Machine Drawing Book Intro By ND Bhatt

April 2, 2018 | Author: poetmba | Category: Gear, Screw, Engineering Tolerance, Nut (Hardware), Technical Drawing



MACHINE DRAWING[ IN FIRST-ANGLE PROJECTI O N M E T H O D ]  By N. D. Bhatt, V. M. Panchal Edition ISBN Size Binding Pages : 48th Edition : 2013 : 978-93-80358-69-7 : 170 mm × 240 mm : Paperback with Four color Jacket Cover : 352 + 16 ` 140.00 CONTENT 1 : PRINCIPLES OF PROJECTION 2 : SHEET LAYOUT AND SKETCHING 3 : LINES, LETTERING AND DIMENSIONING 4 : CONVERSION OF PICTORIAL VIEWS INTO ORTHOGRAPHIC VIEWS 5 : SECTIONAL VIEWS 6 : ORTHOGRAPHIC READING OR INTERPRETATION OF VIEWS 7 : SCREW THREADS 8 : SCREWED FASTENINGS 9 : KEYS, COTTER-JOINTS, PIN-JOINTS 10 : PIPE JOINTS 11 : VALVES 12 : RIVETED JOINTS AND WELDED JOINTS 13 : SHAFT BEARINGS, BRACKETS AND HANGERS 14 : SHAFT COUPLINGS, CLUTCHES AND BRAKES 15 : PULLEYS 16 : SPUR GEARING 17 : ENGINE PARTS 18 : ELEMENTS OF PRODUCTION DRAWING 19 : ASSEMBLY DRAWINGS 20 : ELEMENTS OF COMPUTER-AIDED DRAFTING index This text-book follows About the book (i) the metric system of length measurement and (ii) first-angle method of orthographic projection. However, the third-angle projection method has not been completely ignored. It describes in an easy-to-follow style and with application of the principles of orthographic projection, forms, proportions and uses of simple machine, engine and boiler parts. Chapters on elements of production drawings, assembly drawings and elements of computer aided drafting (CADr) are also given. The techniques of freehand sketching, dimensioning, conversion of pictorial views, sectional views and interpretation of views are treated in clear and simple manner. Most of the orthographic views are accompanied by the pictorial views of the objects to enable the students to visualize the shapes easily. The book covers the syllabi of Machine Drawing to meet the requirements of Engineering Degree students of all the Indian Universities as well as Diploma courses in various branches of Engineering conducted by the Department of Technical Education, for I.T.I. students and also to the candidates reading for the A.M.I.E., U.P.S.C., IES and other similar Examination. Checklist Charotar Publishing House Pvt. Ltd. Opposite Amul Dairy, Civil Court Road, Post Box No. 65, ANAND 388 001 India Telephone: (02692) 256237, Fax: (02692) 240089, e-mail: [email protected], Website: Introduction (i) First-angle projection method (ii) Third-angle projection method 4-1. Fax: (02692) 240089. 3-4. 3-3. Hatching or section lines 5-5. Orthographic projection 1-3-1. 3-8. Third-angle projection B. 3-7. Missing lines and missing views 6-3. Introduction 7-1. Types of machine drawings (i) Production drawing (ii) Exploded assembly drawing (iii) Schematic assembly drawing (iv) Drawing for instruction manual (v) Drawing for installation (vi) Drawing for catalogue (vii) Tabular drawing (viii) Patent drawing 2-3. Oblique projection 1-6. Methods of projection 1-3. Revolved section 5-2-5.S. Isometric projection 1-5. Opposite Amul . Sectioning conventions 5-4. Principle of projection 1-2. Website: www. Sheet layout Sheet sizes Margin Border lines Borders and frames Orientation mark Grid reference system Title block List of parts or the bill of materials Revisions of drawing Folding marks Scales and scale drawing 2-2. Types of sectional views e-mail: [email protected] Definitions Crest Root Flank Angle Depth Nominal diameter Charotar Publishing House Pvt. Post Box No. Civil Court Road. Full section 5-2-2. Removed section 5-2-6. Partial or broken section 5-2-4. Illustrative problems Exercises IV Solutions to exercises IV Chapter 5 Sectional views 5-0. ANAND 388 001 India Telephone: (02692) 256237. Lettering (IS: 9609-1990) I. Offset section 5-3. Lines Line thickness Inked drawings Pencil drawings Types of Lines Outlines Margin lines Dimension lines Extension or projection lines Construction lines Hatching or section lines Leader or pointer lines Border lines Short-break lines Long-break lines Hidden or dotted lines Centre lines Cutting-plane lines Chain thick Chain thick double-dashed 3-2.MACHINE DRAWING Detailed Contents Chapter 1 Principles of projection 1-0 Engineering drawing 1-1. Single-stroke letters II.cphbooks. LETTERING AND DIMENSIONING 3-0. Reading of orthographic views (Blue-print reading) 6-2. Gothic letters Dimensioning Types of dimensions Dimensioning terms and notations Dimension line Extension line Arrowhead Leader Placing of dimensions (i) Aligned system (ii) Unidirectional system Unit of dimensioning General rules for dimensioning Practical hints on dimensioning (a) Continuous or chain dimensioning (b) Progressive or parallel dimensioning Exercises III Chapter 4 CONVERSION OF PICTORIAL VIEWS INTO ORTHOGRAPHIC VIEWS 4-0. Procedure for preparing a scale-drawing 4-3. Cutting-plane line 5-2. Introduction 5-1. Orthographic projection 4-2. Ltd.I. code of practice Symbols for methods of projection Combination of two methods 1-4. Identification of planes Exercises VI Solutions to exercises VI Chapter 7 SCREW THREADS 7-0. Introduction 6-1. Conventions of section lines Illustrative problems Exercises V Solutions to exercises V Chapter 6 Orthographic reading or interpretation of views 6-0. First-angle projection 1-3-2. 3-6. Half section 5-2-3. Perspective projection Exercises I Chapter 2 SHEET LAYOUT AND SKETCHING 2-1. 65. Introduction 3-1. 3-5. Sketching Sketching materials To sketch straight lines To sketch circles and arcs Sketching procedure Exercises II Chapter 3 LINES. Union joint 10-4. Introduction 8-1. Cast-iron flanged joint 10-1-2. (iv) Castle nut (v) Sawn nut or Wiles nut (vi) Simmond’s lock-nut (vii) Penn. cotter-joints. Feed-check valve 11-2. Types of valves 11-1-1. 8-11. Pin-joint or Knuckle joint Exercises IX Chapter 10 Pipe Joints 10-0. Locking arrangements for nuts (i) Lock-nut or check-nut (ii) Split-pin (iii) Slotted nut 8-9. Dead-weight safety valve 11-3. Ltd. Expansion joints 10-6. e-mail: [email protected] Flap valve. Introduction 10-1. Hexagonal nut 8-1-2. Forms of screw threads 7-2-1. Cast-iron pipes 10-1-1. Blow-off cock Exercises XI Charotar Publishing House Pvt. ring or grooved nut (viii) Stop-plate or locking-plate (ix) Spring-washer Foundation bolts (i) Eye foundation bolt (ii) Rag bolt (iii) Lewis bolt (iv) Cotter bolt Spanner Longitudinal or bar stay Exercises VIII Chapter 9 Keys. Hydraulic joint 10-2. Lever safety valve 11-2-3. Safety valves 11-2-1. 65. Triangular or V threads (a) Unified thread (b) Metric thread (c) Whitworth thread (d) British Standard Fine and British Standard Pipe threads (e) Sellers thread (f) British Association thread . Introduction 11-1. Conventional representation of threads SP: 46-1988 (a) External threads (b) Internal threads (a) External V thread (b) Internal V thread (c) External square thread (d) Internal square thread 7-4. 8-10.MACHINE DRAWING Detailed Contents Outside or major diameter Core or minor diameter Effective diameter Pitch Lead Slope 7-2. Square nut 8-2. Forms of bolts Hexagonal-headed bolt 8-6. Fax: (02692) 240089. Types of bolts 8-5. Types of nuts 8-1-1. Cotter and cotter joints (i) Socket and spigot joint (ii) Sleeve joint (iii) Strap joint 9-3. Socket and spigot joint 10-1-3. Metal disc valve 11-1-4. Spring-loaded safety valves 11-2-2. ANAND 388 001 India Telephone: (02692) 256237. Civil Court Road.cphbooks. India-rubber disc valve 11-1-2. Lead pipes Multiple-start threads 7-5. Square thread (a) Acme thread IS: 7008-1988 (b) Knuckle thread (c) Buttress thread 7-3. Pin-Joints 9-0. Post Box No. Methods of preventing rotation of a bolt while screwing a nut on or off it Square-headed bolt Cylindrical or cheese-headed bolt Cup-headed or round-headed bolt T-headed bolt Countersunk-headed bolt Hook bolt Headless tapered bolt Eye-bolt Lifting eye-bolt Tap-bolt or cap-screw Stud-bolt or stud 8-7. Set-screws 8-8. Copper pipes 10-3-1. Opposite Amul Dairy. Keys joints (i) Taper keys Sunk taper key Saddle keys Round key or pin key Taper pin Gib-head (ii) Parallel or feather keys Spline shafts Woodruff key Cone keys Staking-on 9-2. Ball valve 11-1-3. Wrought-iron and steel pipes 10-3. Website: www. Right-hand and left-hand threads Exercises VII Chapter 8 SCREWED FASTENINGS 8-0. Washers 8-4. Introduction 9-1. Stop valves 11-1-5. Piping drawings Exercises X Chapter 11 Valves 11-0. Types of nuts for special purpose Flanged nut Cap nut Dome nut Cylindrical or capstan nut Ring nut Wing nut 8-3. ANAND 388 001 India Telephone: (02692) 256237. Journal bearings 13-1-1. Terminology for geometrical deviations (i) Tolerance of straightness (ii) Tolerance of flatness (iii) Barrel form. Fast or rigid couplings 14-1-1. Rack and pinion 16-3. Gusset stay 12-7. 15-5. Fax: (02692) 240089. Introduction 12-1. Universal coupling or Hook’s joint 14-3-2. Position tolerances 18-2-1. Website: www. Piston 17-2-2. Half-lap coupling 14-1-3. Cranks (i) Overhung crank (ii) Disc crank 17-1-7. brackets and hangers 13-0. Slide valves Internal Combustion Engine 17-2. Hangers 13-5. clutches and brakes 14-0. Oldham’s coupling 14-3-3. Introduction (i) A journal bearing (ii) A pivot bearing (iii) A collar or thrust bearing 13-1. Opposite Amul Dairy. Flexible couplings 14-3-1. Introduction 15-1. An I. Rolled-steel sections 12-6-1. C. e-mail: [email protected] Conical friction coupling or cone friction clutch 14-4-3. Welded joints 12-7-1. I. Wall-plates 13-6. Brakes Exercises XIV Chapter 15 Pulleys 15-0. Foot-step bearing 13-3. Single plate clutch 14-5. Claw coupling or clutch 14-4-2. belt pulleys 15-3. Wall brackets 13-4. Spur gear definitions Pitch 16-1-1. 15-7. Crankshaft (i) Forged crankshaft (ii) Built-up crank Exercises XVII Chapter 18 ELEMENTS OF PRODUCTION DRAWING 18-0. Form tolerances II. Flanged coupling 14-2-1. Ltd. Post Box No. Types of riveted joints 12-5-1. Types of welding process (i) Pressure welding or forge welding (ii) Fusion welding (iii) Fusion and pressure welding Types of welded joints Types of welds 12-7-3. Loose or disengaging couplings or clutches 14-4-1. 15-6. Butt joint 12-6. Gear coupling 14-4. Civil Court Road. Solid flanged coupling 14-3. Wall-box Exercises XIII Chapter 14 Shaft couplings. Geometrical tolerances 18-2. Representation of welded joints Exercises XII Chapter 13 Shaft bearings. 15-4. Riveting 12-1-1. Approximate construction of teeth profile (1) For gears of 30 teeth and over (2) For gears of less than 30 teeth Gears in mesh 16-2. Cross-heads 17-1-5. Connecting rods (i) Big end (ii) Small end 17-1-6. Relationship between the pitches 16-1-2. 65. bow form and curvature of axes (iv) Taper (v) Oval form and lobed form (vi) Radial run out and axial run out (vii) Misalignment (viii) Incorrect location of intersecting axes (ix) Non-perpendicular surfaces (x) Datum Charotar Publishing House Pvt. Cycloidal tooth profile Exercises XVI Chapter 17 engine parts 17-0. Introduction 16-1. Cylinder cover 17-1-2. Tooth proportions 16-1-3. Pedestal bearing or plummer block 13-1-4. Split-muff coupling 14-2. Introduction 14-1. Pivot bearing 13-2-1. Protected type flange-coupling 14-2-2. Types of geometrical tolerances I. Involute spur gears 16-1-4. Box or muff coupling 14-1-2. Methods of preventing rotation of brasses in a bearing 13-2. Forms and proportions of rivet-heads 12-3. C. Introduction 18-1. Fast and loose pulleys Speed cones or stepped pulleys Split pulleys Built-up pulleys Rope pulleys V-belt pulleys Exercises XV Chapter 16 SPUR GEARING 16-0. Connection of plates at right angles 12-6-2.MACHINE DRAWING Detailed Contents Chapter 12 RIVETED JOINTS AND WELDED JOINTS 12-0. Steam engine 17-1-1. Bushed bearing 13-1-3.cphbooks. Welding 12-7-2. Solid bearing 13-1-2. Construction of base circles 16-1-5. Connecting rod 17-2-3. Pistons 17-1-3. Stuffing boxes . Caulking and fullering 12-2. Lap joint 12-5-2. Introduction 17-1. engine Types of Pulleys 15-2. Dimensions of a riveted joint 12-5. 15-8. Eccentrics 17-1-8. Failure of riveted joints 12-4. Three Dimensional Modelling Illustrative problem Exercises XX Charotar Publishing House Pvt. Accepted norms to be observed for assembly drawings (i) Selection of views (ii) Sectioning (iii) Dotted lines (iv) Dimensions (v) Bill of materials 19-3. Processor 20-2-2. Opposite Amul Dairy. Fax: (02692) 240089. 18-4-3. 18-4-4. 18-6. Symbol Library 20-6. 18-5-1. e-mail: [email protected] AutoCAD 20-4-1. shafts and fits Surface-roughness Terminology for surface roughness (i) Ideal surface (ii) Roughness (iii) Waviness (iv) Lay Representation of surface-roughness on drawings Exercises XVIII Chapter 19 Assembly drawings 19-0. 18-6-1.cphbooks. 18-5. Introduction 19-1. ANAND 388 001 India Telephone: (02692) . 18-4-1. Display 20-2-3. Computer 20-2-1. Sequences of preparing the assembly drawing Illustrative problems Exercises XIX Chapter 20 ELEMENTS OF COMPUTER-AIDED DRAFTING 20-0. 65.18-3. Drawing Entities (1) Line (2) Circle (3) Arc (4) Trace (5) Pline (6) Donut (7) Polygon (8) Ellipse (9) Solid 20-4-2. Computer Aided Drafting 20-2. Introduction 20-1. Graphic Output Devices (a) Dot Matrix Printers (DMP) and Laser Printers (b) Pen Plotters (c) Ink-Jet printers/plotters 20-3. INPUT Devices (a) Keyboard (b) Mouse (c) Tablet or Digitizer 20-2-4. Types of assembly drawings (i) Designed assembly (ii) Layout assembly (iii) Installation assembly (iv) Working drawing assembly (v) General assembly 19-2. Drafting Aids (1) Layer (2) Blocks (3) Dimensioning (4) Object Snap (5) Hatch patterns (6) Zoom (7) Text 20-4-3. Representation of geometrical tolerance on a drawing Dimensional tolerances Terminology for dimensional tolerances (i) Basic dimension (ii) Upper deviation (iii) Lower deviation (iv) Tolerance zone (v) Actual size (vi) Zero line (vii) Unilateral limits (viii) Bilateral limits (ix) Maximum material condition (x) Allowance (xi) Mating surfaces and mating dimensions (xii) Basic shaft (xiii) Basic hole Selection of tolerances Representation of dimensional tolerances (i) Letter symbol (ii) Number or grade method Representation of dimensional tolerances on drawings Fits (i) Clearance fit (ii) Interference fit (iii) Transition fit (iv) Sliding fit Hole basis and shaft basis system (i) Hole basis system (ii) Shaft basis system Representation of holes. 18-4. Civil Court Road. Post Box No. Website: www. 18-5-2. Editing of a Drawing (1) Move (11) Change (2) Rotate (12) Extend (3) Copy (13) Offset (4) Mirror (14) Stretch (5) Array (15) Trim (6) Erase (16) Scale (7) Oops (17) Pedit (8) Break (18) Explode (9) Fillet (19) Undo (10) Chamfer 20-5. Ltd. 18-4-2. CAD Software (1) Modelling and Drafting (2) Ease of use (3) Flexibility (4) Modularity (5) Low maintenance cost 20-4.
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