Nephrotic Syndrome

March 22, 2018 | Author: Lisa Trisnawati Chaniago | Category: Nephrology, Kidney Disease, Diseases And Disorders, Medical Specialties, Endocrine System


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12/12/2014Nephrotic Syndrome Nephrotic Syndrome Author: Eric P Cohen, MD; Chief Editor: Vecihi Batuman, MD, FACP , FASN more... Updated: Dec 9, 2014 Background Nephrotic syndrome is kidney disease with proteinuria, hypoalbuminemia, and edema. Nephrotic-range proteinuria is 3 grams per day or more. On a single spot urine collection, it is 2 g of protein per gram of urine creatinine. There are many specific causes of nephrotic syndrome . These include kidney diseases such as minimal-change nephropathy, focal glomerulosclerosis, and membranous nephropathy. Nephrotic syndrome can also result from systemic diseases that affect other organs in addition to the kidneys, such as diabetes, amyloidosis, and lupus erythematosus. Nephrotic syndrome may affect adults and children, of both sexes and of any race. It may occur in typical form, or in association with nephritic syndrome. The latter connotes glomerular inflammation, with hematuria and impaired kidney function. Classification Nephrotic syndrome can be primary, being a disease specific to the kidneys, or it can be secondary, being a renal manifestation of a systemic general illness. In all cases, injury to glomeruli is an essential feature. Primary causes of nephrotic syndrome include the following, in approximate order of frequency: Minimal-change nephropathy Focal glomerulosclerosis Membranous nephropathy Hereditary nephropathies Secondary causes include the following, again in order of approximate frequency: Diabetes mellitus Lupus erythematosus Amyloidosis and paraproteinemias Viral infections (eg, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, human immunodeficiency virus [HIV] ) Preeclampsia Nephrotic-range proteinuria may occur in other kidney diseases, such as IgA nephropathy. In that common glomerular disease , one third of patients may have nephrotic-range proteinuria . [1] Nephrotic syndrome may occur in persons with sickle cell disease and evolve to renal failure. Membranous nephropathy may complicate bone marrow transplantation, in association with graft versus host disease. Kidney diseases that affect tubules and interstitium, such as interstitial nephritis, will not cause nephrotic syndrome. The above causes of nephrotic syndrome are largely those for adults, and this article will concentrate primarily on adult nephrotic syndrome. However, nephrotic syndrome in infancy and childhood is an important entity. For discussion of this topic, see the Medscape Reference article Pediatric Nephrotic Syndrome. From a therapeutic perspective, nephrotic syndrome may be classified as steroid sensitive, steroid resistant, steroid dependent, or frequently relapsing. Corticosteroids (prednisone), cyclophosphamide, and cyclosporine are used to induce remission in nephrotic syndrome. Diuretics are used to reduce edema. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor blockers are administered to reduce proteinuria. (See Treatment and Medication.) Contributor Information and Disclosures Author Eric P Cohen, MD Professor, Department of Medicine, Division of Nephrology, Medical College of Wisconsin; Nephrology Section Chief, Zablocki Veterans Affairs Hospital Eric P Cohen, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Society of Nephrology, Central Society for Clinical Research, International Society of Nephrology, and Radiation Research Society Disclosure: Nothing to disclose. Coauthor(s) Ramapriya Sinnakirouchenan, MD Fellow, Division of Nephrology, Medical College of Wisconsin Ramapriya Sinnakirouchenan, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Society of Nephrology and Indian Medical Association Disclosure: Nothing to disclose. Specialty Editor Board Laura Lyngby Mulloy, DO, FACP Professor of Medicine, Chief, Section of Nephrology, Hypertension, and Transplantation Medicine, Glover/Mealing Eminent Scholar Chair in Immunology, Medical College of Georgia Disclosure: Nothing to disclose. Francisco Talavera, PharmD, PhD Adjunct Assistant Professor, University of Nebraska Medical Center College of Pharmacy; Editor-in-Chief, Medscape Drug Reference Disclosure: Medscape Salary Employment Eleanor Lederer, MD Professor of Medicine, Chief, Nephrology Division, Director, Nephrology Training Program, Director, Metabolic Stone Clinic, Kidney Disease Program, University of Louisville School of Medicine; Consulting Staff, Louisville Veterans Affairs Hospital Eleanor Lederer, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Association for the Advancement of Science, American Federation for Medical Research, American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, American Society for Bone and Mineral Research, American Society of Nephrology, American Society of Transplantation, International Society of Nephrology, Kentucky Medical Association, National Kidney Foundation, and Phi Beta Kappa Disclosure: Dept of Veterans Affairs Grant/research funds Research; American Society of Nephrology Salary http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/244631-overview 1/4 Proteinuria in IgA nephropathy. 23. 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