1.increased venous return : 1. increases the myocardial oxygen demand 2. followes an increase in abdominal pressure 3. can be produced by a deep inspiration 4. is due to constriction of the arterioles 2.chemical synapse : 1. depends on a neurotransmitter that is always synthesized in the neural soma 2. is independent on calcium concentration in the presynaptic terminal 3. allows a bidirectional signal transmission 4 .depends on voltage-gated Ca channels at presynaptic level 3.choose the right statements about the process of accommodation : 1. the lens gets flattened for distant vision 2. the dioptric power of the lens is higher for near vision 3. for near vision the ciliary muscle is contracted 4. near distance accommodation is sympathetic reflex 4.Pain: 1. is sensed by free nerve endings 2. is sensed by receptors that adapt very fast 3. can be triggered by bradykinin 4. are always located in the superficial layers of the skin 5.coronary blood flow : 1. increases during systole in RV 2. increases during diastole in LV 3. can get low in the LV when HR increases 4. is decreased by adenosine 6.the following are neuroglial cells: 1. oligodendrocyts 2. astrocyts 3. epindymal cells 4. 7.control of transmitter activity in synaptic cleft is done by : 1. neurotransmitter uptake in the presynaptic cell for norepinephrine and glutamate 2. glutamate uptake through a Na+ linked transport, both into neurons and astrocytes 3. acetylcholine deactivation by cholinesterase 4. norepinephrine deactivation by methylation by catechol O methyl transferase (COMT) 8.perisynaptic astrocytes : 1. can release neurotransmitters as glutamate or ATP 2. have metabotropic receptors for glutamate (MgluR) that bind synaptic glutamate 3. are calcium excitable 4. fire action potentials 9.Retina: 1. contains bipolar neurons 2. the optic nerve is formed by the axons of the ganglionic cells in the retina 3. rods have a higher sensitivity to light that cones 4. fovea centralis has a high density of rods P-R interval on the isoelectric line 3. attaining a receptor potential 3. binds on alpha1 receptors and produces vasoconstriction 2.Noreepinephrine: 1. regular R-R intervals 2. are localized both synaptic and extra-synaptic 3. r wave in leads I and II 4. an AP frequency in relation with receptor potential value 11. change in ionic permeability of afferent nerve ending 2. are used in the electrical signaling 2. R wave in V5-V6 12. binds on M2 receptors and produces vasodilation in the skeletal muscle 3.Septum depolarization produces a : 1. binds on beta 2 receptors and produces coronary dilation 14. are exclusively localized in the presynaptic membrane . S wave in aVR 3. stimulation of a sensory receptor is followed by: 1.10. are involved in the action potential 4. q wave in V1-V2 2.Voltage-gated ionic channels are characterized by: 1. generation of action potentials (AP) in afferent nerve terminal 4. binds on beta 1 receptors and increases the heart rate 4. a P wave before each QRS complex 4. a negative P wave in lead aVL 13.normal sinus rhythm is characterized by : 1. Choose the correct answers regarding the hexaxial system : 1. lead aVR is the bisector of leads I and II 3.potassium influx 17. lead V1 is oriented from 180 to 0 degrees 4.The following features correspond to neurons : 1. the following processes happen : 1. are long-lived cells 4.calcium influx 3.transmit electrical signals in a uni-directional way 3. is mostly done by diffusion through the membrane lipid layer 16. lead aVL is perpendicular on lead III 2.15.chloride efflux 4.Transmembrane ionic transport : 1. is more efficient under vagal stimulation 18. influences ventricular filling 3. are mitotic cells 19. assist the membrane resting potential 2.Lusitropia : 1.when stimulating hair cells in the inner ear. requires energy consumption 2. have a high metabolic ate 2. is done exclusively alongside the concentration gradient 3. is increased by sympathetic stimulation 4. sodium influx 2. assist the membrane action potential 4. lead aVL is oriented from +150 to -30 degrees . axonal myelination depends on neuroglia 4.5-2 m/sec in myelinated axons 21. have a constant membrane potential during phase 4 3. are unexcitable during systole 2. apexcardiogram reaches the lowest point 24.During isovolumic contraction : 1. approximates the duration of an AP in the myocite 23. is not influenced by preload 22.The QT interval: 1. can be increased by digitalis 4.Myocardial oxygen demand : 1. voltage-gated Na+ channels are highly concentrated beneath the sheath of myelin 3.Myocardial working fibers: 1. increases at high BP 2. increases at high HR 3. myelin is a layer of lipid membrane of oligodendrocytes or schwann cells 2.The following are correct : 1. phonocardiongram records the 3rd heart sound 2. Is characterized by duration and polarity 4. pressure inside the ventricle is constant 3. Changes with HR 3. communicate to one another through gap junctions 4. conduction velocity is 0. receive nervous impulses through motor end-plates in order to contract . juguloram records a positive wave ‘y’ 4. covers the QRS and the ST segment 2.20. can transmit AP with high velocities 2. is involved in attaining the Nerst potential 4. pressure pulses decrease . histamine 2. depends on the difference in concentration of the solute inside-outside the cell 2.Which of the following are vasodilators ? 1. have a dense distribution of gap junctions 3. normally fire 60-100 impulses/min 4. total flow increases 4. is the driving force that determines the active transport of ions across the membrane 3. Pressure increases 2. NO 4..25. blood velocity decreases 3.The cells of the atrio-ventricular node : 1. angiotensin II 27. are inhibited by vagal stimulation 26.The electrochemical gradient : 1.As blood travels from the aorta towards the capillaries: 1. is independent on the polarity of the electrical charge of ions 28. endothelins 3. lymphatic vessels are obstructed 4. RV ejection fraction is 35% 2. at resting membrane potential the channel is closed 31. plasma albumin decreases 3. hydrostatic pressure in the capillaries decreases 32.End systolic volume (ESV): 1.Edema occurs if : 1.QRS axis is oriented at +135 when the QRS net amplitude is : 1. the dendrites and cell body the main areas for receiving information 3.The following are correct about the neurons: 1. can increase when blood pressure rises 2.29. axonal transport is not dependent on the microtubules and microfilaments 4. maximal and positive in lead II 3. never changes with HR 3. minimal in V3-V4 30. equals the difference between EDV and SV 4.Na+ voltage gated channels: 1. protein synthesis mainly takes place in the dendrites 2. are involved in the fast electrical signaling 3. equal in lead I (-) and aVF (+) 4. equal in lead III (+) and aVL (-) 2. is increased by a high EDV in a healthy heart 33. are activated by tetrodotoxin 4. AP are initiated at the axon hillock region . are active at a membrane potential below -50mV 2. the baroreceptor reflex produces: 1. depends on the capilliary hydrostatic pressure 3.The QRS complex: 1. is decreased during breathing in 2. is wider if the AP is not correctly transmitted within the ventricles 2. should begin with an r wave in V1. is increased by the activity of the 38. inhibition of the cardioinhibitory area 36.CO2 that hydrophilic compunds 4. is present in the sarcoplasmic-reticolum of the myocardial fibers 2. inhibition of the C1 area 4.34. decreases the intracellular concentration of ca2+ 3.V2 35. is a primary active transport system 4. is dominantly negative in the right ventricular leads 4.Capillary exchange of solutes: 1. vasoconstriction in the periphery 3. follows fick’s law 2. is slowed-down by digitalis . lowering of the heart rate 2. allows the determination of the axis of the heart 3.As a response to increased blood pressure.The lymph flow: 1. is impaired by plasma colloid osmotic pressure 37. has a higher rate of O2. is increased by the interstitial pressure 3.Na+-Ca2+ exchanger : 1. is higher below the level of the heart 4. is not changed by an increase in afterload 42) Frank-Starling law of the heart: 1.Wall tension : 1. Is a plot of the phases of the cardiac cycle 2. applies only to upright subjects 43) during systole coronary flow is : 1. is a major determinant of the myocardial oxygen demand 3. lower in the right than in the lft ventricle 3. Helps evaluating the activity of the heart as a pump 4. is used for calculating tension heat 3. Depends on the heart rate 4. relates to affinity of actin for TnC 3.39. increased by sympathetic stimulation 44) autoregulation of tissue perfusion : . increases when blood pressures rises 4. Is decreased when ESV increases 3. is lower when the ventricular wall is thick 40) The strength of contraction in the LV : 1. adjusts the SV to the venous return 4. raised by endothelin 2. is increased by Alpha1-andrenergic angonists 41) Pressure-volume loop : 1. higher in subendocardium than in subepicardium 4. is lower in a dilated heart 2. is a regulatory mechanism intrinsic to the heart 2. is Fairly evaluated by EF 2. aVF 4. +165 46) ECG leads in the frontal plane : 1. -15 3. implies a change in vascular resistance 3.aVL. AN R/S>1 in V5. +135 2. two or more R waves higher than 15mV in V5. keeps a constant local flow when AP varies 45) when the net QRS amplitude is equal and the highest in leads 1 and aVl.V6 3. decreases tissue flow when adenosine accumulates 2. an ST segment on the isoelectric line 48) The ECG recording of ventricular activation shows : 1. a big R in aVL for left ventricular activation 3. +75 4. allow the estimation of QRS axis 3.V6 . a regular rate between 60 and 100bpm 2.3. the QRS axis can be oriented at : 1. form the hexaxial reference system 47) normal sinus rhythm is characterized by : 1. are all bipolar 2. a small q in right ventricular leads during septum depolarization 2.1. when overlaid. can record the electrical activity of the HIS bundle 4.A small r in aVR for right ventricular activation 4. A positive P wave in leads 1. increases tissue flow when oxygen supply increases 4. the arrangement in series of big arteries 3. the arrangement in parallel of big arteries 2. maintains a low protein interstitial fluid 2. distension of elastic vessels when pressure increases 51) systemic arterial pressure increases when : 1. transports O2 from the lungs to the tissues . makes jugular veins to protrude 53) lymphatic system: 1. venous return increases 4. can become turbulent in severe anemia 50) in elastic vascular beds there is non-linear pressure flow relationship due to : 1. increases when RB has an EF of 25% 3. when higher than 0. begins with closed-ended capillaries 4.is kept fairly constant in a healthy heart 4. arteriolar constriction 4. vascular compliance decreases 2. prevents accumulation of CO2 in the tissue 3.49) Blood flow in systemic circulation: 1. is directly proportional to vascular resistance 2. increases when pressure decreases 4. is measured in the right atrium 2. produces murmurs when is turbulent 3. vascular tone decreases 3. blood velocity increases 52) Central venous pressure: 1. increases with heart rate 2. venodilation 4.sustained hypoxia 3.increased natriuresis 3. decrease of the heart rate 2.carioingibitory area is inhibited 4. increased ADH release 4. is estimated by the ejection fraction 4.VEGF 4. SAN is stimulated through the baroreceptor reflex 3. physical exercise 2.NO 58)ventricular contractility: 1.54) filtration through the capillary wall is favored by : 1. cardioacceleratory center is inhibited 56) atrial dilation has the following consequences : 1. low plasma albumin 3. decreases when the venous return lowers 59) coronary blood flow : . dilation of renal arteries 57)angiogenesis is stimulated by : 1. can be evaluated on the pressure-volume loop 3. low lymph flow 2.high blood pressure 55) when arterial pressure increases : 1. vasomotor area is stimulated 2. increases during systole in RV 2.Ach dependent potassium channel 1. decreases the threshold of fast AP cells 2-is an inward rectifier channel 3-is responsible for the physiologic delay of the AP in AVN 4-is involved in decreasing heart rate .1. decreases after direct administration of acetylcholine 60. increases during diastole in LV 4.when activated . falls with increased levels of adenosine 3.The relaxation of the contractile proteins in myocardial fibers 1-is enhanced by phospholamban phosphorelation 2-is enhanced by phosphorelation of troponin i 3-is enhanced by sympathetic stimulation 4-depends on the dissociation of Ca++ from trompomyosin 61.The duration of the cardiac cycle 1-is imposed by the SA node 2-influences coronary blood flow in the left ventricle 3-influences ventricular filling 4-is increased following sympathetic sstimulation 62. Rapid ejection 1.Glial cells 1-cannot divide by mitosis 2-provide support for CNS 3-produce and transmit AP 4-act as scavangers .Which of the following is/are true regarding the cerebral cortex 1-the visual cortex os located in the occipital lobes 2-the right hemisphere is responsible for spatial perception 3-70% of the cortex represented by association area 4-broca's area is responsible for comprehension of speech 66.provides the peak systolic pressure 2-produces the 3rd heart sound 3-begins firstly in the right ventricle 4-can be evalucated on the jugulogram 64.First heart sound covers 1-point E in the carotidogram 2-the c wave of the jugulogram 3-the first ascending limb on the apexcardiogram 4-isovolumic contraction 65.63. 67.Myelin 1.brane conduction for Cl2.Inhibitory post synaptic receptors: 1.raise membrane potential closer to the threshold in respone to the specific ligand 3.depress .Electrical synapses in the NS 1-allow the transmition of an AP only in one direction 2-can transmit metabolic signals between the cells 3-make only neuro-neuronal coonexions 4-allow a fast transmission 70.is produced by oligodendrocytes in the PNS 2-is a good electrical isolator 3-covers the nodes of ranvier 4-increases conduction velocity long the axons 68.provide increased membrane permeability for Ca2+ 4.e.Na++ channels of the neunoral membrane 1-are dense at the soma 2-are will represented in the presynaptic segment 3-are absent in the dendrites 4-are ery dense at the axon hillock 69.lead to membrane hyperpolarization when activated . Which of the following are small molecules transmitters 1-Ach 2-serotonine 3-dopamine 4-enkephalin 72.Ach 1-acts on nicotinic receptors at the neuromascular junction 2-is a ionotropic ligand for muscarinic receptors 3.71.is released by pre ganglionic fibers of ANS efference 4-has a methacholine as a precursor 74.Norepinephrine is removed from the secretor site by 1-reuptake into the nerve ending 2-diffusing away from the nerve ending .In fast chemical synapses 1-transmitter molecules are large 2-storage is in small vesicles 3.the vesicle with mediator are located further away from the terminal 4-neurotransmitter is produced in the presynaptic terminal 73. decreases during a forced expiration 4. can be measured with a sphygmomanometer 2.3.the cilliari muscle by n III 2-the parotid gland through n V 3-the lacrimal glands through n VII 4-urinary bladder by vagus nerve 76. depends on the activity of the right ventricle 3.Sympathetic stimulation produces 1-activation of nicotinic receptors of the post ganglionic receptors 2-sweaty palms 3-dilated pupils 4-stimulation of the secretion of digestive glands 78.lysis by monoamine oxidize in the nerve endings 4-lyses by COMT in all tissues 75.Cranial parasympethatic system innervates 1.central venous pressure : 1.autoregulation of microcirculation: 1. influences the aspect of jugulogram 79. maintains a normal perfusion when arterial blood pressure decreases . vasoconstriction occurs in the kidney 81.2. occurs from anterior to posterior in the left atrium 2. produces a negative P in aVL 3. QT interval is longer than normal 2. P wave is taller than 0. duration of the atrial repolarization 3.SAN in NOT the pacemaker of the heart if : 1.following symoathetic stimulation : 1. muscarinic receptors in the vessels of the skeletal muscles are stimulated 3. inceases perfusion in a muscle at rest 80. skin vessels dilate 2. P wave is negative in lead 1 3. directly proportional 83.25mV 4. in precordial leads : 1. A QRS axis at +30 is normal 2.arterial pressure depends on the : 1. effective circulating blood volume 2.V2 4. is important for organs sensible to ischemia 4. compliance of the vessels 4. epinephrine is released by postganglionic sympathetic fibers 4.normal atrial depolarization : 1. can produce a biphasic P wave in V1. involves myogenic mechanisms 3. R/S increases from right towards left leads . blood velocity. there are no P waves 84. occurs from left to right 82. Cardiac output : 1.blood velocity 89)Lymphatic system is involved in: 1. The electric axis of the heartis at -75 when QRS net amplitude : 1. is negative in lead 3 3. is null in aVR 88. have valves if located below the heart 3.controlling interstitial volume . is equal and negative in lead 3 and aVF 4.hematocrit 2. is related to cardiac performance 86. Tow recording electrodes are used for each lead 4. is the product of end systolic volume and heart rate 3. are important blood reservoirs 87. carry deoxygenated blood to the heart 2.3. is positive in aVL 2. Discrete right ventricular abnormalities can be best recorded 85. Veins : 1.blood viscosity is increased by a raise of : 1. dilate following sympathetic stimulation 4. is maintaind constant in spite of blood pressure variations 4.plasma fibrinogen 4.plasma albumin 3. Is higher for the left than for the right ventricle 2. an index of cardiac performance 4.estimated as the product of peak systolic blood pressure and stroke volume 3.2.increases by high preload .decreases coronary blood flow during vagal stimulation 91)the external work of the heart is : 1.is an important vasoconstrictor 2.transporting O2 and CO2 90)Adenosine: 1.keeping a negative hydrostatic pressure in the interstitium 3.the energy invested in isovolumic contraction 2.transporting fats absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract 4.is released in response to angiotensin II 3.