JOHAN GALTUNGIt is both possible and meaningful to be anti-hitlerism without being anti-German, anti-stalinism withour being anti-Russian. anti-US imperialism without being anti-American, anti-expanionist zionism without being anti-semitic, anti-quislingism without being anti-Norwegian, anti-Japanese militarism without being anti-Japanese. I have stood and will continue to stand by these Johan Galtung, Founder Of The Academic Discipline Of Peace Studies convictions. WHAT HE DID FOR PEACE THEORY? Starting with founding the Peace Research Institute in Oslo (PRIO) in Norway when he was only 29 years old, Johan Galtung became the 'founding father' of peace research in Europe and ultimately had a worldwide impact on our modern understanding of peace and the structure of conflict. Quite properly regarded as one of the -- if not the -- key founder of conflict and peace research, especially in Scandinavia, Johan Galtung comes from several widely varied intellectual traditions, with links to mathematics, the physical sciences, medicine and sociology -- all of which give him an eclectic background from which to think and write about peace, conflict, and injustice and their transformation into what might become a better world. Oslo (PRIO), which under Galtung’s leadership, became the leading international center for systematic and scientific research into peace. PRIO started to produce the Journal of Peace Research in 1964 as a vehicle for the publication of results from research in Oslo -- many of Galtung’s early and highly influential writings saw the light of day in its pages -- but the journal rapidly became a place in which quality research from all over Europe, “East” as well as “West,” could find a space. Together with the Journal of Conflict Resolution from the University of Michigan, these two publications became for the next twenty years, the chief academic means of exchanging ideas for the emerging field of conflict and peace research. After PRIO, Galtung took up the new Chair of Peace Studies at the University of Oslo and solidified his reputation as one of the leading scholars in the new field. His subsequent writings are voluminous and always exciting and challenging. However, he also played a major role in the development of the International Peace Research Association and in bringing Johan Galtung (1969). within socio-economic and political arrangements. systems. emotional. Cultural Violence and Direct Violence. and even in the culture of a society and of a global system. ranging from boundary disputes to complex. made a clear distinction between Structural Violence. Peace Studies is not about only International Relations. It brings mathematics and peace closer. These ideas are connected to his distinction depending on how it operates between three inter-related forms of violence (Structural-Cultural-Direct) where Structural Violence is at the left end and Cultural Violence is at the right end of the base of a Triangle invisibly while Direct violence is on the vertex visibly. is also becoming more widely recognised as . attitude. calculus. This does not imply that violence is unavoidable. words. structures or systems that cause physical. we understand that verbal violence. Cultural and Structural Violence cause Direct Violence. social or environmental damage and/or prevent people from reaching their full human potential (Fisher et al. Violence can be deeply structured into the system of relationships. chaos and catastrophe can contribute to peace theory and practice. institutional. games. According to Galtung’s Violence Triangle (1969). attitudes. psychological. relations. policy or condition that diminishes. and beatings. Violence consists of actions. He was thoroughly involved in the establishment of the United Nations University for Peace in Japan and partly as a result of building this network of institutions spends much time teaching new generations of students throughout the world. It is about economics. as peace mathematics. There is 27 books which is written by him. Direct Violence. mathematics. multi-party conflicts within fragile states. like humiliation or put downs. this action does not come out of nowhere. showing what such concepts as numbers. In its classic form. its roots are cultural and structural. as well a behavioural response to a specific conflict situation. always ready to apply theoretical and conceptual approaches to practical problems. Physical and/or verbal. 2000). Johan Galtung has also developed an enviable international reputation as a consultant and practitioner.ideas and scholars from non-Western countries into the mainstream of peace research. like killing or torture. In other words. probability. Violence is not inevitable and it must not be confused with conflict. graphs. One of his books ‘’Peace Mathematics’’ is about two friends who have dedicated their lives to peace theory and practice. sets. systemic violence can in turn be a root causes of conflict. Further. matrices. Direct violence can take many forms. logic. is visible as behaviour in the triangle. it involves the use of physical force. but also have a love for mathematics. verbal. Violence is one of the possible responses to specific conflict situations. Therefore. Direct Violence reinforces Structural and Cultural violence. rape and sexual assault. medicine and too much branches. structural or spiritual behaviour. dominates or destroys others and ourselves. DISTINCTION BETWEEN VIOLENCES We understand that Violence is any physical. However. which bans one group to own landed property in their own land while other groups are free to own landed property wherever they want are also examples of structural violence. genders. and I’ll tell you the result of my talking with Taliban. I talk with many. and this unequal advantage is built into the very social. Threat to use force is also recognised as violence. “Institutional violence” is often mistaken for structural violence. He tries to understand different ideas and look the case as a whole for example he went to Afghanistan and talked with Taliban and he said about something related with this conversation in an interview: JOHAN GALTUNG: Well. organisations as opposed to individuals. rebellions or the triumphs of connections and collaborations. economic and cultural structures result in the occurrence of avoidable violence. more access to goods. states and the world. you see. genders. And Structural violence is the most problematic area to be addressed for conflict transformation. Theories of structural violence explore how political. etc are assumed to have. The fact that women are paid less at an establishment than men is an act of direct violence by that specific establishment. that is the violence is not a direct act of any decision or action made by a particular person but a result of an unequal distribution of resources. Johan Galtung’s original definition included a lack of human agency. movements. and opportunities than other groups. classes. most commonly seen as the deprivation of basic human needs (will be discussed later). resources. Constitutional privileges of Job reservations and financial supports in the name of the welfare of the “tribes or backwards” and non-uniform land law. As Taliban . corporations. Structural theorists attempt to link personal suffering with political. Almost all cultures recognise that killing a person is murder. Johan Galtung. but this is not the case. nationalities. it’s the coalition of the unwilling.” Cultural violence is the prevailing attitudes and beliefs that we have been taught since childhood and that surround us in daily life about the power and necessity of violence. “Institutional violence” should be used to refer to violence perpetrated by institutions like companies. nationalities. universities. You have to understand what kind of country Afghanistan is. political and economic systems that govern societies. It is true that there is a relationship with structural violence as there is between interpersonal violence and structural violence. and in fact do have. They know that it is a lost cause. we must also understand “institutional violence”. They know perfectly well that—I mean.violence. I talk with them. Structural violence exists when some groups. These tendencies may be overt such as Aparthied or more subtle such as traditions or tendency to award some groups privileges over another. classes. they have no chance at all. etc. hundreds or thousands during a declared conflict is called ‘war’ or killing of innocent people by the security forces are often declared as caught in the crossfire. describes direct violence as the “avoidable impairment of fundamental human needs or life which makes it impossible or difficult for people to meet their needs or achieve their full potential. social and cultural choices. We can consider the example of telling of history which glorifies records and reports wars and military victories rather than people’s nonviolent agitation. Here. further. but killing tens. And finally. neutral. they have four nations. three times by the Britons. It isn’t. not 25. Now. And I remember when we in Transcend. for them. "What country does this remind me of?" which I always do when I mediate. this is the place where he became Alexander the Small. NATO forces.tell me. And Swiss policy is to be neutral." I think. They don’t recognize that line at all. not six or eight. And they were invaded by the Mongols. To win heart and minds through secular activity is a nonstarter. Pashtun territory. long before 9/11. very decentralized country. Afghanistan may be among the countries with the highest percentage of Muslims. It has been from the beginning. I think Afghanistan’s future will be heading in that direction. 40 million Pashtuns. as you said. and to be a very. very important. You know. 25. maybe the highest minority in the world which doesn’t have a state. in addition. it’s a very. And the answer was Switzerland. You solve it by having a Central Asian community. The Taliban tells me that this is a very Muslim country. Switzerland is a very federal country with very high autonomy down at the local community. of the 57 members of the Organization of Islamic Cooperation. In addition. and let us say six to eight nations. a deeply federated Afghanistan. how do solve that one? Pakistan is not going to give territory to Afghanistan. the Durand Line drawn by the British Empire through Pashtun territory.000. over-bloated kind of capital carrying the illusion of a unitary state. non-aligned. had our first effort there in February 2001. trying to win hearts and minds by digging wells and giving us water not blessed by Allah. I was asking myself. We hate people coming. an NGO for mediation. Central Asian community. Let us say they have 5. It started with Alexander the Great. very deep federation. Afghanistan is not going to give it to Pakistan. the war to end wars. one time by the Soviets.S. So. they hate Kabul as an overblown. Switzerland is the model. And I think that they would prefer to see a very small center of the country and very high level of autonomy. non- . they are sick and tired of being invaded. That’s some kind of Washington illusion. this is also a war to fight being invaded. Then. making the border irrelevant. depends on how you count it. They’re in their own territory. Now.000 very autonomous villages.-led coalition. So.000. and now by the U. They are not foreigners crossing from Afghanistan into Pakistan. "We hate secularism. I have more difficulties getting good contacts in Pentagon and State Department. Sabona builds on fundamental respect – both for ’self’ and for ’the others’– and provides language and methods for meeting conflict in a creative. somewhat less India because there the concerns about Kashmir come up.S. Conflicts arise because we have different. a round of wills is not likely to be problematic. a country I love. they don’t want to kill people in the U. in doing so. People want things. sees only enemies everywhere. and many different cultures. have to see enemies everywhere and always react violently? The solution is at hand. Pakistan. They could sponsor a conference. in many countries. resulting in the development of feelings of responsibility.aligned. with security forces cooperating from OIC and the United Nations Security Council. solutions-oriented and innovative way. Now. developed by Professor Johan Galtung. and very often contradictory. non-alignment and things of that kind. And they could cooperate with Turkey. And these people. solidarity. What create conflicts are incompatible goals.. I’m sitting here in the U.S. they are still made of the same thing – the will. Iran. or goals that negate each other. whether large or small. desires or goals. and because we in general lack words/ a good language for managing situations where differing goals or destructive means are revealed.S. I find them rational. personal or global. And they’re struggling for that. and which are reinforcing because they give a rapid ”payback”. Sometimes their Muslim terminology is difficult for me to understand. and it’s so sad to see that the U. One could say that whether situations lead to conflict or peaceful coexistence. without running it. Russia. a framework for understanding and a set of tools for interacting have been developed. are easy to use. Taliban. but I find it very easy to talk with them. Sabona includes tools that can be learned quickly. I guess that’s the future. Why does the U. to explore a Central Asian community. when I talk with them. instead of putting its wonderful minds to solving the conflict. China. even for children and youth. The tools provided in Sabona make active participation in conflict transformation processes possible. I must say. They want to preserve their own autonomy and be themselves. It is generally related to . because we use sometimes good and sometimes not so good means for achieving what we want. It’s not at all complicated. in light of his experience with international conflict transformation over many years. ”Conflict” is for most of us a negatively charged word. and empowerment.S. From that point of departure. Sabona builds upon our deep humanity– with a starting point in the nature of human beings. Sabona helps us to see that all conflicts are at a basic level the same. SABONA Sabona builds theoretically and methodologically on TRANSCENDs conflict transformation concept. When people have goals that don’t collide. com/2012/07/understanding-violence-triangle-and-structural-violence-by-rajkumar-bobichand/ http://www.transcend. broken relations.org/export/sites/resources/education/Other/Sabona_Kortversjon-Eng-Sept09. ”collisions of wills” are a natural part of life.old. or lack training in creative and future-oriented conflict transformation.democracynow.unpleasantness. by practicing simple steps that become our natural routine. Teaching: Pupils will acquire knowledge of SABONA as a part of social practice and school norms.edu/parents-of-field/johan-galtung . hurt feelings. a form of conflict hygiene.pdf Ayşenur Parmak . and aren’t necessarily a problem unless we lack useful concepts for understanding what is happening.gmu.org/tup/ https://www. The venture of introducing SABONA to schools happens in three phases: Learning: Firstly. Sabona is training in conflict transformation. teachers and staff need to gain an understanding of SABONA and make it their own. and deadlocked situations. we are better prepared to meet conflicts. an everyday occurrence. REFERENCES http://scar.org/galtung/statement-may-2012/ http://kanglaonline. violence. it can be applied actively in conflicts that arise in the classroom or at the playground. large and small.org/2012/4/17/norways_johan_galtung_peace_conflict_pioneer http://resources. JB/CRM interview https://www. Yet.transcend.cisv. Applying: When teachers and students have internalised the conflict tools. The knowledge enters as a part of the schools culture – and as a part of everyday language. 21117368 .