Parameters of Friction Stir Processing Along with Reinforcement of Composition of Aluminium and Tungsten Carbide

June 10, 2018 | Author: J. J4r | Category: Documents


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Journal for Research | Volume 03 | Issue 11 | January 2018 ISSN: 2395-7549

Parameters of Friction Stir Processing Along with Reinforcement of Composition of Aluminium and Tungsten Carbide Karamjeet Kaur Rakesh Kumar PG Student Head of Department Department of Mechanical Engineering Department of Mechanical Engineering Northwest Instittute of Engineering and Technology Northwest Instittute of Engineering and Technology Dhudike, Moga, India Dhudike, Moga, India Amanpreet Singh Head of Department Department of Mechanical Engineering Shaheed Bhagat Singh State Technical Campus Ferozepur, India

Abstract Friction stir processing (FSP) is a novel technique used for the enhancing the mechanical and metallurgical properties of the material and also to make composites of the material. In this study, an attempt is made to synthesize the composites of AA6063 and tungsten carbide particles with 5 µm particle size were added reinforcement. The tool shoulder is varied from 16 mm to 20 mm. The other parameters such as tool rotational speed of 1400 rpm and transverse speed of 50 mm/min are kept constant. The friction stir processing tool is made of high chromium high carbon steel with a pin length of 4 mm and pin diameter of 6 mm is used. The 18 mm shoulder diameter produces much finer grain size with tungsten carbide reinforced particles rather than the tools having shoulder 16 mm and 20 mm diameter. The maximum tensile strength and micro hardness achieved is 260 N/mm2 and 135 Hv respectively. In case of the tool having 16 mm diameter produces less amount of heat due to lesser contact with the workpiece material and the tool having 20 mm diameter, over heat the workpiece material due to more contact area with the workpiece and causes no proper plastization and flow of the material within the processed zone by friction stir processing and produces courser grain size. Keywords: Friction Stir Processing, Microstructure, Nugget, Aluminium, Plastisize, Microhardness, Tensile Strength, Aa6063/Wc _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ I.

INTRODUCTION

Friction stir processing (FSP) is used to transform a heterogeneous microstructure to a more homogeneous, refined microstructure. There are several possible methods available which can be applied to a variety of material shapes and sizes. In many cases, the re-processed areas have superior strength and formability than the parent material, e.g. aluminum castings can be processed to consolidate voids, or extrusions can be improved in highly stressed areas. In combination with super plastic forming, FSP offers the potential to form complex-shaped parts at higher strain rates and in section thicknesses not possible using conventional super plastic processing. Friction stir processing (FSP) is a novel micro structural modifications technique; recently it has become an efficient tool for homogenizing and refining the grain structure of metal sheet. Friction stir processing is believed to have a great potential in the field of super plasticity. Results have been reported that FSP greatly enhances super plasticity in many Al alloy. Friction stir processing offers many advantages over conventional and other newer. One of the most important and unique features of FSP is that FSP is a single step process, while other techniques require multiple steps which make FSP easier and less time consuming. In addition, FSP uses a simple inexpensive tool, and a readily available machine such as a milling machine can be used to conduct the process. Other advantages of FSP are that it is suitable for automation, and it is also environmentally friendly since no gases or chemical are used. These features together make FSP easier, less expensive, and so preferable over other processing techniques. II. LITERATURE REVIEW Friction stir processing has become the topic of research in the recent period. Many researchers investigated and formulated the effect of friction stir processing which has produced composites layer on Aluminum, Steel, Nickel, Copper and Titanium alloy. Research and development efforts over the last decade have resulted in improvements in friction stir processing. The researches in the field of friction stir process a number of parameters are used by different researcher and calculate the effect of parameters on

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Parameters of Friction Stir Processing Along with Reinforcement of Composition of Aluminium and Tungsten Carbide (J4R/ Volume 03 / Issue 11 / 002)

FSP. The present studies in which different parameters are used to calculate the effect of these parameters are tool pin profile, transverse speed and reinforced particles. X. Weiping et al. (2011) observed that CNTs reinforced AA1100 and AA6101 matrix composites by FSP are to create a good dispersion of CNTs in the matrix and to achieve a good combination with the matrix. The interface of CNTs and pure aluminum matrix is smooth, no defects and is one kind of mechanical bonding interface. There are large number of dislocations. CNTs can strengthen the matrix composites effectively and obviously improve the hardness of the composites. K.G.Balamuruganet al. (2012) observed the effect of tool shoulder profile on the mechanical properties of friction stir processed AZ31B magnesium alloy. From this it was found that the properties of the materials processed with concave shoulder tool were governed by strain hardening effect. Gupta et al. (2013) studied that surface composite based on AL5083 matrix reinforced with nano-sized silicon carbide particles have been fabricated by Friction stir processing (FSP).The present study reveals that the doping of AL5083 with hard SiC particles through FSP leads to significant increase in hardness of the surface composite produced on FSPed sample layer. The hardness is maximum at center (155 HV) of processed zone at 60 mm/min and 500 rpm. The wear resistance of FSPed sample is inferior to that observed for 5083Al in spite of its higher hardness. [21]D. Deepak et al. (2013) observed that the doping of 5083Al with hard SiC particles through FSP leads to significant increase in hardness of the surface composite produced on FSPed sample layer. The wear resistance of FSPed sample is inferior to that observed for 5083Al in spite of its higher hardness. It may be attributed to high coefficient of friction and higher friction force observed during the wear testing of FSPed sample, owing to detachment of hard SiC particles from the surface of FSPed sample during the course of wear. [40]N. Saini et al. (2014) concluded the effect of input process parameters of friction stir processing to enhance the mechanical and tribiological performance of the cast hypereutectic Al-17%Si alloy. The FSP of cast Al-17% Si has been performed with designed tool dimensions such as shank diameter 25 mm, shoulder diameter 18mm, pin diameter 8mm, pin length 3.5mm and the significant refinement of eutectic and coarse primary Si particles and there was improved distribution of Si particles in the Al matrix takes place as a result of FSP in cast Al-17% Si alloy. [39]R. Srinivasuet al. (2014) observed that friction stir processing of cast A356 Aluminium alloy is done to improve the surface properties of the aluminium with B4C particles. The microstructure of the material is improved significantly and form hard surface composite by reinforcing boron carbide particles in the aluminium matrix. [44] S.R.Babuet al. (2014) observed the role in producing a defect free processed zone. The tool shoulder diameter of 18 mm produced the defects such as tunnels, voids and pin holes in the processed region for different parameter variations in 6 mm thick plate. With increase in the tool shoulder diameter beyond 18mm but less than 24 mm, a defect free processed zone was observed for variation in the process parameters in 6mm thick plate. As the thickness of workpiece is reduced, the defects in the friction stir processed zone of 1.5 mm thick plate is completely eliminated. A fine grain of average grain size less than 10μm was observed in the nugget region [38] R.Sathiskumaret al. (2014) observed that area of the surface composite increased when tool rotational speed was increased and reduced when processing speed was increased due to increase in frictional heat generation and the area of the surface composite reduced when groove width was increased. The distribution of B4C particles in the surface composites was influenced by tool rotational speed and processing speed and the micro hardness was found to be 175 Hv at 800 rpm and 132 Hv at 1200 rpm. [32] N.Yuvarajet al. (2015) observed that the friction stir processing (FSP) is used to fabricate AA5083 aluminum alloy with reinforced layers of boroncarbide (B4C). The Micro and nano sized B 4C reinforced particles were used. The microstructure of specimens with nano B4C particles exhibits fine grain size, higher hardness (124.8 Hv), ultimate strength (360 Mpa) and wear rate (0.00327 mg/m) as compared to the base material hardness (82 Hv), ultimate strength (310 Mpa) and wear rate (0.0057 mg/m). The micro hardness of the Al/B4C nano compositesis higher than B4C micro particles. A. Nagamalleswara Rao (2016) study the effect on the mechanical and physical properties of welding joints. These geometries are used extensively in aerospace vehicles, in nautical vessels, pressure vessels, and automobile industries and not widely used because of its poor weldebility. To overcome this barrier, weldebility analysis of Cu 2200 copper alloys with high speed steel H13 tool has been investigated. An attempt has been made to investigate and evaluate the influence of the rotational speed of the tools, the axial force and welding speed on tensile strength of Cu 2200 copper alloys joint..M A Unnikrishnan and Dhas. J Edwin Raja (2017) there is a consistent demand for superior materials in every industry. The most commonly used material in these fields is Aluminium. Though it possess all the properties up to some extent constant demand is pushing for alternate materials. Dissimilar alloys have been a relatively new approach towards these fields. Friction stir welding dissimilar alloys is a big leap in Automobile sector. III. RESEARCH GAP After a study of fair amount of research papers, it was noticed that a less amount of work has been done regarding the effect of tool pin profile and tool shoulder diameter on the mechanical and metallurgical properties of AA6063/WC composite. A limited literature is available regarding the fabrication of AA6063/WC composition using three variables of tool shoulder diameter and tool pin profile. IV. RESULT AND DISCUSSION The results obtained from tensile test, Impact Test, Micro hardness test, Microstructure Test. The Table shows the processed Parameters of the FSP and other useful result.

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Parameters of Friction Stir Processing Along with Reinforcement of Composition of Aluminium and Tungsten Carbide (J4R/ Volume 03 / Issue 11 / 002)

Specimen no.

Tool Shoulder Diameter (mm)

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

16 18 20 16 18 20 16 18 20

Table - 1 Tensile Testing Results Tensile strength Tool Pin used (MPa) LHT 248 LHT 260 LHT 243 ST 239 ST 250 ST 238 CT 244 CT 255 CT 241

Yield strength (MPa) 216 221 211 207 211 200 211 217 209

Percentage elongation (%) 9.2 8.4 10 12.9 11 15 11.9 10 13.1

Visual Inspection There are some defects are found after the processing of the material in the visual inspection. The voids are produced at 30 mm/min with cylindrical taper tool. The voids occurred in the processed region. These voids occur due to the insufficient heat input at the interface of tool shoulder and material and non-relieving of internal stresses and also due to insufficient contact between tool shoulder and the work material during processing. The onion rings occur due to insufficient contact between the tool shoulder and the work material there is insufficient heat is produced for the plastic deformation in the material and that’s why these defects occurs in the material. From fig maximum value of tensile strength is achieved with LHT tool because of proper heat generation and material flow

Fig. 1:

In this study the yield strength and percentage elongation of the tool having 18 mm diameter has more strength rather than the 16mm and 20mm tool diameter due to the production of appropriate heat in the material and causes proper plastization of the material.

Fig. 2:

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Parameters of Friction Stir Processing Along with Reinforcement of Composition of Aluminium and Tungsten Carbide (J4R/ Volume 03 / Issue 11 / 002)

Specimen No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

Table - 4.2 Results of Impact Test Tool Shoulder Tool Pin profile Diameter (mm) 16 LHT 18 LHT 20 LHT 16 ST 18 ST 20 ST 16 CT 18 CT 20 CT

Energy Absorbed in (J) 12 9 6 20 16 12 14 11 8

V. CHARPY IMPACT TEST Samples that are ductile absorb a lot of energy. Samples that are brittle absorb little energy. Depending on the filler alloy used, the details of the welding procedure, and the testing temperature, steels can exhibit either ductile or brittle behavior. Needless to say, brittle behavior is undesirable, and the CVN test tries to screen out a WPS that would lead to brittle behavior.

Fig. 3: Effect of Tool Pin, Tungsten Carbide and Transverse Speed on Impact Value

Fig shows that the tool having 22mm diameter has the high impact strength as compared to other tool shoulders. The impact strength is closely related to refinement, homogeneous distribution of the precipitate particles in nugget zone and reduction of the matrix grain size. The tool having 22mm shoulder diameter produces more heat in the nugget zone due to the more production of heat there is production of less fine surfaces which causes increase in impact strength of the material. But in case of tool having 20mm diameter there is proper production of heat that causes refined surfaces which makes the material brittle in nature. Similarly, in case of tool having 18mm shoulder diameter has low impact strength but more has more impact strength than the tool having 20mm shoulder diameter. Micro Hardness Test The Vickers hardness profile of the processed specimens was measured at a distance 2.5mm from the top surface of the specimen thickness on a cross-section perpendicular to the processed direction using Vickers hardness tester with 200 gf loads for 10 seconds. Micro hardness of 6063 is 83 hv. Specimen no 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

Table - 3 Results of Hardness Tool Shoulder Diameter (mm) Tool used 16 LHT 18 LHT 20 LHT 16 ST 18 ST 20 ST 16 CT 18 CT 20 CT

Average hardness value(HV) 130 135 125 117 125 113 121 129 118

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Parameters of Friction Stir Processing Along with Reinforcement of Composition of Aluminium and Tungsten Carbide (J4R/ Volume 03 / Issue 11 / 002)

Fig. 4: It Is Concluded that the Average Micro Hardness Optimum Value Obtained with 18 Mm Tool Shoulder Dia. with Left Hand Threaded Tool

Figure shows that the tool having 20mm shoulder diameter produced maximum micro hardness value than the tools having 18mm and 22mm shoulder diameter. This happened due to the fact that the tool having 18mm shoulder diameter has lesser contact area caused insufficient heat and there is clustering of the precipitates in the fsp zone which reduces micro hardness values [40]. But in case of tools having 20 mm diameter produces sufficient amount of heat and uniform dispersion of reinforced particles in the stir zone. With 22 mm shoulder diameter homogeneous dispersion is achieved but associated heat involved in the process is high because of more surface area contact. High heat causes courser gain size which further reduces micro hardness values. VI. MICROSTRUCTURE Effect of Tool Shoulder Diameter

Fig. 5: Effect of Tool Shoulder Diameter on Microstructure

The tool having 18 mm shoulder diameter produces finer grains in the FSPed region as shown in figure 4.6. This happens due to the fact that the tool having 20mm diameter produces sufficient amount of heat in the work piece which causes the better material flow and results in homogeneous dispersion of reinforced particles in aluminium matrix. In case of the tool having 18mm diameter has smaller area of contact and produces lesser amount of heat in the work piece and hence there is no proper flow of material in the processed region and there is no uniform distribution of the particles in the processed region as shown in figure 4.7. The tool having 22mm diameter leads to have more surface area of contact and produces larger amount of heat in work piece due to friction subsequently wider TMAZ region and then resulted in the deterioration of tensile strength.

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Parameters of Friction Stir Processing Along with Reinforcement of Composition of Aluminium and Tungsten Carbide (J4R/ Volume 03 / Issue 11 / 002)

Effect of Different Tool Pin Profile

Fig. 6: Microstructure at 50 Mm/Min with Different Tool Pin

Microstructure with left hand threaded tool shows uniformly dispersion of reinforced particles. This is because of flow pattern that’s vertical and horizontal. In case of square tool pin, it has more surface area therefore WC particles in microstructure are not uniformly dispersed and are distributed in wider area of specimen. But as compare to cylindrical taper tool flow pattern is only in one direction and hence agglomeration formed. The reinforced particles are trapped in holes and agglomeration is formed. With using left handed threaded tool flow of material is in both direction of horizontal and vertical result in uniform dispersion of reinforced particles. In taper tool only flow in one direction which lower UTS, yield strength and hardness as compare to LHT. In square tool pin more area under processed and hence wider dispersion of reinforced particles. REFERENCES [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] [10] [11] [12] [13] [14] [15] [16] [17] [18] [19] [20]

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