Module 6: The Importance of ResearchStudy Implications The purpose of research is to inform action. Thus, your study should seek to contextualize its findings within the larger body of research. Research must always be high quality in order to produce knowledge that is applicable outside of the research setting with implications that go beyond the group that has participated in the research. Furthermore, the results of your study should have implications for policy and project implementation. One problem that often plagues progress in global health is the slow translation of research into practice. Oftentimes, a disconnect exists between those who create the evidence base and those who are positioned to implement the research findings. The underlying problem is in “the way in which the production of evidence is organized institutionally with highly centralized mechanisms, whereas the application of that science is highly decentralized. This social distance prevails because scientists are more oriented to the international audiences of other scientists for which they publish than to the needs of practitioners, policy makers, or the local public.”(1)ﾧ Thus, as researchers, it is imperative to take steps to overcome this barrier. Publishing your study may be one initial step to make your research known to the global community. Other proactive measures can be taken to encourage the uptake of evidence-based interventions. For example, you can present your research findings at various venues such as the Unite for Sight sponsored Global Health and Innovation Conference. Furthermore, you can send the results of your study to local officials, policy-makers, and community leaders. Goals of Research There are relatively few published studies about eye care in developing countries, and Unite For Sight encourages all volunteers to consider developing a research study to contribute important knowledge to the eye care community on a global scale. Pursuing a research project will be a challenging and rewarding experience, and this opportunity enables you to pursue an in-depth original study about a topic of interest. Well-conducted research is vital to the success of global heath endeavors. Not only does research form the foundation of program development and policies all over the world, but it can also be translated into effective global health programs. Research draws its power from the fact that it is empirical: rather than merely theorizing about what might be effective or what could work, researchers go out into the field and design studies that give policymakers hard data on which they can base their decisions. Furthermore, good research produces results that are examinable by peers, methodologies that can be replicated, and knowledge that can be applied to real-world situations. Researchers work as a team to enhance our knowledge of how to best address the world’s problems. and data.2. the key to a successful research project lies in iteration: the process of returning again and again to the research questions. This research question posed by the researcher and the methodology that he adopts to get solutions is the most valuable part of the research work. variables need to be omitted. The significant problems involved in research While pursuing research there could be many significant problems that a researcher might probably need to overcome. In addition. a research methodology offers solutions for dealing with them effectively. This is to be expected and is a component of a good research study. http://www. Oftentimes. In conclusion. As a proposed study is examined and reexamined from different perspectives. There are many types of researches that are carried out Governmental researches Educational/Institutional researches Independent researches . but it is important to realize that the research process is cyclical and iterative. A researchable area in any academic discipline is an area that has an ample scope to be explored. If the scope in itself poses some potential problems that need to be answered. it may begin to transform and take a different shape. Accumulating amicable and all the possible solutions hypothetically are in itself considered a commendable achievement. The very path one traverses in search of authentic solutions to a specific academic problem constitutes what we call ‘research’. but it is important to be fluid and open to change. One of the most important of the research problems is the ‘validity’ of the research question itself. there is no one formula for developing a successful research study.3” process. It is easy to think of research as a step-by-step “1.The “Iterative” Process of Research Ultimately. methods. Whether the problem is thoroughly solved or not is not the forte of the research work. by discussing the research project with advisers and peers one will find that new research questions need to be added. Why is Research Important: Research is important because it gives direction to deal with a specific problem. and other changes made.org/research-methodology/module6 Importance of Research Studies Importance of Research Studies: Research studies these days are gaining an unprecedented focus and attention. There could be implementation problems owing to this kind of objection. which leads to new ideas. revisions and improvements. it is important to examine study methods and data from different viewpoints to ensure a comprehensive approach to the research question.uniteforsight. In simpler words there could be time lag between the framing of the proposal and implementation of the actual research work. Creighton University ﾧ. University of Kentucky ﾧ.The researches conducted by the government are carried out by a commission which comprises specialists and highly experienced personnel in the field. During this period the research scholars get a stipend from the University they are researching in. There are certain scholarships and financial assistance offered to the independent researchers depending upon the quality of their research work. Medical University of the Americas ﾧ and many more offer platform for aspirants to conduct independent researches under expert supervision. Independent research however depends on the authenticity of the research problem and also its intensity. It also depends upon the research tools and methodology adopted by the research scholar and his/her commitment to the entire project. The National Center for Biological Sciences ﾧ offers grants for Independent researchers. http://scholarship-positions. including: . The recruits that are absorbed into R&D of these institutions are paid a much higher salary ﾧ in comparison with their peers who work for other departments. Research programs typically extend to a time period of 3 to 5 years. There are committed research and development departments that are dedicated to the domain. The research student is expected to adopt a professional approach to the research degree programme. There are many kinds of scholarships and stipends that are offered to the research scholars. On the other hand educational researches are the ones that happen through doctoral programs offered by the Universities. There are some popular universities across the globe that do provide platform to independent research. Institutional researches have become a part and parcel of multinational organizations. Independent researchers are offered in the countries like Germany. These governmental researchers conduct massive researches and the funding goes by the government.… How is the Research Program Pursued? Almost all the Universities across the globe have some kind of financial assistance to offer to their potential research scholars. Stanford University ﾧ.com/blog/importance-of-research-studies/201209/ ﾧ Roles and Responsibilities of Research Students Responsibilities of Research Students The research student has primary responsibility for the direction and progress of their research and for the delivery of a thesis of an appropriate standard within the relevant maximum registration period. A research scholar might either carry out post-doctoral research work and keep contributing to the department that s/he belongs to or opt for teaching as his/her primary profession. A PhD catapults prospects of employability and of course matters related to salary. However these independent researchers should be in touch with the supervisor overseeing their work. and the respective roles and responsibilities of the research student and the supervisory team confirming with the supervisory team how supervision will work in practice and clarifying their own preferences with respect to the type of supervisory guidance needed and the ways in which this might be provided maintaining regular contact with the supervisory team and taking the initiative in agreeing with the supervisory team a mutually acceptable schedule for formal supervisory meetings attending formal supervisory meetings as scheduled and making appropriate arrangements if it is not possible to attend a scheduled supervisory meeting reflecting on and responding to feedback and guidance provided by the supervisory team at formal supervisory meetings . with the Senate Regulations and the Code of Conduct for Research developing an appropriate research plan that will enable submission of the thesis for examination within the relevant maximum registration period managing and sustaining progress in accordance with the agreed research plan. including the submission to the supervisory team of interim work as required recognising when they need help and taking the initiative in raising any concerns and problems as early as possible with the supervisory team or the Postgraduate Tutor complying with all relevant requirements with respect to intellectual property making time at the start of the research degree programme to discuss with the supervisory team the nature of research. in the case of international research students. the standard of work expected of research students. complying with all relevant immigration requirements making themselves familiar with relevant policies and procedures – in particular. good timekeeping observing deadlines reading and responding to communications from the supervisory team and other members of the University taking responsibility for their own skills and career development The responsibilities of the research student include: completing initial registration and any subsequent re-registration as required and. R&D tax policies. sophisticated local customers. . a local context that encourages investment in innovation-related activity.le. presence of capable local suppliers and related companies).uk/departments/gradschool/zone/staff/registration/responsibilities ﾧ Scope of research 1 . measuring and comparing national capacities National innovative capacity is the ability of a country to produce and commercialise a flow of innovative technology over the long term. including those on word length. intellectual property protection. education and training. format. and so forth). preparing and keeping an agreed written record of each formal supervisory meeting complying with the University’s requirements for formal progress reviews undertaking appropriate skills and career development training maintaining a record of completed skills and career development activities and reviewing and revising their training plan as appropriate providing the supervisory team with a complete final draft of the thesis by a mutually acceptable date in sufficient time before the required submission date for the supervisors to read and comment on reflecting on and responding to feedback and guidance provided by the supervisory team with regards to the final draft of the thesis ensuring that the thesis complies with all relevant regulations.ac. 2 The cluster-specific innovation environment (one or many clusters involving particular factor (input) conditions. It depends on: 1 The strength of a nation's common infrastructure (basic research. and binding making appropriate preparations for the viva voce examination and attending the examination as required by the examining team complying with all thesis final submission requirements – submission of one hard bound copy of the thesis to the Graduate School Office and one electronic copy of the thesis to the University Library http://www2. venture capital. vigourous competition among locally based rivals.National innovative capacity : modeling. Several scholars have described the two regimes that allocate resources for the creation of new knowledge: one is the system of granting intellectual property rights.Research in EPFL labs: new economics of science CEMI will be at the forefront of the College to develop and undertake research in the field of "economics of science" with EPFL as the main case. A large range of issues have to be addressed to elucidate the problem of designing efficient incentive systems: 7 What is the best solution in case of particular kind of new technologies (genomics. software.Designing efficient incentive systems for invention and innovation: intellectual property rights. as exemplified by modern patent and copyright systems. public subsidies One central problem in the economics of knowledge is the design of incentive systems that both reward inventors/knowledge producers and encourage dissemination of their output. In this perspective. The difficulty is that such a capacity involves various dimensions which can be conflicting (see Mowery and Simoe. prizes. 2001). as often found in the realm of pure scientific research and sometimes in the realm of commercial technological innovation. instruments.3 The quality of linkages (relationship between the common innovation infrastructure and industrial clusters). the other is the open science regime. several topics are obvious: . basic knowledge? 12 [TOP]ﾧ 3 . This is a capacity to manage transitions. often in infant industries. data bases)? 8 What is the nature of the tension that arises when the two systems come up against each other? 9 How designing proper incentive systems to encourage research and innovation in areas of high social return and low private profitability (orphan drugs. 5 Revolutionary capacities: it deals with the ability to shift resources out of areas of lower and into areas of higher productivity and greater yield. malaria and other tropical diseases)? 10 In what condition a prize-based reward system provides a more efficient solution than granting intellectual property rights? 11 Is there an economic case for granting intellectual property rights in the domain of research tools. For instance: 4 Strategic capacity: it deals with the ability to mobilise and concentrate resources under some centralised decision making processes to achieve a critical scientific or technological objective. 6 [TOP]ﾧ 2 . This research strand aims at building innovation indexes and measuring various dimensions of national innovation capacities. A major policy concern is to understand the factors at the origin of such uneven development. basic science. Paris. and to implement a proper strategy in order to fill the gap between sectors with fast knowledge accumulation processes and those in which these processes remain weak. Accounting for the effects associated with mobility 15 Scale. and to gain reliable information relevant to online use. imitable. 22 The ability to experiment offline. transportation. . data collection. with less expense than that would be involved in online experimentation. 21 There needs to be ability to learn from experience and experiment. and also quick and reliable evaluation of varying practice online. rapid and effective creation of know-how is most likely to occur when the following conditions converge (Nelson.and other areas where the state of knowledge appears to be far more constraining. greatly facilitates progress. The fact is that knowledge is not being developed to the same degree in every sector.such as is the case for information technologies. 23 A strong body of "scientific" knowledge greatly facilitates effective offline experimentation. Seminar at CREA. These projects will be designed in close collaboration with Jan-Anders Manson.New R&D methods and the production of reliable knowledge in sectors which lagged behind Unequal access to pertinent knowledge bases may well constitute an important condition underlying perceptible differences in the success with which different areas of endeavour are pursued within the same society. sustainable. it remains astonishing to observe the contrast between fields of economic activity where improvements in practice are closely reflecting rapid advances in human knowledge . replicable. computer science. data bases. All these topics should give rise to research design (research question. vicepresident for Innovation and Knowledge Transfer. analysis) in close collaboration with the other EPFL Schools (life science. Today. 2004): 20 Practice in the field needs to be well specified. scope and spillovers: the determinants of research productivity in several fields 16 Exploring the role of patents in knowledge transfer from EPFL 17 Exploring the effect of the patenting of research tools and biomedical innovation: transfer opportunities and social costs 18 Access policy for large scale research instrument. and certain areas of medical care (surgery and drug therapy) . and the pace at which productivity advances in different sectors of the economy during a given historical epoch.13 Assessing the impact of organizational practice on the productivity of university technology transfer offices 14 Measuring the social value of basic research and the local spillovers (regional impact). engineering science) in order to benefit from the great opportunity to be located in an Institute of Technology. To summarise. 19 [TOP]ﾧ 4 . 24 [TOP]ﾧ 5 . The question is whether this new feature can change and transform the way knowledge is produced and distributed in a sector like education. which involve quite often an open and distributed system (in which innovations may be freely revealed to other users). a favorable context. the functional source of innovation: while an innovation is considered a manufacturer's innovation when the developer expects to benefit by selling it. There is. In its role as a complement. rather than manufacturers. Its advocates claim that user innovation. . This project emphasizes. one of the most significant developments in modern medicine has been the randomised controlled trial (RCT). user-innovators often freely reveal the proprietary knowledge they have developed at their private expense. but also in terms of actively contributing to the modification of the product. is an efficient means of producing socially desirable innovation and maximizing "spillovers. users of technologies. The growth of RCTs as an approach in educational research has been pushed forward by three important factors: computers. First. involving freely revealing. The model involves two major deviations from the private investment model of innovation. For instance. which have the potential to profoundly transform the way reliable knowledge is produced in these sectors. the significance and use of which grew rapidly after its application to tuberculosis in the 1940s. user innovation may offer products that better meet user needs.New models of innovation: open. The main research issue here is to analyse the impact of new experimental methods and design (essentially based on random assignment). therefore. statistical techniques (effect sizes and metaanalyses) and demand for accountability in both practice and research. Today the RCT is widely treated as the evidential 'gold standard' for demonstrating 'what works' and what is medical 'best practice'. which assumes that manufacturers innovate in products and processes to improve their competitive position and that returns to innovation result from excluding other manufacturers from adopting it. As a competitor. are often the innovators. an innovation is a user innovation when the user expects to benefit by using it. Education might be the next sector to be profoundly transformed through the application of RCTs. This research aims at understanding the capabilities and limitations of user innovation processes.Part of the problem in sectors which are lagging behind deals with the limited ability to conduct experiments. user innovation may extend the diversity of products without endangering market positions of manufacturers and may help manufacturing firms to mitigate information asymmetry problems vis-à-vis future market needs." or knowledge transfer / leakage. distributed systems and the role of users This project involves the contribution of users in the innovation process not only in terms of sending market signals (which is normally what users are supposed to do to help producer-innovators). Second. therefore. The generation of innovation by users may be a complement or it may compete with innovations produced by manufacturers. .epfl.Other issues to be developed The economics of knowledge policy: While it is relatively easy to provide a long list of policy recommendations which are of some relevance in the context of the knowledge economy (on patent. analysis and interpretation of facts that lines an individual’s speculation with reality. Thus our main research questions are the following: 25 What are the different channels through which user innovations influence the economy and how should manufacturers adapt and respond to user innovations? 26 What kinds of learning processes / dynamic capabilities do user innovations enable across product / technological generations? 27 What kind of policy issues and challenges pertain to user innovation? Given the fact that user innovations contribute significantly to productivity growth and national competitiveness.ch/page-30714-en. it is far more difficult to develop the welfare economics of knowledge investment in order to build a framework for addressing policy issues. http://cemi. which appear to be becoming more relevant in a knowledge society. therefore. It constitutes the main source of knowledge in some sectors or an important contributor in others. Deepening our understanding of the conditions leading to user innovation and of its economic impact is. mainly conducted by Eric von Hippel. and (ii) for a better understanding of some new organizational forms. ICT.html ﾧ MEANING AND CHARACTERISTICS OF RESEARCH ü Meaning of Research Research is defined as the scientific investigation of phenomena which includes collection. a relevant issue: (i) for a better assessment both of intangibles and intellectual capital at the firm level and of innovation capacities at the national level. education). Methodology for the optimal allocation of R&D funds to new technologies: How does the R&D manager maximize the probability of developing a commercializable technology over a specific period. what kinds of policy should be devised to promote them. his research group at MIT and his colleagues. presentation.A host of empirical studies. 28 [TOP]ﾧ 6 . such as user communities. show that user innovation is an important economic phenomenon. 4. Cyclical. 5. Healthy Criticism. Research satisfies man’s needs. and situations around him. Creative 8. Intellectual Honesty. 6. Resourceful 7. Analytical. Empirical. Research improves students’ achievement. 4. Intellectual Curiosity. 5. 6. Research improves instruction. descriptive. Active 6. ü Qualities of a Good Researcher 1. Research is based on direct experience or observation by the researcher. 4. and economically. Research is a cyclical process because it starts with a problem and ends with a problem. Methodical. 7. 3. Honest 9. Research-oriented 2. efficiently. Religious ü Characteristics of the Researcher 1. 3. Logical. 2. Effective 5. The research design and procedures are replicated or repeated to enable the researcher to arrive at valid and conclusive results. Scientific 4. 2. ü Values of Research to Man 1. . Research has deep-seated psychological aspects. Replicability. Research improves the quality of life. Efficient 3. Research is conducted in a methodical manner without bias using systematic method and procedures. experimental and case study. Research utilizes proven analytical procedures in gathering the data. Prudence.ü Characteristics of Research 1. Research reduces the burden of work. Research exhibits careful and precise judgment. Research is based on valid procedures and principles. 7. Intellectual Creativity – A productive and resourceful investigator always creates new researches. Economical 10. 3. An intelligent researcher is honest to collect or gather data or facts in order to arrive at honest results. 2. The researcher is always doubtful as to the truthfulness of the results. The researcher is careful to conduct his research study at the right time and at the right place wisely. 5. A researcher undertakes a deep thinking and inquiry of the things. Research improves teacher’s competence. whether historical. Critical. ü Classification of Research 1. Developmental Research. such as a development of a new system or procedure. This is a decision-oriented research involving the application of the steps of the scientific method in response to an immediate need to improve existing practices. research is conducted in a natural setting. ü Types of Research 1. Applied Research. This is the stimulus variable which is chosen by the researcher to determine the relationship to an observed phenomenon. Library Research. This is done in the library where answers to specific questions or problems of the study are available. 2. Independent Variable. ü Types of Variable 1. This is the response variable which is observed and measured to determine the effect of the independent variable. Dependent Variable. Research responds to the economic recovery and austerity measure of the country. Examples: · Boyle’s Law · Charles’ Law · Archimedes’ Principle · Hooke’s Law · Newton’s Law 2. or new method in order to solve the problem. The research is conducted in artificial or controlled conditions by isolating the study in a thoroughly specified and equipped area. The purposes are: (1) to test hypotheses derived from theory. It seeks to discover basic truths or principles. This is a secondary or special type of independent variable chosen by the researcher to determine if it changes or modifies . 3. (2) to control variance under research conditions. THE VARIABLE ü Meaning of Variable A variable is defined as a quantity susceptible of fluctuation or change in value or magnitude under different conditions. Research trains graduates to become responsive to the economic development of the country and to compete globally. new device. Basic Research. This type of research involves seeking new applications of scientific knowledge to the solution of a problem. and (3) to discover the relations between the dependent and the independent. Laboratory Research. Research improves the exportation of food products. Here. Field Research. 3. 9. This is also called as “fundamental research” or “pure research”. 3. 10. 2. Moderator Variable.8. ü Components of the research process 1. This is a variable which interferes with the independent and dependent variables. Control Variable. This is the variable that is controlled by the investigator in which the effects can be neutralized by eliminating or removing the variable. but its effects can either strengthen or weaken the independent and dependent variables. Summary. Hypotheses 3. Research Design 7. Review of Related Literature 6. Data Processing and Statistical Treatment 9. Data Collection 8. Theoretical/ Conceptual Framework 4.com/2011/05/chapter-1-meaning-and-characteristics. Problem/ Objectives 2. 5.the relationship between the independent and dependent variables. Intervening Variable. Analysis and Interpretation 10. 4.blogspot.html ﾧ . Conclusions and Recommendations http://analyst0091. Assumptions 5.
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