POLITICAL SCIENCE: the systematic study of the state and the government POLITICAL: comes from the Greekword “polis” which means a “city” or “state” SCIENCE: comes from the Latin word “scire” which means “to know” SCOPE OF POLITICAL SCIENCE 1. POLITICAL THEORY – body of doctrines relating to the origin, form, behavior and purposes of the state. 2. PUBLIC LAW – organization of the gov’t. and its powers and duties; limitation upon government authority. 3. PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION – methods and techniques used in the actual management of state affairs. IMPORTANCE OF POLITICAL SCIENCE 1. To discover the principles that should be adhered to in public affairs and to study the operations of the government. 2. Its findings can be used in seeking resolutions to immediate situations. 3. To be able to deal with social and economic problems and other matters of public and private concerns. CONCEPT OF STATE A community of persons more or less numerous, permanently occupying a definite portion of territory, having a government of their own, to which the great body of inhabitants render obedience and enjoying freedom from external control. ELEMENTS OF THE STATE People – the inhabitants or mass population living within the state. Territory – the fixed portion of the surface of the earth inhabited by the people of the state. Government – the agency through which the will of the state is expressed and carried out. Sovereignty – the supreme power of the state to command and enforce obedience to its will from people and to have freedom from foreign control. STATE Legal/Political Concept One state may consist of one or more nations principal abstraction cannot exist without the government cannot be changed so long as the elements are present NATION Ethnic Concept One nation may be made up of several states agent externalize the will of the state can exist without a state can be changed 1. 2. 3. 4. FORMS of GOVERNMENT As to number of persons exercising sovereign powers 1. Monarchy – one in which the supreme and final authority is in the hands of a single person. 2. Aristocracy – one in which political power is exercised by a few privileged class 3. Democracy – one in which political power is exercised by a majority of people. As to extent of powers by the central government 1. Unitary government – one in which the control of national and local affairs is exercised by the central or national government. 2. Federal government – one in which the powers of government are divided between two sets of organs, one for national affairs and the other for local affairs. As to relationship between the executive and the legislative branches of the government 1. Parliamentary government – one in which the state confers upon the legislature the power to terminate the tenure of office of the real executive. 2. Presidential government – one in which the state makes the executive independent of the legislature as regards his tenure, policies and acts. GOVERNMENT of the PHILIPPINES in TRANSITION PRE-SPANISH GOVERNMENT Barangay Datu Social classes Early laws Democratic 5. Constitution of government 2. assigning powers and duties to different government departments/branches.SPANISH PERIOD Ferdinand Magellan (1521) Miguel Lopez de Legazpi (1566) Katipunan government (1892) Biak na Bato Republic (1897) Dictatorial government (1898) “Philippine Independence at Kawit. Brief 2. Requisites of a good written constitution As to form 1. limited and defined by which these powers are distributed among the several departments/branches for the benefit of the people. Constitution of liberty 3. protecting the rights of individuals against arbitrary actions of the government. Powers 6. Definite As to contents 1. Basic Framework Constitution is providing system to the government. Revolutionary 2. 2. Constitutional 4. Provisional Constitution CONSTITUTION is a written instrument by which the fundamental powers of the government are established. NATURE & PURPOSE OF CONSTITUTION 1. of 1986 1. Cavite” Revolutionary government (1898) First Philippine Republic (1898) “Malolos Constitution” AMERICAN PERIOD Treaty of Paris Military government (1898) Civil government (1901) Commonwealth government (1934) “Tydings Mc Duffie Law” JAPANESE PERIOD Japanese Military Administration (1942) The Philippine Executive Commission The Japanese-sponsored Republic of the Philippines (1943) The PROVISIONAL GOV’T. Broad 3. It is the law to which all other laws must conform. Constitution of sovereignty CONSTITUTION a legislation direct from the people merely states the general framework of the law not merely to meet existing conditions but to govern the future the supreme or fundamental law STATUTE a legislation from the people’s representatives provides the details of the subject it treats . Supreme/Fundamental Law Constitution is binding on all citizens and all organs of the government. De jure/de facto 3. Roosevelt authorized the calling of a constitutional convention to draft a constitution of the Philippines March 23. 1986 . 1967 – Congress authorized the holding of a constitutional convention June 1. Congress met in Malolos.Constitutional Commission was created to draft the proposed Constitution June 2. 1971 – the convention started to rewrite the Constitution November 30.Freedom Constitution was promulgated 1987 Constitution April 23. 1935 – Filipinos ratified the Constitution 1973 Constitution March 16. 1898. Bulacan and framed the Malolos Constitution lasted only for a short period of time from January 23. 1986 . 1901 1935 Constitution March 24. May 14. 1972 – the proposed Constitution was signed September 21.4 day people power revolt March 25. 1934 – Pres. 1986 .the Constitutional Commission convened October 15. 1987 . to meet existing conditions only Law born-out from the Constitution CONSTITUTIONS OF THE REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES Malolos Constitution September 15. 1986 . 1972 – Pre. 1899 to March 23. 1986 . 1935 – Pres. 1973 – Filipinos ratified the Constitution Freedom Constitution February 22-25.the 1987 Constitution was ratified by the people on a plebiscite . Roosevelt approved the Constitution.draft of the Constitution was finished February 2. Marcos placed the entire country under martial law January 17.