Verb endings -дан -ам -ем -ӣ -ед -ад -анд Possession -ам -амон -ат -атон -аш -ашонEx. дӯстам –дустӣ ман бобоям –бобои ман -куя Pronominal Suffixes -Possession Suffix never stressed дӯсти ман = дӯстам -ам/-ям -амон/-ямон -ат/-ят -атон/-ятон -аш/-яш -ашон/-яшон аст ӯ аст мо аст онҳо аст аз бо бар ба бе дар чун то ӯст мост онҳост Prepositions from, through, across with on, upon, onto to without at, in like, as up to, as far as, until Demonstratives This one / that one -аш -ашон Conjunctions -у (-ю) китобу қалам –book and pencil Indefinite article (-e) марде = a man/some man Comparison -тар more -тарин the most Plural -ҳо -он (animate) -ин -от -да -нда -гӣ -нӣ -гон -вон -ѐн Occurs regularly at certain time (-она) Рӯзона During the day, daily Шабона During the night, nightly Солона Yearly Мардона For men / men’s Name the creator (-гар) Кимие / кимиѐгар chemistry /chemist Варзиш / варзишгар sports /sportsman Small (-ча) Гурба /гурбача Cat / kitten Курсӣ / курсӣча Chair / stool Nouns from adjectives (-ӣ) Хуб /хубӣ Good / goodness Китоб /китобӣ Book / written Nouns from verbs (-ор, -анда) Past stem + -ор Гуфт –to say Гуфтор –speech Present stem + -анда Хон –to read Хонанда - reader Izofat To connect nouns to words that modify them, add -и Китоби нав A new book Participles Past participle Present participle Agent past part Future participle Particles Direct object (the) -ро -барин -боз -катӣ, -қатӣ -чӣ -а -дия -да -е -ку . him. Relative clauses are easy. which is why you have to say "she gives it to me" as opposed to "she gives it to I".com/2008/08/detailed-explanation-ofwhy-persian. and then put the pronoun on the end. and "for them" instead of "for they". so to you is beshomâ. And some other random notes: Cardinal numbers except 1st are all regular. barâdar (brother). http://www. nist (there isn't. Shahr (city) + dâr (present stem of 'to have') = shahrdâr. Here are a few examples: Kaghaz (paper) + khosk (dry) + kon (present stem of 'to do') = Kaghaz-e-khosk-kon (blotting paper. Just put om on the end of the number. to (informal 'you'. Persian doesn't have this. I is man in Persian. Given the large amount of Arabic and Turkish loanwords these aren't as frequent as the student might like. Genitive case (her. however. This means that khûb. think pedestrian). me. think German ist). literally paper of dry make). municipality. think German nicht). Persian adjectives can be used as adverbs. (Note: this depends a bit on what you consider to be a case. his. You take a noun. hers. pedar (father). their.) is the same thing. etc. etc. To is be. Adding an î to the end of this makes it into an adjective. There are Arabic plurals for some words but there is nothing wrong with not using them (like Latin plurals of words like octopi for octopus). Office is daftar. so your office is daftar-e-shomâ. ast (there is. them. pâ (foot. his.pagef30. "The coffee that he drank" for example is literally "Coffee ke he drank it". You is shomâ. but even in languages where they don't you have to learn extra words with I. Persian words are intuitive and easy to build. so my water is âb-e-man. just using ke to join two clauses.html . her. think thou). just like how English often says "you did good" instead of "you did well". but a lot of words are the same or almost the same: bad (bad). their. mâdar (mother). giving shahrdârî. "The boy that went to school" is "Boy ke he went to school". but the main point here is that there's much less to learn) Cases almost don't exist in English except in pronouns. Plurals are regular. ending in -hâ or -ân for living things. municipal. put an -e. good. my.Persian has no cases. Persian has quite a few cognates with English and other Indo-European languages. In Persian this is grammatically correct. Cases are bad enough when they apply to all nouns like in German. so "to me" is be-man.in between. can also mean well. and so on. my. Water is âb. For the most part adjectives can be used as adverbs. Verbs additional stem Ҳон еҳ астан еҳ еҳ буд баш After conjugation + conjugation + conjugation Агар рафтеҳ башад .