of communication. Performance was more effective for communicating anger and sadness whereas composition was more effective at communicating fear and happiness. Performance was also better able to influence perceptions of arousal while composition was better able to influence perceptions of valence. Finally, both channels have the capacity to influence perceptions of expressivity, although there was a slight advantage for the performance channel. The implications for performance, composition, and emotional communication will be discussed. Keywords: emotional communication; performance expression; composition; expressivity; music cognition and perception Format: Single paper (#97)

Conference Abstracts p 93

Will M. Randall Nikki Rickard Monash University, Australia

Emotion regulation through everyday music use in adolescence

James Renwick The University of Sydney, Australia

Emotional and aesthetic connection with performed music as a motivator for advanced music students

✢✢✢ ✢✢✢ Music is an essential part of everyday life for adolescents, and music use is linked to adolescent psychosocial development. Adolescence is also a time of emotional unrest, with declines in mental health and increased need for selfregulation of emotions. Music use has been established as an effective regulatory strategy, and can serve as a means for self-therapy. However, previous research investigating music-related regulation has lacked empirical evidence and grounding in general emotion regulation theory. The current study aims to investigate emotion regulation though music use, and determine the effectiveness of particular strategies, in relation to established models of emotion regulation. It will do this using a modified experience sampling method, in which data will be collected using a smartphone application. Participants will download the application to their own device, from which it will record data on their natural listening patterns over a two-week period. The application will collect real-time subjective data on the emotional impact of music, regulatory strategies used, as well as on music and social context variables. It will also collect data through longer psychometric questionnaires, on listener variables such as personality, well-being and musical experience. The data are currently being collected and will be presented at the conference. The results will reveal how adolescents use music in their everyday lives to self-regulate emotions, and the effectiveness of particular regulatory strategies. This study will also determine how emotion regulation through music use relates to established models of emotion regulation. Keywords: music; emotion; regulation; adolescence; ESM Format: Poster (#87)

Motivation research among music performance students has adapted theories from educational psychology, such as self-efficacy, achievement goals, and causal attributions, while musicians’ biographies and presentation in the media tend to emphasise the importance of emotional and aesthetic self-expression as a key motivator for the hard work necessary to build musical expertise. The author’s previous research with school-age students with moderate levels of commitment pointed to a range of motives lying along an intrinsic-extrinsic continuum. The present study sought to extend this by focusing on the nature of intrinsic motivation – the motivation to engage in skill development for its own musical and pleasurable rewards – in a sample of talented adolescents and young adults committed to advanced training. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 45 people aged 13 to 31 pursuing advanced training in jazz, popular, and classical music in Sydney. Questions focused on what motivates the participants to engage in musicmaking and investigated motivational antecedents and consequences of significant musical experiences. Theoretical concerns were embedded in questions, but interviewees’ perspectives guided the dialogue. Transcripts were analysed using NVivo software according to grounded theory principles. This paper concentrates on themes that show the tendency for music-making – initially intrinsically and/ or socially motivated in a recreational context – to take on powerful vocational, communicative, and aesthetic motives. The study adds to our understanding of the richness of musicians’ motivation across a range of styles and ages, and of what might assist in nurturing environments for the development of a healthy artistic engagement in music learning. Keywords: emotional communication; motivation; self-efficacy Format: Themed panel (#175)

Conference Abstracts p 94

Adrian Renzo The University of Auckland, New Zealand

Nikki Rickard Tan Chyuan Chin Will M. Randall Monash University, Australia

‘I feel love’: questioning the genealogy of electronic dance music

A physiological assessment of music-based emotion regulation

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Some scholars have described electronic dance music as powerful or subversive because (in contrast to much Western popular music) dance music eschews verbal meaning. Rather than foregrounding lyrics, genres such as house and techno privilege instrumental textures and explorations of novel timbres. In this paper, I argue that the dominant narrative of electronic dance music is partial, and is supported by a selective mode of listening. Critics have perpetuated this narrative by treating ‘songs’ as ‘tracks’, de-emphasising the music’s pop roots in favour of other elements. Such a strategy has allowed scholars to subsume a range of pop records under the umbrella ‘electronic dance music’, while paradoxically pushing ‘pop’ away as dance music’s Other. To provide an example, the paper explores ways in which Donna Summer’s ‘I Feel Love’ (1977) has been retrospectively constructed as an early example of electronic dance music. Various critics have described ‘I Feel Love’ both as a radical break from pop’s past (with its use of ‘futuristic’ Moog synthesiser sounds) and as a dramatic harbinger of things to come (foreshadowing dance genres such as trance and techno). While the critical commentary privileges the song’s divergence from pop norms, we can also hear Summer’s track as a conventional pop song in verse-chorus form. In light of this analysis, the paper argues that critics perpetuate canons not only by adopting a selective view of music history, but also by emphasising certain aspects of the music at the expense of others.

Emotions are frequently reported as one of the primary reasons for listening to music. Considerable research has demonstrated that music does appear capable of inducing emotions, as indexed both subjectively and physiologically. Less research has explored how music might enhance the capacity to regulate emotional responses to other stimuli. Surveys of adolescents and older people indicate that music is used in a variety of ways to enhance emotion regulation, although the efficacy of music-based emotion regulation has not been tested. In this study, we determine whether music enhances regulation of emotional responses using several objective measure of emotion regulation. Thirty right-handed participants will view aversive or neutral images, and will be asked to respond naturally, or to ‘reappraise’ the images in a more positive light. The event related potentials, P300 and LPP, and the high frequency component of heart rate variability, are each sensitive to voluntary emotion regulation using this paradigm. These physiological indices will be recorded during multiple trials of this task, either in the presence of calming music, a radio show extract, or silence. The data are currently being collected, and will be presented at the conference. The results should enable changes in these indices resulting from music-enhanced emotion regulation to be distinguished from distraction-enhanced emotion regulation (via a radio show control), music processing (via the neutral image with music) and emotional response (via emotional response without emotion regulation instruction) components. The findings have implications for the utilisation of music to enhance emotion regulation in everyday events.

Keywords: electronic dance music; popular music; form; criticism; history Format: Single paper (#79)

Keywords: heart rate variability; event related potentials; emotion regulation; P300; psychophysiology Format: Single paper (#33)

Conference Abstracts p 95

Daphne Rickson

Anthony Ritchie

New Zealand School of Music, New Zealand

University of Otago, New Zealand

‘Music... it’s the right thing to do’: the power of music to build teacher-student relationships

The balance of head and heart: issues surrounding contemporary composition ✢✢✢

✢✢✢ Children’s right to participate fully with their peers has been strongly advocated over recent decades. Teachers are now charged with educating large numbers of children with diverse abilities, including those who have significant development and learning needs. Nevertheless, many teachers remain overwhelmed by this task and tend to rely on visiting ‘experts’, such as music therapists, to provide direct intervention for students, particularly to those who have high levels of need. Despite their desire to include students in learning experiences, and their understanding that many students with special needs are attracted to music, teachers do not feel as if they have the time or skills to use music as a tool to promote learning and development. In contrast, by drawing on case studies in music therapy consultation, the presenter will demonstrate how the music therapist can work as a consultant, helping teachers and teachers’ aides to ‘musick’ throughout the school day. It will be shown that empowering teachers to use music, usually in very simple ways, enhanced teacher-student relationships and thus improved student potential to participate and learn in the regular school environment. Music making, and listening to music, engaged the children, facilitated their interaction, supported their participation, and highlighted their abilities and strengths. Thus staff members were more motivated to work with the children, and were encouraged to continue to develop their use of music to support student learning and development across the board. Keywords: music therapy; relationships; school; special education; inclusion Format: Single paper (#83)

Conference Abstracts p 96

In the twentieth-century there was a trend away from the Romantic ethos of self expression and emotion in Western art music and towards an objectification of sound and ways of organising sound into compositions. With the breakdown of the conventional tonal system, some composers developed new systems for creating melodies, harmonies and rhythms in their music. The development of these systems led to a new view of the composer as scientist, creating rigorously intellectual music in which there was little room for spontaneity and emotion. I argue that this development was responsible for the alienation of audiences from contemporary music post World War II. Some composers bucked the trend and remain well loved and widely performed: Shostakovich and Britten to name two examples. Using examples from the last 10 years I make a case that there is still an urgent need for contemporary composers to strike a better balance between technique and content in their music, between the intellect and the emotion, between the head and the heart. Keywords: self expression; emotion; systems; intellectual; contemporary Format: Single paper (#25)

Esmeralda Rocha

Stephanie Rocke

The University of Western Australia, Australia

Monash University, Australia

The dark side of power: opera as a tool of colonisation in nineteenth-century Calcutta

The double life of the mass ✢✢✢

✢✢✢ The nineteenth-century was a period during which European powers raced to conquer the world – not only geographically, but (more significantly) ideologically and culturally. The British were arguably the most determined and most successful colonisers of the era, and Calcutta, the ‘City of Palaces’, became the jewel in the crown of British high-imperialism. Moreover, due to social, political and economic factors (consider the rise of the middle class, political upheaval in Europe and the Industrial Revolution), the nineteenth-century saw opera ascend to the zenith of its accessibility, influence and prestige. The simultaneity of the rise of imperialism and the Golden Age of opera produced a connection which has long been ignored by musicology, yet it is a relationship which illuminates many aspects of nineteenth-century music, culture and society. This paper looks at the interactions between the art form, the coloniser and the ‘other’ in occupied lands, using Calcutta as a case study. This research discusses the role of opera in colonised territories and reveals the ways in which opera and operatic performance practice were commandeered as tools of colonisation. Keywords: historical musicology; colonialism; nineteenth-century opera; British Empire; India Format: Single paper (#30)

With a backward gaze on Gregorian chant and Renaissance polyphony, Pope Pius X issued instructions to church musicians and composers in his motu proprio of 1903. His aim was to clamp down on the grand Masses of the later nineteenth-century which were being composed as much for the concert hall as for the cathedral. The pious supported the back pedalling Pope but others such as Camille SaintSaëns believed that ‘every epoch had the right to express the religious sentiment in its own way.’ Thus, rather than foiling the double life the Mass had begun to lead the Pope’s instruction fortified the division. As the twentieth-century proceeded, the power of the Mass form was tapped into by a range of composers, resulting in the familiar Latin texts being used in conjunction with the music and texts of other faiths and spiritualities, with the first example perhaps being the Haitian composer Werner Jaegerhuber’s Messe sur les airs vodouesques (1953). Even more radically, the Mass form began to be put to use both politically and as cultural commentary. The Electric Prunes’ psychedelic rock Mass in F minor (1963) and Bernstein’s theatrical piece titled Mass (1972) intentionally encouraged contemplation about religion and ritual, while Arnold van Wyck’s Missa in illo tempore (1979) subversively protested apartheid. This paper demonstrates that the emotional narrative of the Ordinary of the Roman Rite has enabled the musical Mass form to transcend both confessional boundaries and the language of the spoken word, to become a powerful vehicle for multifaith discourse in the twenty-first century. Keywords: mass; multi-faith; religion; culture; politics Format: Single paper (#219)

Conference Abstracts p 97

Victoria Rogers

Robin Ryan

The University of Western Australia, Australia

Independent scholar, Australia

John Blacking, composer: a new perspective

Waltzing the Wilarra: Indigenous musicals, emotion and power in the politics of reconciliation

✢✢✢ John Blacking (1928-90) is well known as a pioneer in the development of ethnomusicology. Less well known are his activities as a composer. Yet between 1947 and 1965 he wrote eleven compositions: incidental music for three plays; three choral works; three instrumental pieces; and two songs for soprano and piano. The very existence of Blacking’s compositions raises a number of enticing questions. What was the nature of his musical language? How did he navigate the space between the implicitly non-Western nature of his ethnomusicological research and the medium of Western art music? And, indeed, how did he come to composition in the first place? This paper explores matters of context, style, structure and meaning in Blacking’s Te Deum, an a cappella choral work which was composed in 1963. It is argued that Blacking’s musical thinking is firmly rooted in the traditions of Western art music, and that his musical preoccupations and proclivities lie largely in twentieth-century post-tonal musical practices. The paper concludes with a discussion of the apparent contradiction between Blacking’s work as an ethnomusicologist and his continuing adherence to the high art traditions of Western culture. It is suggested that the Te Deum can best be understood within the context of Blacking’s ideas on music as a culturally specific form of human communication. Keywords: Blacking; composition; ethnomusicology; analysis; musicology Format: Single paper (#152)

✢✢✢ Romances can be beautiful lies – narratives of imagination that operate within culture as powerful alternative versions of the way things actually are. This paper provides a contextual reading of the 2011 Festival of Perth production Waltzing the Wilarra (written and composed by David Milroy, director Wesley Enoch, Yirra Yaakin Theatre Company). The satire’s script (Currency Press, 2011) recalls the crucial role of the Coolbaroo Club (1946-1960) in overcoming the opprobrium of society and the law in mid-twentieth-century Perth. In bucking the predictable voicings of difference and desire, the first act portrays a black-white romance inextricably linked to post-war trauma and the mediation of past and present injustice. Leaving the complications of youth behind, the second act moves on four decades to tackle the club’s tangled residue relationships. The play culminates in a biting spoof on the politically correct ‘Learning Circles’ formed nationally following the founding of the Reconciliation Council of Australia (CAR) twenty years ago. Drawing on research into music’s role in the operating notion of reconciliation between Black and White Australia, the author draws a corollary concerning song’s political power as a mobiliser of continuing dialogue and shared vision of the country’s future. The poignancy of the indigenous musical, it is argued, lies in its encoding and mediation of emotion through songs, conversations and theatrical structures that promote informality and hilarious interrogation of the evolving politics of representation. Within the resultant cultural nexus, sound acts as a conduit to spirit, positively impacting the respective surviving Indigenous culture. Keywords: musicals; emotion; power; indigenous; reconciliation Format: Single paper (#50)

Conference Abstracts p 98

Scott Ryan The University of Melbourne, Australia

Suvi Saarikallio Jonna Vuoskoski University of Jyväskylä, Finland

Soviet Music in the ‘Great Patriotic War’, 1941-1945

General emotionality biases adolescents’ emotion perception in music

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On June 22 1941, the armed forces of Nazi-Germany invaded the Soviet Union to begin a four year war that would ultimately claim an estimated thirty million Red Army soldiers and Soviet civilians. The ‘Great Patriotic War’ 1941-1945, as it is known by Russians, demanded full mobilisation of the country’s resources in pursuit of victory, including its people, in which every Soviet citizen, whether at the front or rear, was expected to contribute to the war effort. For composers and musicologists, music as their chosen profession became the primary means of meaningful ‘active service’. In the battle for ‘hearts and minds’ toward the nation’s cause, music served as both a means of personal patriotic expression and as a tool of state propaganda that reinforced notions of patriotism, self-sacrifice, duty, courage and heroic celebration of the Soviet people in their struggle. This paper examines Yury Shaporin’s wartime oratorio Skazanie o bitve za russkuyu zemlyu (Story of the Battle for the Russian Land), written between 1942-43 as spontaneous reaction to the ‘heat of battle’. Discussion investigates the musical discourse created between composer and audience that point toward larger worlds of cultural meaning and experiences within the Soviet wartime context beyond the music itself. More specifically, consideration is given toward the musical portrayal of the Russian ‘native land’ (rodina) and the German ‘enemy’ (vrag) as a means to evince culturally mediated understandings at the time of popular patriotism and Soviet nationalist pride that emphasised the twin axioms of love of country and hate and ridicule of the invader. Utilising topic theory as an underlying framework for interpretation, explored are the types of musical gestures employed which carry representations of either heroic euphoria or ironic and satirical dysphoria in these wartime compositions.

Both temporary mood states and stable personality traits have been shown to cause biases in emotion perception in music. However, not much is known about these effects during adolescence. The current study investigated how adolescents’ general emotionality is reflected in their evaluations of emotions expressed by both music and facial expressions. 14-15-year-old participants listened to 50 music excerpts and rated them regarding 8 emotions (happiness, sadness, anger, fear, tenderness, longing, hope, power). In addition, they rated 25 facial expressions regarding 5 emotions (happiness, sadness, anger, fear and neutral), and filled in self-report questionnaires assessing mood (PANAS), personality (TIPI), and alexithymia (TAS-20). Data collection is currently under way, and we aim to have approximately 60 participants (25 measured so far). Preliminary results indicate clear emotionality-congruent biases in adolescents’ emotion perception. For instance, general difficulty in emotion identification (alexithymia) relates to a decreased rating of several emotions in music while the personality trait of openness to experience in particular seems to create an opposite effect. Both positive and negative mood also appear to cause some biases in emotion perception (for example, the more negative the mood, the more anger perceived in music). More detailed findings will be presented at the conference. The results clarify how adolescents’ general emotionality directs their affective experience of music and adds to our knowledge on the role of music as a means for fulfilling various affective and emotion-regulatory needs in adolescents’ everyday life. Keywords: music; emotion perception; adolescents; personality; alexithymia Format: Poster (#177)

Keywords: war; patriotism/propaganda; service; rodina (native land)/vrag (enemy); musical ‘meaning’ Format: Single paper (#125)

Conference Abstracts p 99

Suvi Saarikallio Geoff Luck Birgitta Burger Marc Thompson Petri Toiviainen

Karen Elizabeth Schrieber The University of Western Australia, Australia

University of Jyväskylä, Finland

Happy listeners throw their hands up in the air, extraverts shake them like they just don’t care

Expressions lost and found: performing in and out of Java

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Positive and negative emotional functioning, at both trait (extraversion/neuroticism) and state (positive mood/negative mood) levels, has previously been shown to affect musical behaviour and the ways people react to music. Yet, despite both emotions and movement being fundamentally related to musical behaviour, little is known about how emotionality shapes the way people move to music. Here, we explore how positive and negative emotionality is reflected in music-induced movements. Sixty young adults (17 male, overall mean age = 24, SD of age = 3.3) danced to 30 music excerpts, five from each of the following genres: pop, rock, Latin, jazz, techno, and funk. Body movement was tracked with an optical motion capture system at 120 Hz. Participants also completed self-report measures of trait positive emotionality (extraversion), trait negative emotionality (neuroticism), state positive and negative affect (PANAS), and emotional expressivity. Positive mood was found to be related to wider and faster hand movements, while extraversion induced greater speed and acceleration in both head and hands. Negative emotionality and emotional expressivity were not related to movement characteristics. These results enhance our understanding of the ways in which emotionality shapes music-related behaviour, and offer new viewpoints on music as a means for emotional self-expression.

Learning to perform allows the ethnomusicologist to gain a practical understanding of music (and dance) while also enabling the researcher to position herself within a specific community. Although often advocated as a fieldwork method, few ethnomusicologists become professional performers. For over 20 years, and despite being a white American woman with no training in ethnomusicology, I lived in Malang, East Java, where I enjoyed a successful career as a well known and highly regarded Javanese singer and dancer. In 2010, however, I had to leave my home in Malang and move to Perth, Western Australia. Nevertheless, shortly after my arrival in Perth, I was invited to participate in a new production of Satu Langit (One Sky). Originally performed in 1994 as the culmination of an artistic exchange program between Western Australian and Javanese artists, the 2010 revival of the production also coincided with the 20th anniversary of the Western Australia – East Java sister state relationship. My participation in Satu Langit afforded me the opportunity to metaphorically re-connect with Java. In doing so, I was also sensitive to the ways in which others – particularly those involved in the ‘multi-cultural’ arts scene in Perth – viewed my position as a non-Javanese ‘Javanese’ performing artist. By reflecting upon my experiences as a singer/dancer both inside and outside of Java, in this paper I explore the ways in which I have attempted to re-negotiate and re-situate myself as a Javanese performing artist in the Western Australian context.

Keywords: mood; emotionality; personality; music-induced movement; motion capture Format: Single paper (#176)

Keywords: performance practice; Javanese music and dance; identity; ethnomusicology Format: Mini-presentation (#159) and Poster (#159P)

Conference Abstracts p 100

Emery Schubert

Pankaj Mala Sharma

The University of New South Wales, Australia

Panjab University, India

Shreyasi Sharma Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education & Research, India

The structure of affective responses to music

Music performance platform in Vedas

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Attempts to define aesthetic, emotion and affect in regard to music have left the research community with vague and, at times, almost contradictory definitions. Intuition still appears to be a powerful force by which we ‘define’ affects resulting from music listening. This paper attempts to experimentally distinguish affect, emotion and aesthetics responses to music. It reports on a study in which open-ended responses were sought from 60 participants on a piece of music they loved and a piece of music they hated. Content analysis of those responses demonstrated qualitative differences that were explained in terms of a distinction proposed by Charland between affect valence (attraction/repulsion) and emotion valence (a contemplative state, often thought of as ‘music specific’ or ‘aesthetic’ emotion). Further, loved pieces were processed in a ‘dissociated’ state, allowing the activation and experience of negative emotion valence (sadness being the most commonly reported) while still reporting a love of the music. It is this dissociated state that, according to dissociation theory, allows contemplation and experiencing of both negative and positive emotions (emotion valence). Using this affect-emotion demarcation, a map is proposed that organises ‘affective’ responses to music into aesthetic (observed) and affective (felt) along one dimension. A second dimension distinguishes across three levels: (1) Affect valence level: attraction to (for example, love, enjoy) /withdrawal from (irritation, hatred, boredom) the music; (2) Dissociation (awe, profoundness, moving, beauty); (3) Emotion states (sadness, joy, happiness, fear, anger).

We smile, we love, we cry, we are the human being that experiences a wide spectrum of emotions in our lifetime. Some of them are expressed while others die in our minds. From time immemorial, our emotions have been expressed through music, and Veda is among the most ancient literature in the world. Among four Vedas Samaveda has a unique position as it is the Veda of music and the original source of classical music. In the singing of Samaveda all seven notes are employed. This is technically known as Samagana. The music needs a platform for its expression and performance; who made the first music and where was the platform? We find references in Vedic literature to the performance of music in open-ground. With the start of Yajanas, the Yajanavedis were the platform for performance in the Vedic period. These Vedas were made according to special measurement and designs. In this paper an attempt has been made to throw light on performance platforms using Vedic literature and ancient treatises. Keywords: music performance; Vedic music; open-ground stage; designed stage; Yajanas Format: Poster (#254)

Keywords: emotion; music; affect; semantics; dissociation Format: Keynote paper (#107)

Conference Abstracts p 101

Jennie Shaw

Masaya Shishikura

University of New England, Australia

Australian National University, Australia

Schoenberg’s Herzgewächse at 100: mysticism, synaesthesia and the power of the miniature

Overwhelming love ✢✢✢

✢✢✢ In December 1911, over a period of just a couple of days, Arnold Schoenberg composed one of his most enigmatic works, a setting of Maurice Maeterlinck’s poem Herzgewächse (Heart’s Foliage) in German translation by Stefan George. Written for soprano, celesta, harmonium and harp, the work was published in facsimile in the Blaue Reiter (Blue Rider) Almanac in 1912 but not performed until 1923. Dismissed as a minor work in Schoenberg’s oeuvre, especially when compared to its companion piece, the monumentally influential Pierrot lunaire, the 2-minute chamber song has gained the attention recently of several scholars who have argued that it should be viewed as a more important work. Julian Johnson, for instance, has argued that this song is one of the ‘threshold’ works in Schoenberg’s output. In this presentation I will build on the work of Johnson and others in acknowledging that Herzgewächse is indeed unique in many ways for Schoenberg in terms of its text and instrumental resources. While a completely different work, in many ways, from Pierrot, I argue that it is central not only to his understanding of the aesthetic of painter Wassily Kandinsky, the organiser of the Blaue Reiter Almanac and exhibitions, but also to Schoenberg’s own practice of ‘composing with tones’.

This ethnographic film features high school students who are about to leave their home of the Ogasawara Islands, Japan. It depicts a love overflowing amongst the islanders within the parting sorrow – following a short-spoken introduction. Withdrawal and farewell are inevitable in this small and remote community; a boat trip of 25.5 hours from Tokyo metropolitan area is the only public access to the islands with less than 2,500 residents. The life on the islands is challenging without enough employment and social infrastructure so that the people are often transient. Ogasawara high school students are also destined to leave the islands to seek college education or job training on the mainland. Singing and dancing are the rite of passage towards the impending separation. Affection for those island children turns out high expectation and pressure for their musical performances. The process is truly overwhelming, yet provides the community shared sentiments and memories of their beloved islands. The footage includes dance in a festival, a gathering at a pier, live music in a bar, and a farewell at the port. The film illustrates delicate emotions by capturing subtle facial and bodily expressions, which cannot be fully described in a written document or verbal presentation. With the aid of visual images, it certifies the power of music in such a commemorative ceremony.

Keywords: synaesthesia; mysticism; aesthetic; Schoenberg; Maeterlinck; atonality

Keywords: island community; parting sentiment; commemorative ceremony; visual anthropology; power of music

Format: Single paper (#255)

Format: Film (#129)

Conference Abstracts p 102

John Sienicki Independent scholar, United States of America

Malgorzata SierszenskaLeraczyk The Ignacy Jan Paderewski Academy of Music in Pozna , Poland

‘Dance with me, this is my philosophy’: analysing the disconcerting feeling in nineteenth-century Austrian and Czech concert music

Stage fright in psychological counselling for specialist music schools in Poland

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The author of the presentation is both a psychologist and a musician. She is a lecturer at the Academy of Music in Pozna , Poland. She has also worked as a teacher and a psychologist in specialist music schools in Pozna for 25 years. Since April 2008 she has been a leader of a project which aims at establishing a network of psychological counselling in all kinds of art schools (music, arts, ballet) in Poland. This poster contains information about Polish music schools and the system for teaching musically gifted children. The research explores the importance of stage fright amongst other problems brought up in specialist psychological counselling, the methods of diagnosis and therapy used for dealing with stage fright in Poland, and if the problems are mainly raised by students or rather by their teachers.

This study takes a new perspective on the difficult and much-contested question of the ‘Czechness’ in Czech music, and the related question of why this has been such a problem for German-centred musicology, by an investigation of what lies at the boundaries of ‘emotion’ as commonly conceived. Twentieth-century work on West African music-making (Waterman, Chernoff, Erik Davis) has shown how music can affect the more philosophical side of one’s feelings: the level of assurance or doubt about assertions, the degree of fixedness of aspects of one’s world view. The persistence of animistic folk beliefs among Czech people, much more than in most of the West, suggests that some modes of thinking and feeling about music typically characterised as non-Western are not as foreign to Europe as they seem: for example, Waterman’s term ‘mental dance’ may be equally applicable to Czech music. The writings of Kundera (Czech philosophers are storytellers) and Deleuze and Guattari (from whom Kundera takes ideas) also point toward this line of music interpretation. I argue that composers such as Schubert (who borrowed melodic ideas from the Czech-born Wenzel Müller) and Dvorak used specific rhythmic devices to subvert the Germanic desire for solidity, suggesting the coexistence of multiple views of reality or the possibility of facts not immediately apparent to ordinary perception. Comparable examples of Bollywood film music (‘Dhoom’, ‘Rangeela’), from another culture where questions of appearance and reality are not far removed from everyday experience, will also be explored.

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Keywords: counselling; music education; stage fright; musical abilities; psychology of music Format: Poster (#61)

Keywords: philosophy; ethnomusicology; Czech; Bollywood; dance Format: Single paper (#72)

Conference Abstracts p 103

Anthea Skinner

Catherine Stevens

Peter Dunbar-Hall

Monash University, Australia

University of Western Sydney, Australia

The University of Sydney, Australia

Barbara Tillmann University of Lyon, France

The triangle: the greatest war machine of its day?

Expectations in culturally unfamiliar music: influences of perceptual filter and timbral characteristics

✢✢✢ ✢✢✢ The triangle is a simple musical instrument with a long history. Dating back to the tenth-century, its origins are shrouded in mystery. In 2002 Jeremy Montagu hypothesised that the instrument may have been based on the medieval stirrup, but his theory remains to be tested. This paper will attempt to prove Montagu’s hypothesis by exploring the parallels between the history, design and distribution of the triangle and the stirrup. Through an examination of contemporary illustrations, cavalry techniques and migration routes it will show how the stirrup changed the face of medieval warfare and how the triangle was then made in its image, conjuring up, both visually and aurally, memories of the power of invading armies. This paper will demonstrate that there was an ongoing link between the music of the triangle and European musicians’ attitudes towards the Steppes nomads who invented the stirrup and their Turkish descendants. Keywords: triangle; percussion; Medieval; cavalry; stirrup Formats: Mini-presentation (#29) and Poster (#29P)

With exposure to a musical environment, listeners become sensitive to the melodic, harmonic, and tonal regularities of that environment. These acquired perceptual filters likely come into play when novel music scales and tunings are encountered. We investigated the effect of unfamiliar timbre and tuning on judgements of completeness and cohesion using Balinese gamelan melodies. We hypothesised that, when making judgements of musical completeness, novice listeners are sensitive to out-of-scale changes, but not in-scale changes, and this interacts with unfamiliar timbre such as ‘sister’ or beating tones of Balinese gamelan. When changes are made, we ask how much change – single or multiple replacements of a tone – disrupts judged cohesion of the unfamiliar music. Variables manipulated were melody line (single, sister), change (in-scale, out-of-scale), and amount of change (partial, total). Thirty adult listeners with minimal musical training and no experience with gamelan rated coherence and completeness of 10 newly constructed gamelan melodies. For completion ratings, the out-of-scale endings were judged less complete than the original gong and in-scale endings. For the novel ‘sister’ melodies, inscale endings were judged as less complete than the original gong endings. Melodies using the original scale tones were judged as more coherent than melodies containing single or multiple tone replacements; single melodies were judged more coherent than the corresponding sister melodies with their unfamiliar timbral sound. The results suggest that acquired perceptual filters as well as timbral features influence the perception of melodies of other cultural systems based on unfamiliar tuning/scale systems. Keywords: music perception; expectations; Balinese gamelan; tuning; scale Format: Single paper (#31)

Conference Abstracts p 104

You can’t possibly

hear

the last movement of Beethoven’s

Seventh and go slow.

Oscar Levant, explaining his way out of a speeding ticket

Janice Stockigt

Jason Stoessel

The University of Melbourne, Australia

University of New England, Australia

‘Anglia plus sumptus quam splendida Dresda requirit’: Handel and the Reinhold family

Con lagreme bagnandome nel viso : mourning and music in late Medieval Padua

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On the basis of a Latin poem found in the Sächsisches Staatsarchiv – Hauptstaatsarchiv Dresden, this paper proposes that a petition signed by ‘Reinholdo’ substantiates the assumption that the Dresden cantor, organist, and composer Theodor Christlieb Reinhold (1682–1755) was indeed the father of the London-based singer Henry Theodore Reinhold (d. 1751), a bass singer who premiered several operatic and oratorio roles composed by George Frideric Handel. When, on 7 August 1736, August III and Maria Josepha arrived home from Poland, Dresden was splendidly illuminated for three nights. Celebrations held to mark their return included an outdoor performance by fifty-two instrumentalists and sixteen vocalists of a musical composition by Theodor Christlieb. Printed sources give the opening line of his nowmissing work as ‘Nymphen, die die Elbe zeuget’. Reinhold’s panegyric – addressed ‘Ad Potentissimum Regem Augustum (August III)’ – reminded the King of this performance. The poem must have been delivered soon after the event because Reinhold appealed the King to supply a deer for a banquet to be given for these musicians. Furthermore, an annual pension was requested, which Reinhold found to be necessary due to the cost of supporting his son, a young singer who two years earlier had been sent to London where he was eagerly learning ‘what our friend Hendel [among others] teaches him’ (quae noster amicus Hendelius tradit, percipit aure cita).

Musical laments are found in various guises (planctus, planh, déploration, complainte) throughout the medieval period, although their cultivation in the vernacular from the second half of the fourteenth-century marks a new phase in their emotive content and the cultivation of voices of mourning that was to remain a feature of European music for the coming centuries. Better known examples like Ockeghem’s Mort tu as navré de ton dart (c.1460) and Josquin’s Nymphes des bois (c.1497/1502) cultivate the public spectacle of mourning through their no less emotive uses of a liturgical cantus firmi from the Mass for the Dead. On the other hand, earlier polyphonic laments like Eustaches Deschamps’s Deploration on the death of Machaut (set to music c.1377 by F. Andrieu) and Christine de Pizan’s Dueil angoisseus, a lament for her dead husband (set to music c.1435 by Binchois), evidence the individual voice of the mourner, even if this relies on conventions observed in a broader cultural context. In this paper, by way of putting recent theories concerning the writing of the history of emotions into practice, I examine the emotive and musical language of Johannes Ciconia’s setting of Leonardo Giustinian’s Con lagreme bagnandome nel viso (c.1406?) within the context of late medieval Padua. In examining this lament on the death of one of the last lords of Padua, I draw upon various contemporary documents including chronicles and funeral orations. Comparison will be made with Andrieu’s and Binchois’s musical settings on account of their chronological proximity. In concluding, the writings of Barbara Rosenwein prompt me to ask whether there is a place for a history of musical mourning in the late middle ages.

Keywords: music transmission; Counter Reformation; Naples; Prague; Dresden Format: Single paper (#24)

Keywords: middle ages; mourning; Johannes Ciconia; Padua; lament Format: Single paper (#41)

Conference Abstracts p 106

Matthew Styles

Marjo Suominen

Edith Cowan University, Australia

University of Helsinki, Finland

What’s in a name? Is the term ‘Third Stream Music’ truly representative of the music it is supposed to describe? Would the term ‘Jazzical’ be just as appropriate?

Signs of love in Handel´s Giulio Cesare in Egitto

✢✢✢ In a 1957 public lecture given at a music festival at Brandeis University, Gunther Schuller – American composer, author, conductor and scholar – proposed a new classification for musical compositions, ‘Third Stream Music’. According to Schuller, ‘Third Stream Music’ compositions were characterised by the coexistence of musical elements from American jazz and Western classical music (Schuller). While this would seem to be a reasonably sound title given its highly experienced and esteemed author, how do we know that it fully describes Schuller’s intention, which was to entitle a type of music that was influenced by Western classical music and jazz? At the risk of sounding farcical, would a title like ‘Jazzical’ be just as appropriate? To enable this discussion as to whether ‘Third Stream Music’ – or ‘Jazzical’ – is a valid and usable term, we’ll investigate the idea of ‘genre creation’ and if we can identify whether or not a genre of music actually exists. After all, naming something doesn’t necessarily mean ‘it is so’.

✢✢✢ By studying metaphors of love in Handel´s opera Giulio Cesare in Egitto, I will introduce how it is depicted by the protagonists´ arias; via Cleopatra´s and Caesar´s musical relations, as a prevailing message. The atmospheric tone paintings set to the musical highlights of the protagonist arias answer the questions: how is love defined in Giulio Cesare? What kind of musical signs of love are there in use and to be found? What will these signs tell us? Love is an essential theme in Giulio Cesare because the arias’ foci are interlocked by the affectual tensions. These have encouraged various performance views of the work: ENO´s ‘epochy’ depiction in 1984; Sellar´s ‘modern’ satirical version in 1990; HGO´s ‘hollywoodian glamour’ in 2004; and Glyndebourne`s ‘colonialistic’ perspective in 2005. I apply the theory of affects in music appearing in the writings by Handel´s colleague Johann Mattheson (Das Neu-Eröffnete Orchestre, 1713) grounded on Classic Aristotelian and Cartesian ideals (Aristotle´s Rhetoric, Descartes´ Les passions de l’âme). It also relates to the so-called Hippocratic-Galenic four elements or humours theory by which I will show the different representations of the opera´s characters as a cathartic (etic) implication.

Keywords: ‘Third Stream Music’; cross-genre Formats: Mini-presentation (#144) and Poster (#144P)

Keywords: eighteenth-century opera; musical analysis based on rhetoric; theory of affects; performance practices; philosophy of love Formats: Mini-presentation (#4) and Poster (#4P)

Conference Abstracts p 107

David Symons

Jula Szuster

The University of Western Australia, Australia

The University of Adelaide, Australia

Antill after Corroboree : a return to conservatism?

Hermann Heinicke’s orchestras in Adelaide, 1892-1914: a contemporary counterpart to Marshall-Hall in Melbourne

✢✢✢ ✢✢✢ This paper investigates the widespread perception in much critical comment on the music of John Antill that – following the composition of his famous ballet Corroboree – the composer reverted to a ‘quieter’ and more conservative musical style in his later output of the 1950s and 1960s. The generally negatively-toned criticisms of Antill’s later work are assessed from two standpoints – that of musical ‘style’ or ‘character’ and that of musical ‘language’ or idiom. While Antill never wrote another work as ‘barbaric’ or ‘abrasive’ in style as Corroboree, his later works explore a wider expressive palette in which there are some examples of the milder English ‘pastoral’ style but the predominant ‘language’ is that of between-the wars neoclassicism or neo-tonality of Bartok, Hindemith and Stravinsky. In this respect Antill shares a general stylistic range with the more progressive Australian composers of the same period such as Margaret Sutherland, Dorian Le Gallienne, Raymond Hanson and Robert Hughes. Keywords: Antill; Corroboree; barbaric; conservatism; neo-classicism Format: Single paper (#222)

December 1892 was an important month for orchestral music in both Melbourne and Adelaide, for it was during that month that the citizens of both cities first heard concerts given by newly formed orchestras. These orchestras were to provide audiences with a rich diet of regular concerts for the following two decades. Hermann Heinicke’s (b. 21 July 1863, Dresden. d. 11 July 1949, Adelaide) orchestra gave its first concert on 17 December 1892. Four days later on 21 December 1892 Marshall-Hall’s (b. 28 March1862, London. d. 18 July 1915, Melbourne) orchestra performed its first Special Orchestral Concert in the Melbourne Town Hall. The reason for the coincidence of these two orchestras forming in late 1892 was the concurrent arrival in Australia of two prominent musicians: Marshall-Hall from England and Heinicke from Germany. Marshall-Hall arrived in Melbourne on 7 January 1891, as the newly appointed Professor of Music at the University of Melbourne. Heinicke had arrived in Adelaide some seven months earlier, on 12 June 1890, under contract to Immanuel Reimann, as the violin teacher at the Adelaide College of Music which was then the city’s major music teaching institution. The paper investigates the orchestras formulated and conducted be Hermann Heinicke in Adelaide from 1892 until 1914, and compares their repertoire, community support and management with Marshall Hall’s Orchestra from 1892 until 1912. The paper concludes with a discussion of the impact that these two conductors had on subsequent professional orchestras in Melbourne and Adelaide. Keywords: Hermann Heinicke; Marshall-Hall; professional orchestra; popular orchestral music; classical canon Format: Single paper (#223)

Conference Abstracts p 108

David Taylor Emery Schubert Sam Ferguson

Gary McPherson The University of Melbourne, Australia

The University of New South Wales, Australia

Emotion response time in continuous response task ✢✢✢ An increasing number of studies have shown that judgements of music related emotion can be made in very small amounts of time (Peretz, Gagnon and Bouchard; Bigand, Filipic and Lalitte). Although these very fast response times suggest that some basic emotions may not require any cortical mediation, Bigand et al. argue that cognition is required and governed by highly cultural compositional and performance-related features or cues within the music. This paper further investigates the role of musical cues in emotion response times to music. 191 participants were played short excerpts of orchestral music and instructed to move a mouse cursor as quickly as possible to one of six faces that best corresponded to a putative emotion. Excerpts were then analysed and the musical cues coded. Relationships between the number and quality of cues and participants’ response times were investigated and reported. Keywords: emotion; emotion perception; response times; locus of emotion; neuropathway Format: Poster (#113)

Conference Abstracts p 109

Julian F. Thayer The Ohio State University, United States of America

Music from the heart: emotion, health and individual differences – a neurovisceral integration model of musically induced emotions ✢✢✢ Despite a wealth of evidence for the involvement of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) in health and disease and the ability of music to affect ANS activity, few studies have systematically explored the therapeutic effects of music on ANS dysfunction. Furthermore, when ANS activity is quantified and analysed, it is usually from a point of convenience rather than from an understanding of its physiological basis. After a review of the experimental and therapeutic literatures exploring music and the ANS, a ‘Neurovisceral Integration’ perspective on the interplay between the central and autonomic nervous systems is introduced, and the associated implications for physiological, emotional, and cognitive health are explored. Music has long been considered the language of emotions. However, few studies have examined musically induced emotions in the context of a comprehensive model of emotion. We have recently proposed such a comprehensive model of emotion based upon dynamical systems theory and here present an overview of data on musically induced emotions. Much literature supports the idea that emotions can be described by their location in a state space defined by the dimensions of valence and arousal. These dimensions can be conceptualised as motivational, control parameters of affective experience and the discrete emotions as attractors in state space. In Experiment 1 we show that these dimensions of valence and arousal can be recovered in musically induced emotions. Furthermore, we show that mean pitch level is related to the valence dimension and tempo is related to the arousal dimension. In Experiment 2 using facial electromyography we show that music can produce the discrete emotions of happiness, sadness, agitation, and serenity. In Experiment 3 we show that these same emotions can be recovered from cardiorespiratory responses. Importantly, we show that cardiac chronotropic activity is correlated with the valence dimension (and mean pitch level) and respiration is correlated with the arousal dimension (and tempo). In Experiment 4 we

Conference Abstracts p 110

show that a standard musical composition can be altered to produce different discrete emotions. Specifically, by transposing the composition up or down an octave and doubling or halving the tempo the emotions of happiness, sadness, agitation and serenity can be produced. In Experiment 5 we show that these altered musical compositions can produce changes in brain electrical activity consistent with the selfreported emotions. In Experiment 6 we show that music can produce cardiovascular responses that represent discrete emotion attractors in a state space defined by valence and arousal. We will describe the neurovisceral underpinnings of this model including the link between the auditory nerve and the amygdala, and the interaction of medial prefrontal cortex and brainstem outputs to the cardiovascular system via the vagus nerve. This comprehensive model of musically induced emotions is able to accommodate the extant literature and produce testable hypotheses for future research. Suggestions for future investigations using musical interventions are offered based on this integrative account. Keywords: clinical application; music therapy; autonomic nervous system; working factors Format: Themed panel (#214)

William Forde Thompson

Joseph Toltz

Macquarie University, Australia

Independent scholar, Australia

Extending expectancy theory: the synchronisation-feedback model

Salvage ethnography or political motivation: Yiddish song in David Boder’s 1946 recordings from the European Displaced Person’s camps

✢✢✢ ✢✢✢ Expectancy-based theories of music and emotion have received considerable attention over the past 50 years. However, there is relatively little understanding of the cognitive-motor processes that underlie the connection between expectations and emotional responses. In this paper, I present a model of emotion and music that builds upon expectancy theory. I first review research on the acoustic code used by musicians to express emotionality. I next review research on the role of visual signals in emotional communication, which illustrate the multimodal nature of music and raise questions about theories of music and emotion based on acoustic attributes alone. I argue that auditory and visual signals of music not only constitute a semiotic system of emotional communication that can be decoded by perceivers; they also generate experiences of emotion by engaging with cognitive-motor processes related to human synchronisation. Synchronisation may occur on behavioural and cognitive levels in response to any attribute of music, and it is manifested most directly in the expectancies that are formed during music listening. Neural mechanisms that control the accuracy and maintenance of synchronisation operate continuously to provide feedback to the organism in the form of emotional responses. This model of emotion and music – which I call the synchronisation feedback model – focuses on the capacity of musical signals to resonate with psychological processes that function in human synchronisation, and to elicit emotional effects related to the operation and maintenance of this basic biological process. Keywords: music; synchronisation; emotion; feedback; expectancy Format: Single paper (#90)

In July 1946, Dr David Boder, an American psychologist, ventured into the displaced camps of post-war Europe. Born in Latvia in the late nineteenth-century, Boder had studied with some of the founders of Psychology in Europe (including Wilhelm Wundt and Vladimir Bekhterev), and was hoping to document an ‘inventory of trauma’ with as many survivors as he could interview. Just shy of 60 years old, armed with an Armour Wire Recorder and approximately 200 spools of wire, and a working knowledge of eight languages, the scholar departed for Paris on the same ship as those attending the Paris Peace Conference. Once there, he set to work in DP houses and camps, moving from Paris to Geneva, then Tradate and finally receiving permission to enter the US occupied zone of Germany, where he concluded a punishing three-month project. His 130 audio interviews with Holocaust survivors and bystanders are among the earliest extant recordings of testimony. Alongside and at times embedded in the interviews are examples of songs that the survivors heard, performed or even composed in response to the traumatic experiences of those years. As well as this, Boder recorded choral groups and religious services in his musical collection. My paper today will examine the emotional content presented by the Yiddish song in Boder’s collection. Yiddish song is represented in three major forms – within selected interviews themselves, and in two special song sessions recorded in Tradate and Geneva, and the songs carry a wide range of emotional expression. Keywords: Yiddish song; Holocaust music; ethnography; folk song; redemptive discourse Format: Single paper (#192)

Conference Abstracts p 111

Sally Treloyn

Gerhard Tucek

The University of Melbourne, Australia

IMC University of Applied Sciences Krems, Austria

Matthew Dembal Martin Mowanjum Art and Culture Centre, Australia

Moving people and places: perspectives on the significance of junba dance-song from the northern Kimberley

Music therapy in the clinical context of an Intensive Care Unit (ICU) ✢✢✢

✢✢✢ Junba is a public performance tradition that is indigenous to a wide area of the Kimberley region of northern Western Australia. Songs and dances are given to living songmen and songwomen by spirits of deceased relatives and are disseminated according to ancestral principles of Wurnan sharing. Songs and dances relate stories about the creation of the landscape, law, and about interactions between living people and their ancestral and deceased relatives. Song and dance conception, composition, performances and transmission enact these events and interactions. This joint paper will present two perspectives on aspects of the significance of junba, that of a practitioner and stakeholder in the tradition and an ethnomusicologist who has conducted research on the tradition since 1999. Focusing on Ngarinyin notions of marrarri (sorrow), dawul (listening/learning), and biyobiyo (following/pulling) that underpin junba conception, performance aesthetics and practices, musical construction, and transmission, we will present perspectives on the local, worldwide and personal significance of junba: the power of junba to move people and places. We will conclude with a brief account of current efforts to sustain the tradition. Keywords: National Recording Project for Indigenous Performance in Australia; aboriginal music; performance aesthetics; music and emotion; music and place Format: Single paper (#266)

Conference Abstracts p 112

Music therapy in the context of an ICU is facing the task to prove its efficacy. The evaluation model carried out at the University of Applied Sciences in Krems, Austria is orientated on a combination of video documentation and psychophysiological measurements (such as Heart-Rate-Variability) of patients and therapists. The therapeutical concept follows the idea of biological and emotional regulation. The goal is to provide medically relevant ‘hard facts’ on the one hand and individual therapy processes which are intended in music therapy on the other. Video examples of clinical music therapy at an ICU will give an insight into psychosocial needs of the patients and how music therapy may give answers to these aspects. The quintessence of this presentation is that music therapy is not just about performing musical art but also how to perform human relations as an art. Keywords: clinical application; music therapy; video examples of clinical practice Format: Themed panel (#214)

Sergii Tukaiev

Natalya G. Piskorska

Sergii Tukaiev

Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv, Ukraine

Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv, Ukraine

Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv, Ukraine

Tatyana V. Vasheka

Tatyana V. Vasheka

National Aviation University, Ukraine

National Aviation University, Ukraine

Features of EEG dynamics during listening to music depending on the level of emotional burnout

The relationship of burnout, EEG dynamics and musical preferences ✢✢✢

✢✢✢ Investigation of the relationships between emotional burnout, action of the brain and music perception is a very important field in neurophysiology. The objective of our investigation was to determine the relationship between musical preferences and burnout. 70 healthy volunteers (women and men) – first-year students studying psychology aged 17 to 22 years – participated in this study. For the determination of stages of burnout we used the test ‘Syndrome of emotional burnout’ (Boyko). We estimated the spectral power density (SPD) of all frequencies from 0.2 to 35 Hz. The Speerman rank test was carried out for the correlation analysis. The anxiety tension stage was detected in 12 students, the stage of resistance in 55 students, and the stage of exhaustion in 22 students. Psychological testing was performed before the EEG registration. EEG was registered over a period of 5 minutes during the rest state and 3 minutes during listening to the music (Beethoven’s ‘Fur Elise’; Bloodhound Gang’s ‘I hope you die’). In 35 participants that preferred classical music to alternative rock (20 participants) the intensity of burnout was lesser than in those who preferred alternative rock. During listening to the classical music we observed the increase of SPD in subbands theta1 (Fp2), alpha1 (Fp2), beta2 (O2) and the decrease of SPD in alpha2-subband (F3). In those who preferred alternative rock we detected also the increase of SPD in subband theta2 (F4, C4, Cz). Thus, the level of burnout affects the musical preferences and changes in EEG during listening to music. Keywords: burnout; EEG; music Format: Poster (#105)

The objective of our investigation was to determine the relationship between burnout, brain electrogenesis and musical preferences. 70 healthy volunteers, aged 17 to 22 years, participated in this study. For the determination of burnout we used the test ‘Syndrome of emotional burnout’. We estimated the dominant frequency (DF) of all frequencies from 0.2 to 35 Hz. The Speerman rank test was carried out for the correlation analysis. Psychological testing was performed before the EEG registration. EEG was registered over a period of 5 minutes during the rest state. In those who preferred alternative rock the intensity of the anxiety tension stage varies inversely with the DF in theta1-subband (O2) and it is directly proportional to DF in theta2-subband (T6) and alpha1-subband (Cz). The intensity of the resistance stage varies inversely with the DF in theta1-subband (F3) and it is directly proportional to the DF in alpha1-subband (C4) and alpha3 (Fp1). The intensity of the exhaustion stage is directly proportional to the DF in a1-subband (Cz) and a3-subband (P4). In those who preferred classical music the intensity of the anxiety tension stage varies inversely with the DF in alpha3-subband (T3,P3,P4,O1,O2). The intensity of the resistance stage varies inversely with the DF in theta1subband (Fp1), theta2-subband (T4), alpha3-subband (O1). The intensity of the exhaustion stage varies inversely with the DF in theta2-subband (F4), alpha1-subband (O1,O2), alpha3-subband (T3,P3) and it is directly proportional to the DF in beta1-subband (F3). Thus, the level of burnout affects changes in EEG and musical preferences. Keywords: emotional burnout; EEG; dominant frequency; alternative rock; classical music Format: Poster (#179)

Conference Abstracts p 113

David Tunley

Myfany Turpin

The University of Western Australia, Australia

The University of Queensland, Australia

M.K. Turner Aboriginal cross-cultural consultant, Australia

Three orders of perfection: discipline and emotion in the airs sérieux of Michel Lambert

Longing: an emotional theme in Central Australian awelye

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Michel Lambert (1610-1696) was composer and singer at the court of Louis XIV, his songs regarded by Benigne de Bacilly in 1668 as the model of the air sérieux. Despite the seeming simplicity and spontaneity of these courtly songs they are the result of bringing together the three demanding disciplines of seventeenth-century French poetry, of music and of vocal ornamentation. The early twentieth-century French writer and poet Paul Valéry once likened the rules and strictures placed upon composing classical French poetry to the hardness of marble that confronts the sculptor. Those who set the more lyrical verses of poetry were confronted with an equally demanding discipline reflecting the structure of the poetry with its rules about the placement of the caesura and its recognition of the short and long syllables stemming from the late sixteenth-century, particularly from Baïff’s Academy of Poetry and Music. These three elements will be examined in some detail and illustrated by one of Lambert’s songs from his 1689 collection, the purpose of which is to indicate that, far from inhibiting emotion, the overcoming of technical challenges can heighten it.

Irrar-irreme is an Arrernte word often glossed as ‘homesick’, ‘longing’ or ‘pining’ and refers to a strong feeling of missing one’s country and family. This word, and its equivalent in neighbouring languages, frequently occurs in awelye, a traditional women’s performance genre or ceremony known over a vast area of Central Australia. Awelye is owned and performed by land-owning groups. Each group has their own unique awelye that relates to the sites and totems associated with their land, which is often called an estate. Totems are the plants, animals and other natural phenomena created by ancestral beings as they travelled the country giving shape to the land and establishing the Altyerre ‘law’: the estates, rules governing behaviour as well as ceremonies that continue its very existence. In this paper we explain the emotion irrar-irreme ‘longing’ and show that it is widespread in awelye songs from many estates. We contextualise this by considering the other themes that also occur in awelye. We consider the significance of irrar-irreme in relation to the land-based nature of awelye, contrasting this with genres that are not land-based where the word is rarely found.

Keywords: seventeenth-century French song; classical French poetry; vocal ornamentation; technical challenges; expression

Keywords: traditional Aboriginal song; semantics of song; ceremonial performance genres

Format: Single paper (#17)

Format: Single paper (#221)

Conference Abstracts p 114

Shing-Kwei Tzeng

Wei-Po Nien

Kainan University, Taiwan

National Chiao Tung University, Taiwan

Chih-Fang Huang

Ànnemieke J.M. van den Tol University of Limerick, Ireland

Yuan Ze University, Taiwan

Jane Edwards

An analysis with power of tension for Varese’s flute solo piece Density 21.5

A self-regulatory perspective on choosing ‘sad’ music to enhance mood

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Instead of the conventional music analysis method, more perspectives are brought into the analytical process of contemporary music pieces, which lack functional harmony, music scale, and other tonal vocabularies. This presentation attempts an analysis of Varese’s flute solo piece Density 21.5 using the power of tension as a point of view. The proposed analytical method will emphasise the importance of tension, including the stability of intervals, the contrast in dynamics, mystery notes from the 12-tone series appearing in unexpected ways, and the overall structural development. The underlying psychological meaning of contemporary music can be revealed according to the analysis using power of tension.

Many people choose to listen to self-identified ‘sad’ music when they experience negative life circumstances. Music listening in such circumstances can serve a variety of important self-regulatory goals (Saarikallio and Erkkilä; van den Tol and Edwards). Listening to sad music can help people to cope with a problem in the long term through offering opportunities for reflection, learning, and reinterpreting the situation. In addition, after listening to sad music, people report that they feel better in a range of ways. Based on the existing self-regulation research literature and analyses of the data, the critical observation is made that self-identified sad music exposure may be able to satisfy a variety of listeners’ goals that are not as easily achieved by listening to other types of music. Data is presented in which several strategies are identified that people employ for selecting specific sad music, such as, the selection of sad music based on high aesthetic value, or the selection of music based on momentary identification/connection with the affective sound of the music or lyrics of the song. These strategies are guided by several distinct self-regulatory goals that self-identified sad music can serve during listening. In an explanatory model we will give an overview of how different factors play a role in self-regulation and of how these can result in affective change. These novel findings provide core insights into the dynamics and value of sad music in coping with negative psychological circumstances.

Keywords: Varese; Density 21.5 ; power of tension; mystery note Format: Mini-presentation (#104) and Poster (#104P)

University of Limerick, Ireland

Keywords: sad music listening; self-regulation; mood enhancement; everyday life; coping Format: Single paper (#236)

Conference Abstracts p 115

Anemone van Zijl Geoff Luck University of Jyväskylä, Finland

Darrin Verhagen RMIT University, Australia

E-motion in performance: the affect of experienced emotions on violinists’ movement characteristics

Noise, music and emotion

A musical performance can be deeply moving, or boring. Could this have something to do with the performer’s emotional engagement with the music? To investigate the relationship between performers’ experienced emotions and the characteristics of their performances, an experimental study was conducted. The present presentation focuses on the movement characteristics of violinists. Do performers who feel sad move differently compared to those who express sadness? Seventy-two high quality motion capture recordings were made of 8 violinists (4 amateurs and 4 professionals) playing a melodic phrase in response to three different instructions. The first instruction was to focus on the technical aspects of playing. The second instruction was to give an expressive performance. Before the third instruction, performers were subjected to a Mood Induction task. Following this, performers played while focusing on their emotions. After each playing condition, performers were interviewed about their thoughts and feelings. Preliminary analyses revealed that both amplitude and speed of movement were highest in the Expressive condition, and lower in the Emotional condition. This suggests that larger and faster movements were deemed necessary to convey the musical meaning to an (imaginary) audience, while, in the Emotional condition, performers were more playing ‘for themselves’. As regards differences between professionals and amateurs, movements of the former had a smaller amplitude but higher speed than those of the latter, suggesting that professionals were more efficient in their use of movement. More detailed results will be presented at the conference.

‘Noise’, an extreme form of late twentieth-century Sound Art, can be viewed as the logical (albeit maximised) extension of many trends found in contemporary composition. Noise eschews tonality as an organisational principle and shares the interest of genres such as musique concrete in sonic texture as a legitimate compositional focus. It increases the microstructural instability of styles such as free jazz and, like much electroacoustic music, possesses an internal logic which can often defy immediate expectation. Prefigured by such antecedents, there are cultural and historical reasons for Noise being labelled as ‘music’. That said, the mechanics and level of its emotional operation may actually pose a serious challenge to this position. Leaving culture and history aside, does the sheer extremity and force of Noise operate beyond the metaphoric language traditionally employed by music to manipulate emotion? Is it possible that Noise’s characteristic high volume, aggressive instability, and extended bandwidth trigger a far more primal fear response compared to the type of descriptive aural stimulus that we may experience in polite company at the concert hall or wine bar? Can it be said that Wagner’s music simply ‘describes’ a dramatic environment, whilst Noise actually ‘is’ one? This paper explores the devices music uses to elicit emotional responses, then questions whether Noise simply extends such techniques, or extracts its power by moving beyond them. Is Noise music? Is Noise Music noise?

Keywords: movement; felt emotions; performance; performing musicians Format: Single paper (#56)

Conference Abstracts p 116

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Keywords: noise; emotion; aggression; fear; environmental sound Format: Single paper (#114)

Victor A. Vicente

Lindsay Vickery

The Chinese University of Hong Kong, China

Edith Cowan University, Australia

Acoustic clash: the politics of a Sufi musical performance at Aya Sofia Square, Istanbul

Stockhausen’s Traum-formel (1984) as a microcosm of the ‘formula composition’ methodology of Licht (1977-2005)

✢✢✢ ✢✢✢ In August 2009, at the opening of the Muslim holy month of Ramadan, a Sufi music concert was staged in the large cobblestone square in front of the Aya Sofia in the heart of Istanbul, Turkey. The Aya Sofia, once the centre of the Christian world, was later an important mosque for nearly five centuries, but it became a museum in 1935 when the secular government attempted unsuccessfully to neutralise the influence of religion in the public sphere. In the decades since, the adjacent plaza has served as the main public performance venue in the old city. Performances here are inevitably charged with the explosive political energies that reverberate across the ancient cobblestones, for Aya Sofia Square, lying at the crossroads of opposing Christian, Muslim, and secularist ideologies, remains one of the most hotly contested public spaces in the world. This paper provides an ethnographic description and analysis of just how volatile this venue has become in recent years by focusing on a single performance of Sufi music and ritual. As a nexus of competing agendas, this performance reveals the nuanced ways in which politicians, citizens, tourists, worshipers, and performers vie with one another in their efforts to use and control public space. Ultimately, in reclaiming sacred space from secularism, such performances prove to be among the key fronts where the battle to fundamentally transform public life in Turkey is being waged. Keywords: music as politics; musical performance; public space; Sufi Islam; Turkey Format: Single paper (#115)

Traum-Formel (Dream-Formula 1981) is a short work by Karlheinz Stockhausen for solo basset-horn. It is an occasional piece, written in celebration of the birthday of his partner Suzanne Stephens. Traum-Formel is one of the small number of works written by Stockhausen since 1977 that was not intended to be performed as part of his cycle of operas, collectively known as Licht – Die Sieben Tage der Woche (Light – The Seven Days of the Week 1977-). Traum-Formel is constructed, however, using the same techniques employed in large-scale form in Licht: the expansion of a highly compressed serial three-part structural framework known as the ‘super-formula’. The ‘super-formula’ determines in multiple parameters the large-scale structure, middle level forms and note-to-note minutiae of the whole cycle. The paper presents an analysis of Traum-Formel outlining its construction from six contrapuntal ‘super-formula’ layers which are differentiated by registral and timbral variation to create an extremely technically demanding work, encompassing the basset-horn’s entire range of four octaves. The fractal nature of Stockhausen’s compositional concept implies that a study of the whole is in some respects also a study of its parts and vice versa. It will be demonstrated how an analysis of Traum-Formel, is also a self-contained microcosmic analysis of the compositional strategies of the Licht cycle in its entirety. Keywords: analysis; Stockhausen; post-serial composition; clarinet Format: Single paper (#228)

Conference Abstracts p 117

Jonna K. Vuoskoski Tuomas Eerola University of Jyväskylä, Finland

Jonna K. Vuoskoski

Tuomas Eerola

University of Jyväskylä, Finland

University of Jyväskylä, Finland

William Forde Thompson Doris McIlwain Macquarie University, Australia

Can music make you sad? Indirect measures of sadness induced by music and autobiographical memories

Why is sad music pleasurable? The contribution of empathy and openness to experience ✢✢✢

✢✢✢ Researchers in the field of music and emotion disagree on whether music can induce genuine sadness in the listener, as music does not have real-life consequences comparable to personal loss, for example. Thus, the aims of this study were to investigate whether music can induce sadness comparable to sadness induced by the recollection of sad personal events, and to explore how certain mechanisms of music-induced emotions (namely emotional contagion and episodic memories; Juslin and Västfjäll) are involved in the induction of sadness. Since emotional contagion is closely linked with empathy, it was hypothesised that individuals high in trait empathy would be more susceptible to sadnessinducing music. One hundred twenty participants were randomly assigned into four conditions: Participants in condition 1 listened to sad music chosen by the experimenters; participants in condition 2 listened to neutral music chosen by the experimenters; participants in condition 3 listened to self-selected sadness-inducing music; and participants in condition 4 recalled the saddest event of their lives and wrote about it. The effectiveness of the emotion induction was determined using two indirect measures of experienced emotion: a word recall task, and a judgement task where participants evaluated emotions expressed by facial pictures. In addition, the participants filled in personality and trait empathy measures, and a mood questionnaire (in the beginning and at the end of the experiment). Preliminary results suggest that music can indeed induce varying levels of genuine sadness in the listener, and this effect appears to be strongly moderated by trait empathy. Keywords: music-induced emotions; sadness; indirect measures of emotion; empathy; mood manipulation Format: Single paper (#185)

Conference Abstracts p 118

People avoid negative emotional experiences in general, but in fiction, works depicting grief can be a source of enjoyment. Many masterpieces of music are decidedly sad, and many listeners get immense enjoyment out of such works. The prevalent emotion theories cannot directly explain the pleasurable qualities of sad music, even if the appraisal of the situation is considered. We address some of the questions posed by responses to sad music. First, what kinds of emotional experiences does sad music induce in listeners? And second, is the tendency to enjoy sad music true for all people, or is it associated with particular personality traits? One hundred forty-eight participants listened to 16 film music excerpts (4 sad, 4 happy, 4 tender, and 4 scary excerpts) and rated their emotional responses using three different sets of scales representing different theories of emotion (discrete emotions, 3-dimensional model, and the Geneva Emotional Music Scale). Although sadness was the most salient emotion experienced (in response to sad excerpts), other more positive and complex emotions such as nostalgia, peacefulness, and wonder were clearly evident. Overall, emotional responses to sad excerpts were experienced as positive and pleasing rather than negative or unpleasant, and the personality traits Openness to Experience and Empathy were reliably associated with the enjoyment of sad music. We conclude that the enjoyment of sad music cannot be entirely accounted for by the fact that music cannot threaten one’s well-being, but a more complex process involving multiple emotional experiences, aesthetic appreciation, and empathetic engagement is suggested. Keywords: sadness; music-induced emotions; openness to experience; empathy; preference Format: Poster (#193)

Paul Watt

Joshua Webster

Monash University, Australia

Edith Cowan University, Australia

Bawdy songs in early nineteenth-century London: musical and social contexts of a forgotten repertory

The cimbalom: a new voice in Australian music

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Whilst music that sounds familiar may be instantly relatable to an audience, the introduction of new sounds pushes the boundaries of musical expression, emotion and communication. The Hungarian cimbalom has been a musical force in Europe for more than 100 years, yet it remains relatively unknown and little used in Australia. There are numerous reasons why it is not widely used including a lack of instruments and performers. I have sought to address this issue of anonymity by travelling to Hungary numerous times in recent years to study the cimbalom and to acquire a concert-sized instrument. The expressive capabilities of this fascinating instrument are vast. Through the creation and performance of new Australian works for the cimbalom, the communicative power of this instrument will be explored in an attempt to push the boundaries of Australian music and to provide a new voice for Australian musicians.

Published in many forms and editions from the late eighteenth-century to the early nineteenth-century, the Universal Songster claimed to be a compendium of popular songs for one and all, from military personnel to women. Yet, its many hundreds of song texts was far from universal and one of its obvious gaps were bawdy songs, yet this is hardly surprising because of their licentious content. This paper surveys some 1100 bawdy songs that until recently remained unstudied by musicologists but have been recently published in a modern, scholarly edition. The paper discusses the themes of these songs, the ways in which they were performed, disseminated and sold, and the relevance they hold today for studies of popular music, nineteenth-century music and linguistics. Keywords: songsters; bawdy songs; popular music; nineteenth-century music; London

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Keywords: cimbalom; new; expression; commissioning; potential Format: Performance (#200)

Format: Single paper (#271)

Conference Abstracts p 119

Brenna Wee

Susan West

The University of Melbourne, Australia

Australian National University, Australia

The development of Chinese-Western music hybridisation in Australia

Only joking! The cartoons of the New Yorker as socio-musical commentary

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This paper presents the development of music hybridisation in Australia from the Gold Rush in the 1880s to the present time. It explores contact between two cultures and the impact of that collision on the musical engagements of both people groups. It also looks at how government policies and sociological factors in both China and Australia impact on the musical development of hybrid Chinese-Western music, including the abolition of the ‘White Australia’ policy and the ‘Chinese Cultural Revolution’. A brief discussion will be given on the manner in which the Chinese culture, its philosophy and musical language are merged with that of Western musical aesthetics. Musical examples will be drawn from works of Julian Yu, an Australian composer who was born in China, grew up during the years of the Cultural Revolution and migrated to Australia in the mid-1980s after the abolition of the White Australia policy and the establishment of China’s ‘Open Door’ policy.

This paper provides an illustrative but also light-hearted view of a construct for music education illuminated via cartoons from the New Yorker. The complete set of New Yorker cartoons (to date) was released in 2004 coinciding with the submission of my thesis on A New Approach to Music Education. I was struck by how many of the cartoons on music seemed to illustrate or provide commentary on the construct for music education that I had developed. This construct compared the ‘three Ps’ of the traditional paradigm (Perfection, Practice and Performance) with the new paradigm developed via The Music Education Program (Intent, Involvement and Identity). Within each of the ‘three Ps’ various themes were elucidated showing how particular aspects of music education may contribute to some of the problems with music making in modern society. For this paper, the entire set of New Yorker cartoons have been searched for cartoons relating to music. A set of cartoons from across all decades has been selected to illustrate the themes developed under the three basic headings of Perfection, Practice and Performance. While the chosen set is unashamedly subjective and designed to fit my model, the aim is to demonstrate how the features I have identified, supported by the literature, also appear to be understood in popular culture, providing a source of artistic, comic commentary.

Keywords: hybridisation; cross-cultural; Julian Yu; Chinese-Australian; immigration Format: Single paper (#191)

Keywords: music education; cartoons; popular culture; social commentary Format: Single paper (#43)

Conference Abstracts p 120

James Wierzbicki

Charles Wigley

The University of Sydney, Australia

The University of Western Australia, Australia

Shedding light on a Sydney oddity: Alexander B. Hector and his ‘colour-organ’

Musical movement/percussion training improves a measure that predicts reading fluency in kindergarten children

✢✢✢ ✢✢✢ The first decades of the twentieth-century were a fertile time for experiments in multimedia. Even whilst the motion picture was in its infancy, composers and visual artists throughout the Western world eagerly sought ways in which to combine music with projected light; well-known examples of their efforts include the 1909 ‘colour-tone drama’ Der gelbe Klang by the Russian painter Wassily Kandinsky, the part for clavier à lumiéres that Alexander Scriabin included in his 1910 Prometheus: The Poem of Fire and the ‘colour crescendo’ at the climax of Arnold Schoenberg’s 1910-13 opera Die glückliche Hand. According to Percy Scholes’s entry on ‘colour and music’ in the 1938 Oxford Companion to Music, between 1895 and 1932 there existed at least a dozen devices that could simultaneously produce colour and musical sounds, and a book published in 2004 reproduces illustrated patent applications for no less than seventeen such devices. Most of these were short-lived; one of the few devices that enjoyed a fairly long career in the limelight was the ‘colour-organ’ of Sydney-based chemist Alexander B. Hector. Focusing on Hector’s work between ca. 1905 until well into the 1950s, this paper puts into historical context both the turn-of-the-century fashion for ‘colour music’ and the neurological phenomenon known as synaesthesia; more significantly, it explains the rationale behind Hector’s work and contrasts his various colour-music schemes with those of other early twentieth-century multi-media experimenters. Keywords: colour-organ; colour music; multimedia; Alexander B. Hector; synaesthesia Format: Single paper (#85)

Language based phonological processes (PP) play a critical part in literacy acquisition. Temporal processing ability has also been associated with literacy development but theorists argue over whether this is coincidental, causal but mediated through PP, or causal and independent of PP. Research also suggests a link between musical training and literacy outcomes. This study investigated the nature of the connection between musical training and literacy by testing whether two musical training programs (singing versus rhythmic) differentially affect processing skills known to be strong predictors of literacy outcomes: Rapid Automatized Naming [RAN] and Phonological Awareness [PA]. Kindergarten children (N= 87) were tested then randomly assigned to one of three training groups: a singing group, a rhythmic-percussion group and a control. The measures assessed were PA, RAN, a temporal processing task (synchronised tapping) and two control measures (IQ and a musical perception test). Post testing commenced after the experimental groups received 16 weeks of the target musical program. The data was analysed using modern robust statistical methods. All groups improved their PA but none significantly over the others. However, after training, the rhythmic-percussion group showed a significant improvement in RAN when compared to the other groups. This offers support for the involvement of temporal processing in literacy learning and suggests a causal mechanism for the link between musical training and literacy. This finding is discussed in light of two recent theories, the double deficit hypothesis and the temporal sampling framework. Keywords: kindergarten children; musical training; literacy development; phonological processing; temporal processing Format: Poster (#237)

Conference Abstracts p 121

Charles Wigley Janet Fletcher Jane W. Davidson The University of Western Australia, Australia

Musical training and literacy development

Charles Wigley The University of Western Australia, Australia

The relationship between rhythm and reading in children and adults

✢✢✢ ✢✢✢ The idea that music and musical training can have effects on other areas of cognition is not new. However, recent advances in neuroscience and brain imaging techniques have enabled an increasing number of researchers to investigate these claims based in theories derived from solid neuropsychological foundations. One popular claim that has become a focus of this research in recent years is that musical training can have positive effects on language skills and literacy acquisition. This presentation will review the theoretical foundations for this claim and examine some of the recent findings connecting musical training and literacy development. Of particular interest is work linking rhythmic processing with reading fluency and data from the first author’s Ph. D will be presented to elaborate on this relationship. The research presented here suggests that highly structured and targeted early musical training can be useful in strengthening the cognitive processes that underpin the development of literacy. This strengthens the arguments for universal access in early childhood to musical experiences but also suggests that to gain the greatest extra-musical benefits from this exposure, it needs to be conducted in a framework that is informed by the relevant research. Keywords: musical training; literacy; phonological processing; reading fluency; temporal processing Format: Single paper (#229)

Past research into literacy learning has focused on the speech processing ability of phonological awareness (PA) and its relationship to decoding skills. Recently another aspect of literacy skill, reading fluency, has drawn attention and researchers are investigating how it develops and what processes underpin that development with some suggesting that it is influenced more by temporal processing abilities than phonological skills. This study investigated and compared the relationships between reading sub-processes, temporal processing and reading outcomes for dyslexics, normal readers and musicians and how these change from middle childhood to young adulthood. Grade 4/5 and adult tertiary level dyslexics, normally developing readers and musicians were assessed on PA, RAN, a temporal processing task, IQ, single word reading and text reading accuracy, fluency and comprehension. The data was analysed using modern robust methods. The results show that the musicians were better performers on most of the literacy measures compared to the other groups, significantly so for the grade 4/5s. The grade 4/5 musicians also showed strong and consistent associations between the literacy measures, temporal processing and RAN, however, this was not the case for the adult musicians. For the dyslexic adults, temporal processing was associated with RAN but not literacy outcomes, and for the controls, the reverse was true. The results suggest that musical training may provide a developmental ‘kick’ to the sub-processes supporting reading fluency. This offers further support for the involvement of temporal processing abilities in literacy learning and the link between musical training and literacy. Keywords: literacy development; phonological processing; temporal processing; dyslexia; musicians Format: Poster (#238)

Conference Abstracts p 122

Suzanne Wijsman

Felicity Wilcox

The University of Western Australia, Australia

The University of Sydney, Australia

Silent sounds: the programmatic function and communicative power of musical iconography in a fifteenth-century Jewish prayer book

The impact of music on perception within audio-visual art forms ✢✢✢

✢✢✢ The spatial and conceptual opposition between the sacred and the profane in medieval artworks, and the use of musical images to represent these in Latin manuscripts, has been discussed by art historians Michael Camille and Martine Clouzot. Sarit Shalev-Eyni has noted an inversion of this process at work in the depiction of musicians in a fourteenth-century illuminated Hebrew manuscript. Yet, though two-dimensional visual representations of musicmaking are silent, as Clouzot has observed, images of music-making in illuminated books bring a sonic element into the reading process that can stimulate a powerful response in the imagination of the viewer. The Oppenheimer Siddur (Bodleian MS Opp. 776) is a fifteenth-century illuminated book of Jewish daily prayers that was made in its entirety in 1471 by a Jewish scribe for the private use of his family. As a user-produced book, this manuscript is exceptional because of its rich artwork, decorative calligraphy and distinctive iconographic program, which has a musical theme that runs from beginning to end. This paper will explore the communicative power of musical images and their function in the iconographic program of the Oppenheimer Siddur. The way images of active music-making in this manuscript are used means that they step beyond the merely decorative, and come to reflect the interior vision and piety of the Jewish scribe-artist who made it. It will explore how the implied sonority of contextualised musical images in silent books serves to assist texts and other visual elements in expressing feelings such as religious devotion, humour, and parental love.

The simultaneous layering of music and coloured light has been practised in various ways since the nineteenth-century. From early experiments in ‘synaesthesia’ by European composers and artists such as Kandinsky, Scriabin and the Blaue Reiter group, to the current era of abstract music videos, certain individuals have wanted to make new art by blending music and image. This presentation will explore the impact that music has on images, from a composer’s perspective. I will present both aspects of the work I do in this area – as a screen composer working within a standard commercial framework and as a doctoral candidate composing art music within a multi-media context. Comparisons will be drawn between these two approaches in relation to the influence of the music on the observer’s perception of the whole. Examples of work from different contexts will be analysed and the emotional impact of the music discussed. I will tie into this discussion theories from Russian film making pioneer, Sergei Eisenstein on the interaction of sound and image in the new era of sound pictures in the 1930s and theories on audio-visual relationships from the writings of Michel Chion, a leading contemporary theoretician in this field. Keywords: multi-media; audio-visual; composition; interactivity; impact Format: Single paper (#55)

Keywords: musical iconography; Medieval music; Jewish music; music and religion; music and the imagination Format: Single paper (#122)

Conference Abstracts p 123

Stephen Wild Aaron Corn Jonathan Powles Stephen Loy

Jennifer Gall

Richard Willgoss

National Film and Sound Archive, Australia

The University of Sydney, Australia

Australian National University, Australia

One common thread: the musical expression of loss

The power of creativity in musical composition ✢✢✢

✢✢✢ This roundtable presentation and discussion is a continuation of studies undertaken this year at a colloquium held at the School of Music, Australian National University in May 2011 on the musical expression of loss and bereavement and responses to it across a variety of cultures. Laments are a particularly interesting genre of music as they are found worldwide and in all historical periods and musical styles, providing a common thread linking all humanity from the ‘Iliad’ and the ‘Odyssey’, Hindu Vedas, Ancient Jewish poetic forms, Scots Gaelic ‘Ceol Mor’ (Great Music), Mongolian folk songs, Hakka funeral laments and Australian Indigenous women’s ‘crying songs’, to requiems and funeral songs, to the songs of lost love so prevalent in pop culture. Laments are a catalyst in the healing process through the private or public outpouring of grief often in ritualised ways; by retaining in the memory positive associations and connections surrounding the loss through eulogy and panegyric forms; and in oral cultures laments often become an important part of the cultural history of a people handed down through generations. For the purpose of this roundtable discussion laments are broadly defined and can include the expression of loss of culture, language, home or country, or personal loss. This panel discussion will focus on research currently being undertaken by the panel members. Keywords: laments; musical expression; loss Format: Roundtable (#280)

In Western thought, the origins of creativity reach back to roots in muses and daemons, encapsulating ‘to make anew’ or be ‘inspired’. Enlightenment ‘by reason alone’ eschewed power in authoritarianism or dogma. Now many ‘reasonable’ purposes for the term creativity have arisen. Hegel’s dialectic of thesis-antithesis-synthesis; Schopenhauer’s blind cosmic will where art can dominate; Nietzsche’s Dionysian attitude overcoming the Apollonian in a will to power; Csikszentmihalyi’s ‘flow’ optimising creativity; are all philosophical milestones in attempts to frame creativity and power. Creativity in music is the most abstract and challenging. This paper proposes a basis for tenets about compositional creativity and its power from postmodernism and critical theory, including Adorno. Propositions that have power to persuade, not scientific theories that prove, are checked for validity by reference to how receptive we become as we examine their reification, having to fulfil Aristotelian phronetic and eudaemonic goals, recognising we are immanent to the problem we address. Modernism and measurement are inadequate because of logical and structural tenets nullifying value judgement and meaning. In forming a definition, the ineffable remains; that which defies understanding is creatively important. Universalism and constructionism do not have the vocabulary of there being an ineffable remainder and definition itself inherently obviates a claim to creativity. Pluralism is a way of being creative that can operate in a manner initially inconceivable to the onlooker. Thinking is Deleuzian rhizomatic, making connections resisting logical explanation, connecting to form an unbounded net from a modernistic hierarchical tree. Duals are utilitarian only. Composers use the power of creative persuasion to cause others to be receptive to their compositions. A dynamic tension always remains between the power-push of creative composition that ‘revolts’ and a commodifying structuralising zeitgeist. Keywords: power; creativity; composition; persuasion; receptivity Format: Single paper (#153)

Conference Abstracts p 124

Carol Williams

Michael Williamson

Monash University, Australia

The University of Melbourne, Australia

Guy de St Denis on music and emotion

Grainger does a cakewalk: an investigation into Grainger’s London years and his In Dahomey: Cakewalk Smasher

✢✢✢ Though it is often thought that the music of the middle ages lacks sentiment and does not purport to express the sentiment of its text, the Tractatus de tonis of thirteenth-century Parisian music theorist, Guy de St Denis, would seem to provide an alternative view. Theorists and composers of the medieval era were concerned about matching text and music appropriately and illuminating the meaning of the text where possible, but whether that is ‘expressive of sentiment’ and thus ‘emotional’ is problematic. The principal obstacle to our understanding of the ‘expressivity’ of medieval music is our own aesthetic where we concur that a certain sound has a particular affect. That we cannot easily do this for medieval music is because we do not understand the underlying medieval aesthetic. Guy’s descriptions of the ‘affect’ of the modes may help us lift the lid on this fundamental aesthetic. Keywords: Guy de St Denis; tonary; thirteenth-century; Paris; modes; emotion Format: Single paper (#269)

✢✢✢ The beginning of the twentieth-century, a time marked by constant re-evaluation and invention, saw the birth of a new style of music travel from America across the Atlantic into the music halls of Europe. The adoption of this vernacular music from the ‘new world’, marked by its syncopated rhythms and improvisatory style, was met with both adulation and abhorrence. The birth of ragtime in Europe offers an insightful example of the intersections between art and popular music that extends to the present day. Percy Grainger was one of many composers who sought inspiration from this fashionable new trend in order to reinvigorate their own compositions. Grainger’s In Dahomey: Cakewalk Smasher for solo piano offers an example of the play between serious and popular music styles. The extreme virtuosity and satirical nature of this piece presents an insight into Grainger’s reaction to life in Edwardian London as a pianist. This was a pivotal time in the establishment of Grainger’s compositional aesthetic, and through this work one finds the reluctant performer seeking to reinvigorate the canon of overtly German pieces that he was forced to perform to high-class English audiences. What is troubling, however, is that the piece was not published until 1987 and was apparently rarely performed. This paper seeks to analyse this piece both contextually and musically in an attempt to establish Grainger’s own attitudes towards ragtime and this model of how it might be incorporated into a modernist idiom. Keywords: Grainger; ragtime; cakewalk; piano; modernism Format: Mini-presentation (#216) and Poster (#216P)

Conference Abstracts p 125

Oli Wilson

Graham Wood

University of Otago, New Zealand

Edith Cowan University, Australia

‘Hip hop… that’s white man’s music!’ Perceptions of style and genre in the Port Moresby recording industry

Jazz pianists – PRMD and the improvising musician ✢✢✢

✢✢✢ Papua New Guinea’s (PNG) rural communities have been important locations for research in anthropology and ethnomusicology, and continue to attract scholars from a vast array of disciplines. Few scholars however, have focused their research in the country’s urban centres, which are becoming increasingly important places of cultural, social, and musical interaction. Specifically, Port Moresby, where PNG’s recording industry is centred, attracts internal migration from various different parts of the country, presenting a diverse cultural landscape in which notions of belonging, identity and place (or ples) are mediated. Popular music plays an important role in the way groups of people identify, and interact socially in this relatively new and culturally diverse city. This paper explores the musical elements that define style and genre in locally produced popular music by presenting an ethnographic account of the meanings imbued in the music’s rhythmic, instrumental, vocal and melodic variations and nuances. I will compare ‘authentic’ lokal signifiers with the perceived inauthenticity of new ‘urban’ styles, and present examples that highlight the ways in which non-indigenous musics have acquired meanings that are unique to Papua New Guinea, and are in accordance with local ideas about cultural identity, tradition, race, and popular music. This paper discusses my doctoral research in Port Moresby, where I studied notions of cultural identity in the context of popular music production. This involved an ethnographic method centring on the recording studio as the locus for ethnomusicological participant-observation.

This study sets out to provide information in the field of Performance Related Medical Disorders (PRMD) among tertiary trained jazz pianists. There are many published studies concerning musicians and classical pianists, yet no study of magnitude has been undertaken with respect to tertiarytrained jazz pianists, as a discrete group. Responding to a survey questionnaire, 63% of jazz pianists report pain and suffering and 41% specific injuries attributed to practice and performance, the forearm being the body part most affected. The study also examines the pedagogy of teachers with respect to PRMD, its prevention and treatment, finding that teacher knowledge of PRMD issues is quite low, and that some teachers incorporate sound pedagogy with respect to PRMD into their teaching practice, but many do not. General exercise as a preventative and treatment method is reported as most widely accepted by students and teachers, and physiotherapy the most used treatment. In the current study, the researcher recruited survey participants mainly through inviting students to complete questionnaires at timetabled or advertised classes. There were 106 Australian and 54 USA students and 36 Australian and 18 USA teachers surveyed. Six case study participants – two Australian and one USA student and two Australian and one USA teacher – were interviewed by telephone, thus allowing triangulation of the data. This exploratory and descriptive study aims to provide baseline data for further research about the prevalence of PRMD among tertiary-trained jazz pianists. Keywords: jazz; piano; improvisation; medical; disorders Format: Single paper (#173)

Keywords: Papua New Guinea; popular music; hip hop; urban; authenticity Format: Single paper (#267)

Conference Abstracts p 126

Toby Wren

Stephen Q. Wye

Griffith University, Australia

The University of Newcastle, Australia

Incorporating musical influences: a personal exploration of the mechanisms of influence and syncretism in cross-cultural music practice

Our friends the darkies fill the coffers of our public institutions ✢✢✢

✢✢✢ Toby Wren is a jazz guitarist and composer whose practice comments on the vibrant and current field of cross-cultural music practice. With an already established career in jazz, Toby encountered Carnatic (South Indian classical) music in 2005 and was immediately driven to find out more about it, leading to studies with master musicians U Srinivas, Palghat Raghu and Karaikkudi Mani in India and several collaborations with leading Carnatic musicians in his home town of Brisbane. During the process of discovering this ‘other’ musical culture, Toby was engaged in composing and improvising, and self-reflective writing about his practice for his master’s dissertation. This presentation examines the transition from deliberate combination of cross-cultural music resources towards syncretism of influences in the artist’s own practice and with reference to other composers and musicians in cross-cultural music. Toby will illustrate some of the key concepts by performing excerpts of his work Ramanaa for solo guitar. Keywords: cross-cultural; performance; composition; jazz guitar; ethnomusicology Format: Single paper (#46)

During the 1860s, the formation of volunteer bands in the Hunter region (New South Wales) ushered in a period of sustained amateur blackface activity, largely to raise money for those bands. By the close of the 1860s, 15-20 local amateur troupes were variously active, and the proceeds of their entertainments were directed beyond the volunteer bands to a broader range of community and benevolent organisations. Racial, class, and to a lesser extent, gender, transvestism, were prominent features of the local practice, which included opera burlesques, local content (in the form of puns, conundrums, and stump orations), and ‘authentic delineations’ of Negro life in the Southern States, perhaps a cipher for contemporary indigenous ‘sable brethren’. Rarely straying from the boundaries of ‘harmless entertainment’ acceptable to contemporary mores and sensibilities, blackface minstrelsy was publicly sanctioned transgression within parameters consistent with the respectable causes for which it raised funds. At the same time, other forms of non-sanctioned transgression were gradually disappearing from public life. Drawing primarily on newspaper advertisements and reviews, this paper traces the emergence of a local colonial blackface practice and speculates on its significance and position in the broader context of contemporary entertainment. Keywords: minstrelsy; blackface; nineteenth-century; local practice; popular culture Format: Single paper (#73)

Conference Abstracts p 127

Avra Xepapadakou University of Crete, Greece

Adrian Yeo Jonathan Paget Edith Cowan University, Australia

Idolatry and sacrilege: the introduction of Offenbach’s operetta in nineteenth-century Athens

Bach interpretation, 1933-1999: a comparative study of 14 recordings of the Violin Sonata BWV 1003

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The ‘descent’ of the heroes of Greek mythology, Orpheus and Helen, to the modern Greek-speaking world takes place secretly between the decades 1860 and 1870, when the first French troupes started visiting Athens in order to perform at the Winter Theatre of the city. These performances provoke a storm of reactions. A section of the audience is taken over by ‘vaudeville mania’, while another is shocked by the moral laxity of the ‘offen-bacchiad’, and especially by the ecstatic ‘cordax’ of the finale, the notorious ‘can-can’. The conservative journalistic and literary circles express their repulsion for the vulgar parody of the ancient Greek heritage and the humiliation of the ‘sacred gods of Homer’. Others consider the performance of this orgiastic spectacle during the Lent period as deeply offensive to the religious feelings of the Greek people. This paper aims to examine the impact of French light music on the newly-formed urban Athenian society of the mid-nineteenth-century. The French troupes arriving in the Greek capital bring with them, along with their intriguing repertoire, outlandish theatrical morals, creating a new sensation in the Athenian audience, which attends with astonishment the light scabrous French musical comedies and operettas and, especially, the lively and frivolous French actresses. Their performances rekindle the controversy raging in the musical life of the new Greek state during the whole nineteenth-century, and become the bone of contention for the duel between European opera troupes – which enjoy the financial and moral support of the court, the government and generally the ‘high society’- and the local drama troupes, which are fighting hard to become established.

It is only recently that musicians have begun to realise the full extent in which the expressive power of Baroque music resides in interpretative detail not found in the score but added in performance. The HIP (Historically-Informed Performance) movement has brought many of these interpretative facets to the conscious attention of musicians and scholars, in the process unravelling many aspects of musicianship previously assumed to be non-negotiable or unchanging. The advent of recording and the widespread dissemination of historical recordings have now enabled the evolution of performance practices to be studied in a more systematic way. This paper presents the results of a longitudinal study of one particular piece of music, Bach’s Violin Sonata BWV1003, using a select list of fourteen musical recordings distributed evenly across the twentieth-century (starting with Joseph Szigeti in 1933 and ending with Rachel Podger in 1999). Recordings were studied through a rigorous process of observation of eight pre-selected criteria (tempo, rubato, rhythmic alterations, accentuation, articulation, portamento, vibrato, and ornamentation), each compiled in a systematic way for comparison and evaluation. This process makes vivid a number of interesting trends: it broadly supports the validity of Bruce Haynes’ hypothesis that three principal schools of Baroque interpretation existed throughout the twentieth-century (Romantic, Modernist, and Historically-Informed) but suggests that these schools are more than passing chronological phases, each having a continuing life beyond their heyday.

Keywords: operetta; Greece; nineteenth-century; Offenbach; Athens

Format: Single paper (#128)

Format: Single paper (#203)

Conference Abstracts p 128

Keywords: Baroque interpretation; performance practice; recordings; Romantic; Modernist

Zen Zeng

Pierre Zurcher

Monash University, Australia

Paris-Sorbonne University, France

Manuel de Falla’s Fantasia Baética, the power of flamenco and the question of performance practice

Cantilena : an example of emotional regulation conducts (Les cantilénes – conduites de régulation cognitivo-affectives)

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The Fantasía Baética is a work for solo piano composed by Manuel de Falla in 1919. It is regarded as an icon of Spanish music and one of the most challenging piano works of the early twentieth-century. Its translation of flamenco to the piano has formed a basis for the modern practice of flamenco pianists. As a native Andalusian, Falla was an informed flamenco aficionado and scholar, having acquired a profound knowledge of flamenco through professional and personal association with leading contemporary flamenco performers such as Niña de los Peines, Ramón Montoya and Angel Barrios. During the conception of the Fantasía Baética, Falla was reliant on specific anthologies of flamenco songs and treatises on flamenco guitar performances, including Rafael Marín’s Aires Andaluces (1902). The Fantasía Baética encapsulates the three fundamental components of flamenco: song (cante), dance (baile) and instrumental playing (toque). In it, Falla not only succeeds in translating the timbre and sonorities of flamenco to the piano, but, more profoundly, he captures duende, the soul and emotional power at the heart of flamenco. This presentation will consider how Falla’s intimate understanding of flamenco art determined his construction and contextualisation of the Fantasia Baética; it will explore how he evokes and reinterprets the emotional complexity of flamenco on the piano through expanding the instrument’s vocabulary; and it will examine the work’s interpretative implications for pianists today, investigating issues in authentic performance practice where a work evokes historic flamenco styles that deviate from current practice.

The film presents a music and language creation activity consisting of songs whose theme is freely chosen by the child. These cantilena often offer verbal content which is perceived as personal and emotional. The hypothesis is that this form of expression activates one of the fundamental functions of human cultural appropriation: personal regulation of conflicts between personal experience and acquired behavioural frames. This cognitive-affective adaptation rests on reverbalisation of non-assimilable experiences. The use of cantilena induces a particular linguistic mode which, unlike common language, activates the auditory side of the behavioural sphere of regulation. This inductive speech, which comes essentially from prosodic manipulation, allows access to experiences (psychological and verbal) which couldn’t be reduced to acquired behavioural frames. Cantilena are therefore one of the possible answers to the need to reduce cognitive-emotional tensions. Keywords: musical pedagogy; emotional control; behavioural regulation Format: Film (#201)

Keywords: flamenco; Manuel de Falla; piano; Fantasia Baética; performance practice Format: Single paper (#243)

Conference Abstracts p 129

Conference Delegates Aksnes, Hallgjerd

Bennett, Joanne

Bruinsma, Raelene

Cole, Sue

De Wilde, Craig

University of Oslo, Norway

Australia

Alaner, A. Bulent

University of New England, Australia

Curtin University; Australian Music Therapy Association, Australia

The University of Melbourne, Australia

National University of Singapore, Singapore

Buchan, Susan

Concord, Alisabeth

Dean, Roger T.

University of Victoria, Canada

University of Western Sydney, Australia

Anadolu University, Turkey

Alessi, Patricia The University of Western Australia, Australia

Alomes, Christopher University of Tasmania, Australia

Azobu, Daniel James Coded Tunes, Nigeria

Bailes, Freya University of Western Sydney, Australia

Bailes, Lucy The University of Newcastle, Australia

Balme, Jane The University of Western Australia, Australia

Baloglu, Cigdem

Beretin, Nena

Bishop, Laura University of Western Sydney, Australia

Bispham, John Macquarie University, Australia

Blyth, Linda Australian Music Therapy Association, Australia

Bolger, Lucy The University of Melbourne, Australia

Bollard, David University of Tasmania, Australia

Bowdler, Sandra The University of Western Australia, Australia

Boyd-Hurrell, Sophie

Victoria University, Australia

Buck, Mary University of New England, Australia

Buckton, Mindy University of Victoria, Canada

Butler, Sarah The University of Sydney, Australia

Campbell, Genevieve

The University of Western Australia, Australia

Corn, Aaron Australian National University, Australia

Coward, Imogen

The University of Melbourne, Australia

Dellit, CynthiaLouise The University of Newcastle, Australia

Denson, Louise Griffith University, Australia

Cenin, Jorja

Coward, Leon

The University of Western Australia, Australia

University of New England, Australia

Cesareo, Jackie

Coward, Taliesin

Murdoch University, Australia

University of New England, Australia

Dileo, Cheryl

Crisp, Robert

Dillon, Steven

Australian National University, Australia

Queensland University of Technology, Australia

Curran, Kelly

Drimatis, Joanna

Edith Cowan University, Australia

The University of Sydney, Australia

Davhula, Mudzunga Junniah

Dunlop, Roslyn

Anadolu University, Turkey

Bangert, Daniel

Broughton, Mary

Chapman, Ian

The University of New South Wales, Australia

The University of Western Australia, Australia

University of Otago, New Zealand

Bannan, Nicholas

Brown, Judith

The University of Western Australia, Australia

Central Queensland University, Australia

Nanyang Technological University, Singapore

Barcan, Linda

Brown, Reuben

Edith Cowan University, Australia

The University of Sydney, Australia

Barney, Katelyn

Bruder, Pamela

The University of Queensland, Australia

The University of Melbourne; Emmy Monash Aged Care, Australia

Conference Delegates p 130

Corall, Georg

Dell, Helen

The University of Sydney, Australia

Chan, Julianna

Monash University, Australia

University of Cambridge, United Kingdom

University of New England, Australia

The University of Melbourne, Australia

Bastaninezhad, Arya

Cook, Nicholas

The University of Sydney, Australia

Chen, Jade

Chin, Tan Chyuan Monash University, Australia

Cichy, Andrew University of Oxford, United Kingdom

Clarke, Eric University of Oxford, United Kingdom

Deruchie, Andrew University of Otago, New Zealand

Dieckmann, Samantha The University of Sydney, Australia

Temple University, United States of America

University of Pretoria, South Africa

The University of Newcastle, Australia

Davidson, Jane W.

Dunstone, Prudence

The University of Western Australia, Australia

Wesley Institute, Australia

Dawson, Brian

University of Limerick, Ireland

The University of Western Australia, Australia

Edwards, Jane

Eisaei, Vahideh The University of Western Australia, Australia

Emberly, Andrea

Francis, Mace

Hallett, Catherine

Hope, Cat

Lamont, Alexandra

The University of Western Australia, Australia

Edith Cowan University, Australia

University of New England, Australia

Edith Cowan University, Australia

Keele University, United Kingdom

Halton, Rosalind

Hopwood, Paul

Lannen, Bernadette

Edith Cowan University, Australia

The University of Newcastle, Australia

Encarnacao, John

Freemantle, Alexandra

University of Western Sydney, Australia

Murdoch Childrens Research Institute, Australia

The University of Newcastle, Australia

Evans, Damian

Friedrich, E. Kamala

Hampele, Maureen

Dublin Institute of Technology, Ireland

Goethe-University Frankfurt, Germany

Guildford Grammar School, Australia

Evans, Paul

Fuglestad, Svein

The University of New South Wales, Australia

Oslo University College, Norway

Hardwick-Franco, Kathryn

Ewans, Michael

Tokyo University of the Arts, Japan

The University of Newcastle, Australia

Exaudi, Lisa Queensland University of Technology, Australia

Fabian, Dorottya The University of New South Wales, Australia

Faulkner, Robert The University of Western Australia, Australia

Ferguson, Sam The University of New South Wales, Australia

Fienberg, Thomas The University of Sydney, Australia

Furukawa, Kiyoshi

Garrido, Sandra The University of New South Wales, Australia

Gasser, Mark Edith Cowan University, Australia

Gillespie, Kirsty The University of Queensland, Australia

Ginther, Gerald University of Canterbury, New Zealand

Grant, Stephen The University of Western Australia, Australia

Grocke, Denise

Australia

The University of Melbourne, Australia

Fletcher, Kerry

Grogan, Di

Songwriter, Australia

Australia

Forbes, Anne-Marie University of Tasmania, Australia

Sultan Idris University of Education, Malaysia

Foxcroft, Catherine

Hales, Aaron

Rhodes University, South Africa

The University of Western Australia, Australia

Firth, Ian

Guillan, Annette

Independent Scholar, Australia

Hamano, Takayuki Japan Science and Technology Agency; RIKEN Brain Science Institute; Tamagawa University, Japan

Hoyvik, Anita University of Oslo, Norway

Huang, Chih-Fang Yuan Ze University, Taiwan

Ingraham, Mary University of Alberta, Canada

James, Stuart Edith Cowan University, Australia

Johnston, Phillip The University of Newcastle, Australia

Harrison, Scott

Kaleva, Daniela

Griffith University, Australia

University of South Australia, Australia

Harvey, Alan The University of Western Australia, Australia

Hendry, Brooke

Kane, Jan Australian Catholic University, Australia

Australian National University, Australia

Kanga, Zubin

Hillecke, Thomas

Kester, Sally

SRH University Heidelberg, Germany

The University of Western Australia, Australia

Holmes, Holly

Khong, Melissa

University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, United States of America

The City University of New York, United States of America

Honeybun, Katherine

Knijff, Jan-Piet

The University of Melbourne, Australia

Hood, Made The University of Melbourne, Australia

Royal Academy of Music, United Kingdom

University of New England, Australia

Koenig, Julian SRH University Heidelberg, Germany

Larkin, David The University of Sydney, Australia

Lifschitz, Sonya The University of Melbourne, Australia

Lawrence-King, Andrew Guildhall School of Music and Drama; The University of Western Australia; Royal Danish Academy of Music, United Kingdom; Australia; Denmark

Leung, Yvonne University of Western Sydney, Australia

Lockeridge, David The University of Newcastle, Australia

Love, Karlin The University of Queensland, Australia

Loy, Stephen Australian National University, Australia

Luck, Geoff University of Jyväskylä, Finland

Macarthur, Sally University of Western Sydney, Australia

Maddox, Alan The University of Sydney, Australia

Conference Delegates p 131

Maidlow, Sarah

Meyer, John

Noordzy, Amanda

Australian Catholic University, Australia

The University of Western Australia, Australia

Manengelo, Amry Abdulrahman

Middleton, Eva-Marie

Kunduchi Mtongani Arts Promotion Media, Tanzania

The University of Western Australia, Australia

The University of Western Australia; The Department of Education Western Australia, Australia

Marriott, Jeremy

Miles, Louise

Curtin University, Australia

Redkite, Australia

Marsh, Kathryn

Milosavljevic, Dan

The University of Sydney, Australia

University of Otago, New Zealand

Martin, Matthew Dembal

Mori, Kazuma

Mowanjum Art and Culture Centre, Australia

Matthias, Philip The University of Newcastle, Australia

May, Eldonna L Wayne State University, United States of America

McFerran, Katrina The University of Melbourne, Australia

McIlvenna, Una The University of Sydney, Australia

McIntosh, Jonathan The University of Western Australia, Australia

McKern, Brett Australian Institute of Music, Australia

McPherson, Gary The University of Melbourne, Australia

Merlino, Dean

Hiroshima University, Japan

Mould, Stephen The University of Sydney, Australia

Murphy, Sherri Strike a Chord, Australia

Nelligan, Katharine The University of Melbourne, Australia

Nelson, Kathleen The University of Sydney, Australia

Nelson, Marian The University of Western Australia, Australia

Ng, Shaun The University of Sydney, Australia

Nguyen, Le-Tuyen Australian National University, Australia

Nien, Wei-Po National Chiao Tung University, Taiwan

The University of Melbourne, Australia

Conference Delegates p 132

O’Bryan, Jessica The University of Queensland, Australia

O’Halloran, Tom Edith Cowan University, Australia

Ohmura, Hidefumi Japan Science and Technology Agency, Japan

Orlando, Ronniet Edith Cowan University, Australia

Peiris-Perera, Priyeshni University of the Visual & Performing Arts, Sri Lanka

Petrovich, Margaret University of the Third Age U3A (UWA), Australia

Phillips, John A The University of Adelaide, Australia

Philpott, Carolyn University of Tasmania, Australia

Pike, Georgia Australian National University, Australia

Orzech, Rachel

Plueckhahn, Rebekah

The University of Melbourne, Australia

Australian National University, Australia

Osborne, Margaret

Popovi Mladjenovi , Tijana

The University of Melbourne, Australia

Otomo, Ayako University of Otago, New Zealand

Owens, Samantha The University of Queensland, Australia

Paget, Jonathan Edith Cowan University, Australia

Paolino, Annamaria

University of Arts in Belgrade, Serbia

Powles, Jonathan Australian National University, Australia

Preti, Costanza University of London, United Kingdom

Prince, Jon Murdoch University, Australia

Australia

Quinto, Lena

Papalexiou, Eleni

Macquarie University, Australia

University of Peloponnese, Greece

Patston, Tim The Peninsula School, Australia

Ralph, John The University of Western Australia, Australia

Randall, Will M Monash University, Australia

Renwick, James The University of Sydney, Australia

Renzo, Adrian The University of Auckland, New Zealand

Rickard, Nikki Monash University, Australia

Rickson, Daphne New Zealand School of Music, New Zealand

Rickwood, Julie Australian National University, Australia

Ritchie, Anthony University of Otago, New Zealand

Robertson, Sally The University of Western Australia, Australia

Rocha, Esmeralda The University of Western Australia, Australia

Rocke, Stephanie Monash University, Australia

Rogers, Victoria The University of Western Australia, Australia

Rosenberg, Elise The University of Western Australia, Australia

Ryan, Robin Independent Scholar, Australia

Ryan, Scott The University of Melbourne, Australia

Saarikallio, Suvi University of Jyväskylä, Finland

Sachdev, Salil

Stevens, Catherine

Toltz, Joseph

Wee, Brenna

Xepapadakou, Avra

Bridgewater State University, United States of America

University of Western Sydney, Australia

Independent Scholar, Australia

The University of Melbourne, Australia

University of Crete, Greece

Schrieber, Karen Elizabeth

Stockigt, Janice

The University of Melbourne, Australia

West, Susan

Edith Cowan University, Australia

The University of Western Australia, Australia

Schubert, Emery The University of New South Wales, Australia

Sharma, Pankaj Mala Panjab University, India

Shaw, Jennie University of New England, Australia

Shinkfield, Rowena The University of Western Australia, Australia

Shishikura, Masaya Australian National University, Australia

Sienicki, John Independent Scholar, United States of America

SierszenskaLeraczyk, Malgorzata The Ignacy Jan Paderewski Academy of Music in Poznan, Poland

Simpson, Tamara The University of Western Australia, Australia

Skinner, Anthea Monash University, Australia

Stephens, Joseph Kwesi Abundant Grace Methodist Church, Ghana

The University of Melbourne, Australia

Stoessel, Jason University of New England, Australia

Stuart, Kimberley

Treloyn, Sally

Tucek, Gerhard IMC University of Applied Sciences Krems, Austria

Tukaiev, Sergii

The University of Sydney, Australia

Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv, Ukraine

Styles, Matthew

Tunley, David

Edith Cowan University, Australia

The University of Western Australia, Australia

Sunderland, James Murdoch University, Australia

Suominen, Marjo University of Helsinki, Finland

Symons, David The University of Western Australia, Australia

Szuster, Jula The University of Adelaide, Australia

Taylor, David The University of New South Wales, Australia

Turpin, Myfany

Australian National University, Australia

Wierzbicki, James The University of Sydney, Australia

Wigley, Charles

Willgoss, Richard

Verhagen, Darrin RMIT University, Australia

Vicente, Victor A

The University of Sydney, Australia

Williams, Carol Monash University, Australia

Williamson, Michael The University of Melbourne, Australia

Wilmot, Catherine

University of Tsukuba; Japan Science and Technology Agency, Japan

Vickery, Lindsay

University of Otago, New Zealand

Thayer, Julian F

University of Jyväskylä, Finland

The Ohio State University, United States of America

Thompson, William Forde Macquarie University, Australia

Toh, Sharon

Edith Cowan University Australia

Vuoskoski, Jonna

Watt, Paul Monash University, Australia

Webster, Joshua Edith Cowan University, Australia

Paris-Sorbonne University, France

The University of Sydney, Australia

The Chinese University of Hong Kong, China

Terasawa, Hiroko

Zurcher, Pierre

The University of Western Australia, Australia

van den Tol, Ànnemieke J.M.

University of Jyväskylä, Finland

Monash University, Australia

Wijsman, Suzanne

Wilcox, Felicity

van Zijl, Anemone

Zeng, Zen

The University of Western Australia, Australia

The University of Queensland, Australia

University of Limerick, Ireland

Yeo, Adrian

Australia

Wilson, Oli

Wood, Graham Edith Cowan University, Australia

Wren, Toby Griffith University, Australia

Wye, Stephen The University of Newcastle, Australia

Australia

Conference Delegates p 133

Music washes away from the soul the dust of everyday life. Berthold Auerbach

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