Print Media Research Hc

April 2, 2018 | Author: Satish Silveri | Category: Newspapers, Advertising, Mass Media, Publishing, News


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http://www.printpower.eu/en/case-studies/p/category/print-media-research - case study There are 5 types: readership, circulation, management, typograpgy/makeup, and readability. Types Of Media http://download.nos.org/srsec335new/ch5.pdf Types of Print Media: Newspapers: Newspapers are the most popular forms of print media. The advertiser in this case can choose from a daily newspaper to a weekly tabloid. Different types of newspaper cater to various audiences and one can select the particular category accordingly. Advertisers then design press advertisements where in the size is decided as per the budget of the client. Magazines: Magazines also offer advertisers an opportunity to incorporate various new techniques and ideas. Magazines are one such form of print media that give a more specific target group to the client. The client can make a choice of the particular magazine as per the product. Newsletters: Newsletters also form an important part of print media. These target a specific group of audience and give information on the product. Brochures: Brochures give detailed information about the product. These are mainly distributed at events or even at the main outlet when a consumer needs to read in detail about the product. Posters: Posters are forms of outdoor advertising. The message in a poster has to be brief and eye catching as it targets a person on the move. Apart from these media, direct mail marketing, flyers, handbills/leaflets, banner advertising, billboard advertising, press releases etc are all the various types of print media. 10 Readership Research This book is primarily about how to do research into radio and television audiences. However, I believe audience researchers know about readership research and how to do it. They may have occasion to include some research into the use of newspapers and magazines in research about TV and radio. Moreover, there is a danger in always treating radio and TV consumption and use as something entirely separate from other media. Reading, listening and viewing are different activities, but they do overlap. People read newspapers, watch television and/or listen to the radio to be informed, entertained, follow their favourite football team, learn about new films, follow fashion or popular music and much else besides. There is much in common between the various media. They each may carry news, comment, entertainment, sport and a lot of other popular content. Some carry material designed to appeal to minority interests and tastes. Most of them carry advertisements. The other thing they have in common is that there is demand for research data about who reads what, when, how often and what they think of what they read. This demand comes mainly from the advertisers but newspaper and magazine writers, journalists, editors and managers are also interested in the behaviour, reactions and motivations of readers. When there is no research into readership of magazines and newspapers, the only way an advertiser can evaluate a purchase of space for an advertisement is from publishers claims. In some countries this is still all that there is. Publishers will usually tell advertisers how many copies they print. But there is often a large gap between what is printed and what is sold. And publishers are in no position to tell us anything about how many people read the paper or magazine or what kinds of people they are. This is not to say that print and sales figures are of no value. Publishers usually keep a good record of how many papers they print and how many they sell. They can usually also show you something about the geographic distribution of sales. They will also know how sales can rise and fall with changes in content. For example, in some countries the publication of examination results at certain times of the year substantially increases sales, as also may a major news story or a special popular feature. Publishers usually have enough experience from the past to be able to 186anticipate such occasions and increase the print run. This kind of information can be useful but it is neither reliable nor comprehensive. Publishers will often claim how many readers per copy they have. But without reliable and regular research such claims are suspect. Exercise Another method is to ask respondents about what they read yesterday. describes how an AIR estimate is then made: The number claiming contact within a period of time preceding the day of the interview and equal in length to the interval between successive issues (the previous seven days. sometimes with a show card reproducing the images of the title or front pages. This technique is usually referred to as the recent reading (RR) method. The measure in most common use in many countries is Average Issue Readership (AIR) which is an estimate of the number of people who will have read on average an issue of a newspaper or magazine.Contact local magazine and newspaper publishers and find out what they say about their publications. The main problem is that people may not always remember accurately what they read or when they last read it. 1 This system is in widespread use in many parts of the world. in relation to a weekly magazine) is taken as an estimate of AIR. a leading expert in this field. What claims do they make about sales and distribution and on what do they base these claims? Ask for an advertising rate sheet and note what it says about sales and readership. Michael Brown. Respondents are then asked when they last looked at or read any issue. for example. Various methods are used to achieve this. The more common approach is to read out a list of magazine or newspaper titles. The main method used to measure readership is the face-to-face interview in a general adult population survey. This method . The quantitative methods used to measure readership are based on the same principles as those that have been described for measuring television and radio audiences. However there is no equivalent with readership research to the peoplemeter method now extensively used to measure TV viewing in most developed markets. Media Research . including radio and 1 Michael Brown. With radio and television research the same often applies.334 345. However it does require very large daily samples to be taken for accuracy. is that people can tend to over-estimate their frequency of readership. 187television use. Paul Hague and Phyllis Vangelder. pp. Questions may be phrased to pick up habitual behaviour or they may relate to a fixed period such as within the last month . Readership research depends very greatly on respondents own version of what they do. It also fits in well with radio and television measurement and enables a fair comparison to be made between different media. A Handbook of Market Research Techniques. Reading frequency is also often measured in surveys. 1990. The problem with all these questions is making reliable and meaningful comparisons with other media. It does not make such great demands on memory as the previous method described here. These measure not what . like the same questions with radio and television. as we have seen with many of the methods used. London: Kogan Page. in Robin Birn. especially if we are measuring readership of weekly and even more so of monthly publications and it probably causes under-estimates of readership of non-dailies. Questions can also be asked about how long respondents spend reading a particular paper or magazine. The problem with such questions. Respondents are asked to estimate how often they read a particular publication by asking them to answer a question which gives a scale with labels such as most issues or at least once per week (for a daily paper) or occasionally .enables comparisons to be made with other media contact. The main purpose is to compare the use of different media Types of Print Media Research Readership Research Readership Profiles Item-Selection Studies Aided recall Tracking studies Reader-Nonreader Studies Uses and Gratifications Studies Editor-Reader Comparisons Magazine Readership Research More Types of Print Media Research Newspaper Management Research Typography and Makeup Research Readability Research Fog Index SMOG Grading And Flesch History of Small-Sample Statistics William Gossett¶s ³The probably error of the mean´ (1908) and student¶s t-test Sir Ronald Fisher ³likelihood´ (probability at the . then a practical policy.05 level) and ANOVA¶s F-score In 1933 Fisher became the Galton Professor of eugenics at University College Eugenics http://www." . whether physically or mentally. he wrote about the three stages of eugenics at first an academic matter. and finally "it must be introduced into the national consciousness as a new religion." In 1905. Just as questions about both broadcasting and print media may be asked in face-toface interviews.html Galton defined his new word this way: "Eugenics is the study of agencies under social control that may improve or impair the racial qualities of future generations.eugenics-watch. both media may be included in a self-completion diary.com/roots/chap02. Indeed it is quite common for a diary primarily used for radio or TV audience measurement to include questions which ask the respondent to record his or her newspaper or magazine readership each day.people say they watch but what actually happens with TV sets in people s homes. Research can be simple and inexpensive or elaborate and costly. not to mention the publishers themselves. Need for Research To Promote authenticity and credibility To acquire legal protection To generate goodwill To facilitate investigative journalism To facilitate self appraisal To improve marketing potential To support sales promotion efforts Types of Research News Media / News Paper Research can be broadly classified into 3 broad categories . However. for example. it can just as easily be applied to a variety of new media channels ± many websites. The term ³Readership´ has been historically applied to readers of newspapers. At a basic level it¶s important to know who would read the content . Nevertheless. have a ³readership´ (or perhaps one might even say an ³audience´ if they have a strong film/video clip content). There are a lot of other questions you might wish to investigate in order to obtain a more detailed understanding of precisely how these people use a particular media source: y y y y y y What do they actually read within a magazine/website? Why do they read it ± what are they actually looking to get out of it? What interests them? What do they ignore? What do you need to do to get them to read something rather than ignore it? What kind of messages/images are they likely to respond to? Herbert Lee Williams defines µResearch¶ as ³the act of probing for accurate reliable useful information and of organising that information so that sound conclusions can be drawn´. magazines and trade journals.Parametric and Nonparametric Statistics Can the sample¶s statistics be generalized to the population¶s parameters? Only if interval-level data are used« because they assume the normal distribution. who they are and what their profile is. there are a variety of things that those who advertise in such media. This is all good stuff but it is nevertheless only part of the story. would need to know.how many people. Product research is the latest development in News Paper research. Market Research helps the unit as stated below : To indulge in self appraisal and estimate its position in the news industry. To facilitate Developmental journalism. Press Institute of India . The news paper Readers Panel provides a continuous feed back to the manufacturers by maintaining consumer diaries. Research sources The Secondary research sources may be listed as below:28 Indian universities have Departments of Journalism which publish research findings. To enable the creation of Reader¶s / consumer panels To generate content for feature writing. It is conducted through a questionnaire. Socio legal hurdles Political hurdles Cultural hurdles. Product Research.such as:1Research about the market. d) On technical aspects :. To identify market potential and threats.It is carried out for legal purposes as well as to provide information to advertisers.This kind of research based on content analysis . leading to quality improvement. c) On public acceptance / goodwill aspects:. Problems in Research Identification of the target audience Difficulties in gathering demographic data Geographical hurdles Psychological hurdles. a) On publication aspects:. To understand the requirements of Advertisers and to provide them with details. To understand Dealership problems and potential To foresee the threat of competition and overcome it.It is carried out with the help of µassisted recall¶ method. To identify the scope for investigative journalism.It provides vital information to the manufacturers about the acceptance of a product in a market. 2 Research about the News Media / News paper. To facilitate the emergence of new ideas.Rajendra Prasad Institute of communication studies. 3. Indian Institute of Mass communication. To plan for growth and expansion. b) On circulation aspects:. Research about the News Paper may be conducted from various angles.It facilitates the evaluation of technical and professional excellence. Dr. National Documentation centre on Mass Communication. yet an estimate suggests about 3. 1 Publishers of free papers rely strictly on advertising income for profitability. 5 Contrary to this prediction. free papers often are smaller and provide proportionally more advertising information. 3 free papers have long been criticized as junk papers.Research and reference Division of the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting. Department of Audio Visual Publicity and Research (DAVP). or free papers. The exact number of free papers is difficult to ascertain. and aggressive buyouts of free papers by daily newspapers. Compared to paid daily and weekly newspapers. fierce competition from weekly paid newspapers. are advertising publications either distributed without charge to almost every household within a community area or free to be picked up at a paper rack. . 2 While paid daily newspapers enjoy the reputation as one of the most favorable media. 4 Some critics believe that free papers are an endangered species due to the rapid development of new communication technologies. penny savers. also called shopper s guides. but also has continued to grow steadily. 1976.200 publications in business. On line search engines. blogs. portals. Free community papers. the free paper industry has not only survived this intense competition. Readership of the free paper increases as age increases. Tsao is associate professor and chairman. Sibley is professor of marketing. four times higher than that of paid weeklies and outnumbering that of all daily newspapers. and Stanley D. Based on the theoretical framework of uses and gratifications. 7 While the free paper industry takes pride in being the only possible direct print competition 8 to paid weekly and daily newspapers in local markets. as more favorable attitude toward the free paper increases. Several market segments with varying market attributes are identified as heavy readers of the free paper. a multivariate model helps to explain readership. at the University of Wisconsin-Oshkosh. some major concerns have been raised by the industry. JOURNALISM & MASS COMMUNICATION QUARTERLY 766READERSHIP OF FREE COMMUNITY PAPERS 767 by 2000.6 The circulation of free papers in 1968 was estimated at 30 million. School of Business and Administration. James C. performing the functions of providing surveillance information and product values to consumers. Department of Journalism. as involvement in some leisure lifestyles increases. It reached 88 million The free paper is a convenient and relevant advertising information source. At . and as the value of information on homes and equipment and on food and supplies increases. their usage rate of free papers is often the lowest among all advertising media. 9 National advertisers rarely choose the medium to reach consumers. Practitioners ask for accountability when making decisions on media planning. 12 An empirical and objective analysis of the readership of free papers could help media planners understand the role and positioning of the free paper in the media mix to achieve their advertising objectives effectively.the core is the lack of advertisers recognition. This study is significant to both practitioners and scholars. To scholars. 11 These issues raise several fundamental questions. the study provides a starting point to build a model on . The lack of research on free papers inhibits practitioners from understanding the value of this advertising medium. Who reads free papers? Why do they read them? What is the readership profile of free papers that has contributed to their growth? The purpose of the current study is to reduce the research gap by analyzing the readership profile of free papers. 10 While local advertisers consider paid daily newspapers as the most effective advertising medium. even though free papers provide a source of free advertising information to consumers. 13 media economics. The Free Paper Industry. The current study adds a new angle to the media research stream by analyzing free papers as a local advertising medium.the readership of free papers. the model of uses and gratifications is applied as a theoretical foundation to understand why free papers are read and to what extent these publications fulfill the needs of their readers. Academic researchers have studied local media from different perspectives. 15 However. 17 In the 1970s. 14 and newspaper readership. Although free papers appeared sporadically in the United States in the early 1900s. 16 By the 1950s. it took a long time for them to become a competitive and mass medium. most of the studies focused on the topics of paid dailies and weeklies. the fierce competition for advertising dollars in many markets resulted in the establishment of new free papers by paid weeklies and buyouts of free papers by daily newspapers. Specifically. including community involvement. . many free papers began to appear and develop close ties with local communities in areas where paid weekly and daily newspapers already had built strong footholds. First. free papers increased their circulation. since the 1960s the population growth in suburban communities. 21 Lastly. The impetus for publishing free papers in their early history was to fulfill advertisers need for a low-cost advertising medium. Third. as more females became employed outside the home and as more live alone or just with children. Literature ReviewIn addition. coupled with the increased buying power of these consumers. has made this group a major market segment by itself. That still is evident today. Females . economic and sociological factors contributed to the development of the free paper industry. the expansion of the personal nonpostal delivery system by free papers reduced the importance of the Second-Class mailing cost advantage claimed by paid newspapers. Second. making them a more competitive advertising medium. the low cost of advertising rates for free papers compared to those of daily newspapers has been a competitive advantage. the quality of free papers improved as the circulation of paid newspapers declined. 20 Second.18 Several movements emerged during this competitive era. 19 First. Suburban consumers also represented the most important readership of newspapers and free papers. their role has changed dramatically. The uses and gratifications perspective has been considered an axiomatic theory in that it is readily applicable to wide ranging situations involving mediated communication. 26 Although the concept of uses and gratifications provided many promises to communication research. have used advertising information effectively. 24 It also assumes that media usage competes with other bases of need gratifications.have taken a greater role in decision making. what circumstances would make people choose them as a source of advertising information? One approach to answering such questions is the model and research on uses and gratifications. it has been criticized for being vague in theoretical development and short of in-depth findings due to methodological shortcomings. . 22 Do people seek advertising messages in free papers to fill in their information needs? If so. the theory is used in this study to examine what readers do with free papers rather than what free papers do to readers. motivating them to choose media content instead of experiencing incidental or passive media exposure. have sought more information on making product and service choices. and have become more efficient shoppers. 25 More specifically. 23 The model assumes that audiences are active communicators with self-aware needs. 29 radio music.27 It has been argued that the theoretical framework lacked a broader model. 34 Swanson s position is applicable to examining free papers for . 30 and newspaper reading. such as surveillance. 33 However. entertainment. one that might include lifestyles and activities to explain the complex role of media uses and gratifications. Swanson discussed the need to study second-order gratifications. 28 The early research of uses and gratifications focused mostly on media effects of quiz programs and soap operas. 31 As the theory gained acceptance. the paradigm shifted to the functional approach studying the communication process from the audience s perspective rather than from the communicators viewpoint. which are individual differences resulting in particular gratifications from message content. and parasocial interaction. 32 Previous studies provided a general framework on firstorder gratifications sought from the mass media. In such cases. Rotzoll. reject. emotional or intellectual 36 expectations. Advertising Applications in Uses and Gratifications. The second-order gratifications involving message content appear relevant to the focus of the present study. 37 Several studies supported the conclusion that consumers were active and expectation-driven when encountering advertisements. consumers do not passively take advertising for granted. an advertisement is valuable only if the message is meaningful. Plummer presented an advertising communication model emphasizing . Haefner. Therefore. thus directing the flow of societal resources through the full meaning of consumer sovereignty. Instead. and more about what people do with advertising. especially if the advertisements could fulfill aesthetic. and Sandage suggested that prospective buyers presumably can accept. or ignore. it might be more helpful to think less about what advertising does to people. 35 In other words. but also a medium offering 768 JOURNALISM & MASS COMMUNICATION QUARTERLY Research in Uses and GratificationsREADERSHIP OF FREE COMMUNITY PAPERS 769 largely advertising information. they choose advertisements that they desire to perceive. The concept of uses and gratifications has been applied to advertising research. At the societal level.being considered not only a print medium. enjoyment. empathy. structuring time. value addition. and involvement. confusion. Using qualitative methods to study advertising classification. including hedonic. implied warranty. empathy or gratifying involvement. irritation. Crosier 41 offered seven types of satisfaction with advertising exposure: product information. 39 Schlinger tested how people feel after watching television commercials. brand reinforcement. informativeness or personal relevance. vicarious experience. knowledge. Entertainment was the leading factor. familiarity. followed by confusion. social learning or contact. and value affirmation. Their studies showed that attitudes toward television commercials were related to the functions served by advertisements. . 38 Factor analysis revealed seven dimensions of viewing responses to television commercials: entertainment or stimulation. scanning the environment. 40 The results were similar to Plummer s findings.audience contributions to advertising outcomes. familiarity. entertainment. Alwitt and Prabhaker and O Donohoe 42 provided more consumer insights toward advertising. and alienation. post-purchase reassurance. and brand reinforcement. relevant news. O Donohoe revealed six categories of advertising consumption: marketing uses. however. 46 Abrams. O Donohoe suggested. Kaul. 43 Advertising of Weekly and Daily Newspapers in Uses and Gratifications. 47 As the perceived value of advertising increased. advertising seems at least as fruitful an area for the application of uses and gratifications theory as any other element of the mass media. Newspaper advertising was considered more favorably than any other type of content.social interaction. These categories have much in common with those rooted in media research of uses and gratifications. half of newspaper readers spent more time reading news than reading advertisements. including overlapped readership and perceived favorability by their readers. The advertising functions provided by weekly and daily papers are relevant to free papers because of their similarities. 45 but also enjoyed the highest readership of any kind of information content. 44 Research also showed that newspaper advertising not only was considered more useful than anyother newspaper content. so . and self-affirmation/transformation. As such. and Ma found a strong relationship between the perceived values of advertising and of news messages. newspaper advertising. especially with middle.and lowerclass readers. 52 Interaction is a subtle function. fashionable apparel advertisements from a local department store often can create an idea of what is suitable and conventional to wear in a community. Research shows that the behavior of reading newspaper advertisements can be explained by the concept of interpersonal interaction. how to arrange their free and shopping schedule. and how to use other opportunities after reading newspaper advertisements. Newspaper advertising primarily provides readers two functions: surveillance and interaction. 49 This finding was reinforced by classified advertising being rated the highest in readership of any type of newspaper information.did the attitude toward the news. as well as freepaper advertising. 48 Readers may decide what to purchase. Young adults often used advertising as subjects in social exchanges that may not be relevant . 50 In addition. 51 For example. Surveillance can be identified when readers of daily newspapers consider advertising as a source of local news. informed readers of social standards and norms of the local environment. 53 Readers use information learned from advertising to interact with the social environment. demographics have been used to explain the uses and gratifications of newspaper advertising. of singles. Automobile advertisements attracted primarily males interest. Gender was found to be a strong variable explaining the readership of three product types of advertising: automobile. and department store. 58 Gender and age also predicted attitudes toward news and advertising.to the advertised product. 55 However. 57 Moreover. more variables are needed to help explain uses and gratifications of advertising readership of free papers as a source of advertising information. those with lower social economic status and living in suburban and rural areas were more interested in newspaper food advertisements than households with children. including demographics. Female readers perceived advertising to be more valuable than . 54 The overall conclusion from these studies is a pattern of readership segmentation for advertising usage ranging from low to high readers. Readers have been active and selective about advertising content. 56 However. grocery. when explaining media or advertising usage. while grocery and department store advertising significantly appealed to females. One criticism of previous studies on uses and gratifications was the lack of a broader scope. and of the elderly. while older readers rated news to be more useful than advertising. the first alternative hypothesis was: H1: The relationship between the readership of free papers and demographics would show differences. 60 Females with an age of 45 years or older rated prescription drug advertisements higher in believability and understandability than other advertising. broadcast. Therefore. 62 According to these research conclusions.news. 61 Moreover. it is reasonable to believe that there would be relationships between the free-paper readership and demographic characteristics. there was a positive relationship between demographics of a local community and attitudes toward advertising perceived by practitioners. The females also had higher usage of newspaper and magazine advertising than other media advertising. Katz. Blumler. 59 One study on healthcare and direct-to-consumer advertising for prescription drugs found that females used a variety of print. and Gurevitch suggested that the media compete with other sources of need satisfactions [A] proper view of the role of the media in need satisfaction should take into account other functional . 770 JOURNALISM & MASS COMMUNICATION QUARTERLY Conceptual FrameworkREADERSHIP OF FREE COMMUNITY PAPERS 771 and Internet media sources for advertising information to make decisions. leisure activity fulfilling various need satisfactions is an appropriate variable to be included in the equation. 66 Leisure behaviors not only changed across the life spans of consumers. Suggested also by the bioecological theory of the niche. 68 Different leisure activities were shown to be associated with attitudes toward advertising. 67 but were also often displaced by media use. and older ways of fulfilling needs. As such. 64 Free papers compete for the consumers pool of audience attention in the community of media ecology. 63 In light of this view. 69 Free papers are a print medium providing advertising information to readers who might have different interest areas reflected by their . Leisure activities as a part of audience lifestyles have been addressed in studies of consumer behavior 65 and readership involvement. individuals have limited amount of time to spend on different activities.alternatives including different. it was logical to predict that consumers engaging in leisure activities seek information on products and services associated with their activities. more conventional. 72 Plummer provided a theoretical view of communication by describing the relationship of audience choices to product purchase stimulated by advertising. 70 The mission of salesmanship is especially applicable to free papers that publish classified and local advertisements primarily promoting product attributes instead of brand images. Schudson concluded that the connection between classified advertising and consumer contact directly influenced buying decisions. and . Several studies supported the view of advertising exposure contributing to purchasing experience. 71 Rotzoll. the second hypothesis was: H2: The relationship between the readership of free papers and leisure activities of readers would show differences.leisure activities. and Sandage supported theconcept that consumers were active information seekers who were able to sort out many competing messages before making purchasing decisions. Haefner. O Donohoe showed advertising fulfilling the need of product information. 73 As suggested by the model on uses and gratifications. the authors shared the same view of the direct impact of advertising on buying decisions of information seekers. Advertising has been described as salesmanship in print. The variety of information published in free papers suggests that the readership of this medium as a source of advertising information may be explained by segments of consumers engaged in specific leisure activities. Therefore. consumption stimulation. the third hypothesis was: H3: The relationship between the readership of free papers and product information would show differences. 76 Use of grocery ads appeared to be role-specific.value addition. As such. 77 These studies suggested that there was a direct relationship between advertising and product purchases. 78 This simple suggestion provided a clearer research mission: traits of media or information can be identified and subjects can answer how they rate each . McQuail believed that one of the reformed premises in uses and gratification is that a particular type of media information has meaning that can be perceived positively or negatively. in the readership survey of a small daily newspaper. Griswold and Moore revealed that different types of advertising usage resulted from various needs. 75 Furthermore. while use of classified ads seemed to be situation-specific. showing that advertising exposure set an agenda for product trial processing. 74 The direct relationship was even more evident when subjects were analyzed in experimental settings. examples included getting information and advice. previous studies on newspaper and advertising found various types of needs for reading news and advertisements. demographics. including attitudes. O Donohoe developed twenty attributes in the six categories to explain advertising uses and gratifications. leisure behaviors. 80 Moreover. finding support for one s own values. and product information. and acquiring a structure for daily routine. the first research question asked: RQ1: What are the attitudes toward free papers? Research on advertising readership can be enriched when analyzed from a multivariate perspective. can help to explain the readership of free papers? Readership of free papers (the dependent variable) was analyzed in terms of four sets of independent variables: demographic characteristics. reducing personal insecurity. filling time. McQuail developed fourteen categories of motives for using the media and satisfactions from having used the media.attribute as they apply it to specific media and content. This approach is especially meaningful for free papers because they are an advertising medium that should be interrelated with various consumer perceptions and behaviors. 81 Therefore. 79 Consistent with McQuail s suggestions. having a substitute for social contact. Therefore. . the second research question asked: 772 JOURNALISM & MASS COMMUNICATION QUARTERLYREADERSHIP OF FREE COMMUNITY PAPERS 773 RQ2: What model. Demographic variables include age. Respondents were asked to indicate their motives and gratifications with free papers by specifying their degree of agreement or disagreement on 12 statements. product information. The activities were developed according to the categories in the studies of Danko and Schaninger 82 and Scott and Willitis. and attitudes. to Very High. Low. Slightly Agree.leisure behaviors. Respondents were asked to rate free papers for advertising information to help them purchase the 20 types of products/services commonly advertised in free papers. High. Product Information.93). Demographics. Some. Leisure Behaviors.89. High. Some. The statements were measured on a 7point scale including Strongly Disagree. and Strongly . household income. Attitudes. Disagree. 83 The responses were measured by the perceived degree of involvement in each of 37 leisure activities on a 6-point scale ranging from None. number of children. to Very High (Alpha of the overall response was . No Opinion. and occupation. Low. Disagree. The Cronbach s alpha of the overall response was . Slightly Agree. personal income. gender. Very Low. The responses were measured by the perceived value of each of the product and service categories on a 5-point scale ranging from Very Low. marital status. Respondents were asked to evaluate the extent to which they were involved in leisure activities in the past year. A list broker supplied the mailing list.08. The statements were modified according to the studies of McQuail 84 and O Donohoe.pdf http://www. and one-dollar incentive. The alpha values for the positive and negative responses were .76.64.scribd. . The sample was a random selection of 5. These materials were pretested in one county in the sampled state. The survey materials included a pre-questionnaire notification postcard. while the standard deviation was 1. while five were worded negatively.com/images/tsaoarticle.Agree. Lahore was the hub of print media and almost all the newspapers of the United Punjab were being published from there.86 and . The readership of free papers was measured on a 5point scale ranging from Hardly ever. Most of the time. postage-paid business reply envelope. with 100 randomly drawn names from the telephone book. and a follow-up reminder postcard. A separate category of Never was provided. respectively. The pretest resulted in a 41% return rate of usable questionnaires by the cutoff date. the mailing package consisting of a cover letter. In a very short span of period the press stood on its feet and has now become very influential organ of public opinion. http://www. The cover letter and questionnaire were pre-tested with small focus groups and individuals with varied backgrounds. to Always or almost always. questionnaire. Some of the time. the press shifted to Jalandhar and started afresh with limited means. but it was excluded from the data analysis. Readership.com/doc/75148703/55/PARAMETRIC-STATISTICS#outer_page_9 Before partition. After the holocast of partition. 85 Seven of the statements were worded positively.sapatoday. The mean was 3.031 households from a Midwestern state. The Tribune. Jantak Lehar are other dailies published in Punjabi. Milap in Hindi and Urdu. These newspapers are disseminating news and information to the people and are a great source of media to educate the people in the method of performing their civic duty.Jalandhar City is the centre of print media. Hind Samachar Group publishes Jag Bani in Punjabi. Indian Express have posted their reporters here for collecting all local news. Many dailies and weeklies are published in various languages. National newspapers like Times of India. These newspapers have their news correspondents at the District.Division headquarters and also in small towns to get latest news. Amar Ujala and Dainik Jagran are published in Hindi. Sub. Vir Partap in Hindi are also published from Jalandhar. Hindustan Times. These newspapers are also read by a large number of people. Akali Patrika. They are also playing a very positive role in strengthening the bonds of communal harmony and adopt an attitude of restraint in projecting views involving communal tension and disturbance. . These two newspapers have included several interesting sections thus arousing the curiosity of public. The daily Ajit is a leading newspaper which has wider circulation and readership especially in the rural areas. Some of them are fine manifestation of journalism. Aj-Di-Awaj. Punjab Kesari in Hindi and Hind Samachar in Urdu.
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