Organizational Analysis Reading List Daniel A.McFarland Stanford/Coursera – Fall 2012 Course Readings Most of our readings are articles and chapters, but I will also rely on a few books. I have always preferred assigning primary readings as opposed to using secondary compilations. I think primary texts retain more of their voice when assigned on their own, and that textbook compilations tend to massage the readings into the editor / author’s argument. I want you to walk away with a toolkit of theories that you feel have some distinctiveness from one another. The four books I am assigning are as follows: Goldsmith, Stephen and William Eggers. 2004. Governing by Network: The New Shape of the Public Sector. (or get full-text electronic copy available via Stanford library) Hula, Kevin W. 1999. Lobbying Together: Interest Group Coalitions in Legislative Politics. Washington D.C.: Georgetown University Press. Kingdon, J. W. 1995. Agendas, alternatives, and public policies, second edition. Longman. Kunda, Gideon. 1992. Engineering Culture: Control and Commitment in a High-Tech Corporation. Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press. In the ensuing pages, I will relate the readings and guiding questions of each week. I look forward to seeing and learning with you in class! 10 What seemed to matter most? Many organizations try to change or reform how organizing is done. natural. NJ: Prentice-Hall. “The Subject is Organizations. Think about the elements of these organizations – their goals. Organizational Elements and Organizing Narratives (73pp) Theory: (27pp) Scott. Richard. 1986. Guiding questions: How do these readings fit your experiences in organizations? Think about your experiences in educational. technology (curriculum). What organizational elements are seen as central to a reform? What level / unit of analysis is of concern? What is the boundary to an organization and a reform effort? Who and what matters in the environment? What makes for a successful or unsuccessful reform? What kind of account would you give for an organization and its reforms? Would you characterize the organization as rational. non-profit. and for-profit organizations. How do Scott’s organizational elements and rational-natural-open models apply? Do they help you think more richly about the context? 11 . 2003 (5th ed). Routledge: New York. “Adams Avenue School for Individually Guided Education. Think about how various reforms treat and characterize organizations. or open system? Example paper question: Consider Metz’ account of a magnet school and its organization. McFarland Stanford/Coursera – Fall 2012 WEEKLY READINGS INTRODUCTION Week I. and salient environment. governmental. Natural and Open Systems. social structure (roles and rules). 57-103) in Different by Design: The Context and Character of Three Magnet Schools. (Link) Case: (46pp) Metz.” Chapter 4 (pp. participants.” Chapter 1 (pp. Mary Haywood.Organizational Analysis Reading List Daniel A. Englewood Cliffs. 3-30) of Organizations: Rational. 5th Edition. McFarland Stanford/Coursera – Fall 2012 PART I. pp.” In Peterson. Oxford. M. “Conceptual Models and the Cuban Missile Crisis. Graham T. Note their strengths and weaknesses. 1969. Application: (29pp) Allison. 2003. 1999. a different perspective. identities. to have a better hold? As a manager. when. Washington. UK: Blackwell Publishers. The Politics and Practice of School Accountability.” in Powerful Reforms with Shallow Roots. Larry Cuban and Michael Usdan. ORGANIZATIONAL DECISION MAKING Week II – Decisions by Rational and Rule-Based Procedures (98pp) Theory: (25pp) March. 3:689-718. and West. James G. how many of those decisions were based on a logic of consequence (means-end rational calculations) or a logic of appropriateness (principle-based decisions)? Who made decisions in these organizations. W. etc. “No Child Left Behind. pp. 12 . pp. Bryk. and in what situations? What went into making them? Was there a succession of interrelated decisions or even stages to organizational decision-making? Did actors learn and adapt from experience or forget and make the same mistakes? Compare the rational actor model to the organizational behavior model." Chapter 2 in The Pursuit of Organizational Intelligence. "Understanding How Decisions Happen in Organizations. 13-38. ed. DC: Brookings Institution Press. P. Case: (44pp) Dorothy Shipps. how would you use rational actor and organizational behavior models to successfully manage an organization? What is the danger of using only these models? Example Paper Question: Apply the rational actor model and/or the organizational behavior model to one (or both) of the Chicago reform cases OR compare and contrast the applicability of the two theories using the Chicago case(s). In your experience. Chicago-Style. “The Businessman’s Educator: Mayoral Takeover and Nontraditional Leadership in Chicago. 242-268.Organizational Analysis Reading List Daniel A. 16-34 (NY: Teachers College Press).. Tony. or values matter? How do the rational actor model and the organizational behavior model apply to the Chicago cases? Who is doing the decision-making? What influences the decision process? Are options weighed? What occurs and what does not? What theory would take a lot of extra data. What are the main tenets of each theory according to Allison? What organizational elements does each emphasize? Do they focus on different units of analysis? What consequences and preferences matter? What rules. Guiding Questions: Many decisions were probably made in the organizations you belonged to.” The American Political Science Review 63. “The Politics of School Vouchers: Analyzing the Milwaukee Parental Choice Plan. and the Ugly. 1999. 296-303) of Organizations: Rational. NJ: Prentice-Hall. Graham T. 93-107. 3:689-718 – review 3rd model from last time. 1999. September: 59-64. 2005. Milwaukee.wikipedia.” Stanford University School of Education Case. Application (Allison from last week): (104pp) Hula. 13 . 7. Apply them to the Chicago. Englewood Cliffs.” Phi Delta Kappan.” The American Political Science Review 63.C. Case: (13pp) Quinn.: Georgetown University Press (chapters 1-5. Natural and Open Systems. Be critical and discuss the strengths and weaknesses afforded by this theoretical perspective in elucidating the case. McFarland Stanford/Coursera – Fall 2012 Week III. How can a coalition form when multiple actors have inconsistent preferences and identities? How is agreement even tenuously accomplished? Is school and non-profit governance the result of strange bedfellows? What about home-schooling advocates (secular and fundamentalist groups) and voucher programs (Milwaukee’s African American community and Republican politicians)? Can coalitions have extended lives? If you are a manager of a coalition.http://en. what can you do to manage it successfully? Example Paper Question: Use the coalition/conflict approach to analyze the Milwaukee case or one like it. 122-135]). “The Milwaukee Voucher Experiment: The Good. Washington D. 5th Edition.org/wiki/Hurricane_Katrina Guiding questions: Compare the organizational behavior model to the governmental politics / coalition model. 2003 (5th ed). Hurricane Katrina -. and 9 [pp.1-77. “The Dominant Coalition” (pp. Lobbying Together: Interest Group Coalitions in Legislative Politics. “Conceptual Models and the Cuban Missile Crisis. Allison. Witte. education lobbying). Decisions by Dominant Coalitions (124pp) Theory: (7pp) Scott. and Hula cases (esp. the Bad. Kevin W.Organizational Analysis Reading List Daniel A. Richard. 1969. John. Rand. Organizational Analysis Reading List Daniel A. Case (same as last week): (0pp) Quinn. or an election issue? What other issue streams compete and push educational policy issues off the legislative radar? How are faculty senates much like an organized anarchy? Can we apply Garbage-Can Theory to the Milwaukee Voucher case? What’s missing? What kinds of things do we need to know in order to apply it? How can managers get issues heard and decided upon in these circumstances? Paper Question: How does GCT apply to the Milwaukee choice plan? Where does it find support? What other information is needed? What does it suggest about how the choice plan could be managed? Or – select another case of policy-making where coalitions arise. Apply the theory critically. Rand. and the Ugly. Agendas. “The Latent Organizational Functions of the Academic Senate: Why Senates Do Not Work But Will Not Go Away?” Journal of Higher Education 60 (July/August) 4: 423-443. 1989. “The Politics of School Vouchers: Analyzing the Milwaukee Parental Choice Plan. or the lobbyists? Is it a yearly meeting. but recommended]). the elected officials. Chapter 4-8 (pp. second edition.” Stanford University School of Education Case. “The Milwaukee Voucher Experiment: The Good. and public policies. alternatives. McFarland Stanford/Coursera – Fall 2012 Week IV. and shifting participants shaping educational policy at the national level. Which ones have languished? Which have reached the public agenda only briefly? Which remain there or arise repeatedly? Who and what make them salient or ignored? From your experience which actors and what meetings serve to establish the education policy agenda – is it the bureaucrats. Witte. W. Decisions by Organized Anarchies (144pp) Theory & Application: (144pp) Kingdon. 71-195 [Chapter 9 (pp. 1999. 1995. Birnbaum. the Bad. Longman. J. Robert. policies. identifying its limits and strengths. 14 . John. an unscheduled crisis.” Phi Delta Kappan. Guiding Questions: Is Garbage-Can Theory merely a descriptive theory or can it be used to improve management? How can you better manage in a world of organized anarchies? Can we take Kingdon’s argument and better understand why certain issues in education are more salient to policy makers than others? What would we need to know to apply Kingdon’s model? Reflect on all the issues. 196-209) is optional. 2005. September: 59-64. 15 . “Organizational Learning in Schools: An Introduction.org/wiki/World_of_Warcraft http://www. McFarland Stanford/Coursera – Fall 2012 Week V.” Journal of Teacher Education 51.” Chapters 4-5 (pp. 17-46) in Organizational Learning in Schools.” Chapter 2 (pp. “Practice Makes Process. 1998.com/Guild View the BigThink video of John Seely Brown discussing the World of Warcraft (this is also posted as a lecture on Coursera) http://www.Organizational Analysis Reading List Daniel A.youtube. and then solve them? Where is organizational learning in an organization like a school? What would be considered improvement and signs of adaptation for the better? How are these adaptations transferred and diffused? How does Lieberman’s notion of learning communities try to relate to organizational learning? How does this compare to Lieberman’s case? How can culture facilitate learning as well? How does the organizational learning / adaptation perspective differ from others? What unit of analysis and organizational elements does it focus upon? Paper Question: Use the organizational learning approach and explain how it would apply to an organization like schools or the World of Warcraft. 2000. Be critical and consider how other theories may better apply.” and “Learning in Theory and Practice. Organizational Learning and Intelligence (98pp) Theory: (55pp) Brown.wikipedia. identify problems. John Seely and Paul Duguid. Tokyo: Swets & Zeitlinger. 1998. 3: 221-227. “Networks as Learning Communities: Shaping the Future of Teacher Development. 1-8) in in Organizational Learning in Schools.wowwiki. Kenneth and Karen S. 2000. Lieberman. Louis. Kruse. Louis. Applications: (43pp) Leithwood. Boston. Case: Read about the World of Warcraft and information on guilds: http://en. “Creating Community in Reform: Images of Organizational Learning in Inner City Schools.com/watch?v=BhuOzBS_O-M Guiding questions: How do organizations remember what works. MA: Harvard Business School Press. Karen Seashore and Sharon D. Ann. 91-146 [and endnotes appended]) in The Social Life of Information. Tokyo: Swets & Zeitlinger.” Chapter 1 (pp. ) Case: (+10 pp. “The Mill Town Case and Small Schools Reform. McFarland Stanford/Coursera – Fall 2012 VI. Joanne and Debra Meyerson. Organizational Cultures (~140pp) Theory: Martin. ideology. Pondy. etc) and imagine how Kunda’s concepts apply. Skim chapter 6. Can we translate Kunda’s ideas so as to engineer positive school cultures? Why or why not? How does the organizational culture view speak to small school reform efforts? Paper Question: How can we use the culture approach to engineer a more productive organizational culture? Think about the cases and organizations that interest you – how do we create a healthy. skim 2. We suggest this because the examples get redundant and we prefer you get a feel for how Kunda illustrates his points and establishes his claims. Engineering Culture: Control and Commitment in a High-Tech Corporation.. Routledge: New York. Channeling and Acknowledgment of Ambiguity. 1986.Organizational Analysis Reading List Daniel A. Mary Haywood. Metz. private religious schools. Deborah Meier’s school.” Chapter 6 (pp. Philadelphia. 57-103) in Different by Design: The Context and Character of Three Magnet Schools. “Organizational Cultures and the Denial. PA: Temple University Press.g. (Read chapter 1. Boland. 1992. and set of ritual practices (e. effective organizational culture that helps accomplish organizational goals? 16 . 93-125) in Managing Ambiguity and Change. David. you will be asked to imagine how an organizational culture can be engineered and managed so as to serve the goals of schooling (imagine a classroom or school culture engineered in the “Kunda-way”). 2006. R. Guiding Questions: In section.” Stanford University School of Education Case. Metz is same reading from week 1) Diehl. L. and H.” Chapter 4 (pp. and then read intro/concluding sections of chapters 3-5 as well as the text following every section heading within those chapters. How could it be engineered at the Mill Town High School? How is culture and its interpretation relevant to the study and management of organizations? How do managers create and alter organizational cultures? How do members negotiate and adapt to them? What are examples of codified ideologies in schools? How do actors engage in presentation rituals that generate an organizational culture? How do individual persons relate to an organization’s culture? Reflect on schools that appear to have a real mission. Application: Kunda. Thomas (Eds). Gideon. “Adams Avenue School for Individually Guided Education. 1988. 118-119) and “Managing Task Environments” (pp. Scott. What does it help explain? Where does it fail to hold? Would other theories we have covered apply better? Where would successful management have focused in the Barnes case? Or – select a case that interests you and apply resource dependence theory to it in a critical fashion. Dunnette and Leaetta M Hough. No. those pages/refs can be found in the reserves copy of the chapter])(reader). Guiding questions: What are the resources in the Barnes example? What/who is dependent on whom for those resources? Think about Channel 1 and vending machine contractors coming into schools.” American Journal of Education. Eds. 315-326). McFarland Stanford/Coursera – Fall 2012 PART II. Resource Dependencies (58pp) Theory: (27pp) Davis. Richard. 107. NJ: Prentice-Hall. In Handbook of Industrial and Organizational Psychology. Marvin D. 1999. Powell. 197-212) of Organizations: Rational. what kind of compromises are made in such alliances? What about universities and big donors? Is there a potential for cooptation or unwilling compromises in these instances? How can reformers co-opt local participants without losing sight of the mission/goals? Isn’t that something the public sector is doing with philanthropic organizations (Gates) and non-governmental organizations? How do resource dependence relations play a role in all this? How does a manager behave if they believe resource dependence is key to organizational survival and success? Can you imagine how and why school districts can merge? Why would schools merge and how would that alleviate interdependence? Paper Question: Use resource dependence theory to explain the University of Chicago and Northwestern case. Vol. “Resource Dependence” (pp. Gerald F. 17 . CA: Consulting Psychologists. Natural and Open Systems. and Walter W. Barnes. ORGANIZATIONAL ENVIRONMENTS Week VII. Vol 3 (2nd ed. Palo Alto. Case: (31pp) Sarah V.). Selection from “Organization-Environment Relations” (pp. “A Lost Opportunity in American Education? The Proposal to Merge the University of Chicago and Northwestern University. 5th Edition. 2003 (5th ed).Organizational Analysis Reading List Daniel A. (Focus on resource dependence parts and ignore references to transaction cost economics and population ecology [if such theories interests you. 4:289-320. 1992. Englewood Cliffs. Palo Alto. Network Models of Organizing (145pp) Theory: (7pp) Davis. Dunnette and Leaetta M Hough. 156. 178]). and markets? What are the coordination problems of network forms of organization. “Reform Through School Networks: A New Kind of Authority and Accountability. Powell. especially within and between schools? How can we use networks to diffuse technologies (or new curricula) and make them stick? How do we manage network forms of organization? Paper Question: Consider how a network form of organizing can help elaborate what Lieberman is trying to accomplish. 2001. Gerald F. CA: Consulting Psychologists. 4:499-519. Application: (118pp) Stephen Goldsmith and William Eggers. Governing by Network: The New Shape of the Public Sector (read Ch.). (Focus on network approaches to interorganizational relations and ignore references to transaction cost economics and population ecology [if such theories interests you. Case: (20pp) Smith. Or – select a case that interests you and answer the same questions above. What else could be said about the case? Extrapolate and discuss what kind of data would help establish a network form of teacher community.1-5 or pp.” Educational Policy 15. and Priscilla Wohlstetter. 2004. 3-119. Marvin D. McFarland Stanford/Coursera – Fall 2012 VIII. hierarchical arrangements. 18 . Selection from “Organization-Environment Relations” (pp. In Handbook of Industrial and Organizational Psychology. 334-341).Organizational Analysis Reading List Daniel A. and Walter W. those pages/refs can be found in the reserves copy of the chapter])(reader). 1992. Eds. Andrew K. Vol 3 (2nd ed. Guiding Questions: How does the network form of organization relate to resource-dependency arguments? What’s the difference between network forms of organization. ” The Economist. Bai. “The Framing Wars. “The Structure of Educational Organizations. vouchers. 2003 (5th ed). Guiding Questions: How can rationalization in the environment influence organizations? What does it mean for an organization to have institutional legitimacy? How does neo-institutional theory differ from cultural explanations? Are educational organizations following dynamics of resource dependence or neo-institutional theory? Think about universities. Canada: Wadsworth. 342. 201-212 in Schools and Society: A Sociological Approach to Education. Institutional Perspective (63pp) Theory: (20pp) Davis.” Politics of Education Association Yearbook 1989:75-91. 354-365). high schools. Jeanne Ballantine and Joan Spade. Marvin D. Case: (16pp) “Intelligent Design Rears it’s Head. Applications: (27pp) Meyer.). and then the recent development of charters. Mary Haywood. “Politicized Scholars Put Evolution on the Defensive. 1-8). Which seems more applicable? What are their key differences? 19 . and Brian Rowan. Eds. and schools within schools. “Institutional Theory” (pp. McFarland Stanford/Coursera – Fall 2012 Week IX. What kind of research would establish one theory over another? How do you manage an organization if environmental myths are what matter most? Paper Question: How can we use neo-institutional theory to explain the intelligent design debates? What does it help elaborate? What is missing? Or . Vol 3 (2nd ed. 1989.compare the culture approach to the neo-institutional approach in discussing the intelligent design debate. and Walter W. Scott.” Pp. 2005. Gerald F.Organizational Analysis Reading List Daniel A. “Real School: A Universal Drama Amid Disparate Experience. (Focus on institutional perspectives discussion and ignore references to transaction cost economics [if such theories interests you. NJ: Prentice-Hall. 5th Edition. 213-220) of Organizations: Rational. July 17. Palo Alto. Dunnette and Leaetta M Hough.” NY Times Magazine. John W. 1992. In Handbook of Industrial and Organizational Psychology. 119-120) and “Managing Institutional Environments” (pp.” New York Times. Metz. Powell. CA: Consulting Psychologists. those pages/refs can be found in the reserves copy of the chapter]). Englewood Cliffs. Natural and Open Systems. 2005. July 28. A selection from “Organization-Environment Relations” (pp. Eds. August 21. 2005 (pp. Richard.  2004. Matt. Shipps) (3) Milwaukee parental choice plan (Quinn. and Walter W. Linda. charter school movement Does each theory apply to certain levels of analysis far better than others? When would we want to focus on one level of analysis over another? Do these theories apply to certain types of organizations more than others (sector)? Do they concern different stages of “organizing” better than others? Can we integrate them in our explanations of multi-level. Course Summary (38pp) Theory: (12pp) Davis. and which does a better job explaining the observed phenomena? Reflect back on these and the applications for discussion section.Organizational Analysis Reading List Daniel A." Sociology of Education 78: 1-26. A selection from “Organization-Environment Relations” (pp. In Handbook of Industrial and Organizational Psychology. Powell. how do you assess which applies or not. (nice demonstration of how multiple theories can be brought to bear on a case) Guiding questions: Is this a case best described by resource dependence. 1992. Witte) (4) Learning community reforms (Lieberman) (5) University of Chicago – Northwestern merger effort (Barnes) (6) Charter school networks (Smith & Wohlstetter) (7) Intelligent design and teaching of evolution debate (NY Times) (8) The U. Gerald F.(reader) Application / Case: (26pp) Renzulli. Marvin D. neoinstitutional theory. Eds. 342-354). (1) Magnet school reform (Metz) (2) Chicago public school reforms (Bryk. organizational culture.S. Palo Alto. "Organizational Environments and the Emergence of Charter Schools in the United States. Vol 3 (2nd ed. or population ecology? Assuming cases can be explained by a variety of theories.). CA: Consulting Psychologists. McFarland Stanford/Coursera – Fall 2012 Week X. 2005. multi-staged organizational phenomena? Which narratives would act as an umbrella / connector for these types of explanations? How can a manager know when to pay attention to one view over another? 20 . Dunnette and Leaetta M Hough.