IFly 744 Tutorial

June 10, 2018 | Author: leopolman | Category: Takeoff, Aerospace, Aircraft, Aeronautics, Aerospace Engineering



Flight TutorialFor The iFly Jets: The 747-400 Version 1.0 November 2014 http://www.iflysimsoft.com/ Contents Introduction 3 Preparation 4 Instrument Panels 16 Electrical Power Up Supplementary Procedure 22 Preliminary Preflight Procedure 25 CDU Preflight Procedure 26 Preflight Procedure 34 Before Start Procedure 42 Pushback Procedure 44 Engine Start Procedure 45 Before Taxi Procedure 46 Before Takeoff Procedure 48 Takeoff Procedure 49 Climb Procedure 53 Cruise Procedure 60 Descent Procedure 67 Approach and Landing Procedure 75 After Landing Procedure 81 Shutdown Procedure 82 Secure Procedure 84 Introduction This flight tutorial is only for the iFly Jets: The 747-400. The purpose of the tutorial is to help users familiarize themselves with the iFly Jets: The 747-400 aircraft simulation by leading them through the steps required to simulate a scheduled airline flight. The separate Aircraft Operating Manual (AOM) covers all onboard systems in great detail and should be studied to gain a complete understanding of the simulation. This tutorial is suitable for those who can already successfully operate the default aircraft provided by Microsoft Flight Simulator, but are unfamiliar with complex simulations. Even if you are a Flight Simulator veteran, it is recommended that you take the time to read through this tutorial as the iFly simulation closely models the real Boeing 747-400. Basic aviation knowledge is presumed. Users should read through this tutorial prior to flight and keep it close at hand during the flight. Never hesitate to pause Flight Simulator in order to understand the procedures described in this tutorial. After completing this tutorial and studying the AOM, users should be able to operate all systems of the iFly Jets: The 747-400 much like the real aircraft is operated. THIS TUTORIAL IS ONLY FOR THE IFLY JETS: THE 747-400, AN ADD-ON FOR MICROSOFT FLIGHT SIMULATOR. IT IS STRICTLY FORBIDDEN TO APPLY ANY INSTRUCTIONS CONTAINED IN THIS TUTORIAL TO ANY SITUATION WHICH INVOLVES REAL AVIATION. The flight used as the example in this tutorial is from London Heathrow Airport (EGLL) to San Francisco International Airport (KSFO). The situation starts with a cold and dark cockpit. All screenshots are from the FS9 version of the aircraft. The tutorial consists of aircraft set up, flight plan and the take off, climb, cruise, descent, approach and landing phases of a simulated airline flight. Many aspects of the separate AOM are not part of the tutorial. However, the information may be applied in any simulated flight. The following sceneries are used for this tutorial: London Heathrow: Aerosoft San Francisco International: Fly Tampa Freeware files for both airports may be available from various community websites and there are several commercial sceneries which could increase your enjoyment of the simulation. Special thanks to Steve Hall for serving as check pilot and freely contributing his professional expertise, which kept this tutorial on course. Thanks to the entire iFly 747-400 Team for reviewing this document. Note: The screenshots in this tutorial were gathered over several months and show software under test. There may be slight differences between the tutorial screenshots and what you see during your tutorial flight. These differences are not significant. REMAINDER OF PAGE BLANK The iFly Developer Team 3 Preparation In order to verify that the status of Flight Simulator is the same as its status in this tutorial, some configuration by you is necessary. Prior to running FS, you must configure the aircraft’s weight and other parameters. Weight and Fuel Configuration Run the Configuration Tool, located in your iFly Jets – The 747-400 folder on your start menu or use the default shortcut on the Desktop. NOTE: THE CONFIGURATION TOOL MUST RUN AND NEW SETTINGS SAVED WHEN FLIGHT SIMULATOR IS NOT RUNNING. THE CONFIGURATION TOOL MUST BE RUN BEFORE LOADING ANY OF THE IFLY MODELS. The Configuration Tool utility is used to change multiple items involved in aircraft setup. For this tutorial, the default weights must be changed. Start the Configuration Tool for the 747-400 and, as shown below: - this tutorial uses a 3 Class – 416 seats configuration set the forward cargo to 84%, and the aft cargo compartment to 0% set 382 passengers click “Update” to record the new data in the aircraft configuration file (aircraft.cfg). NOTE: All iFly 747 models MUST be configured with this tool. Do not use third party tools for configuration. See the next page for the aft part of the passenger cabin. The iFly Developer Team 4 Do not forget to click “Update” after entering the passenger and cargo load. Fuel Configuration page: Enter 129. The iFly Developer Team 5 .514 kgs in the “Set desired total fuel” field. The Configuration Tool will automatically distribute the fuel load among the tanks as required by the fuel logic. select the 747-400 with GE engines at the iFly Configuration Tool “My Fleet” tab.Do not forget to click “Update” after entering the fuel load. The styles used in this tutorial are shown in the screenshots which follow and are set using the Configuration Tool. Select either “Normal screen” or “Wide screen” according to your monitor: Then click Edit and you will see: The iFly Developer Team 6 . the aircraft must be configured for the tutorial. For this tutorial. Before going to the cockpit. NOTE: Special attention should be paid in order to ensure that metric units are employed when using this tutorial. Then click each Tab in turn and set the styles.Click “Next” and set all options as shown below. The iFly Developer Team 7 . REMAINDER OF PAGE BLANK The iFly Developer Team 8 . REMAINDER OF PAGE BLANK The iFly Developer Team 9 . REMAINDER OF PAGE BLANK The iFly Developer Team 10 . Set the “Unit” to “Metric System” and the remainder of the styles as shown above.Click “DONE” then “OK” then “CLOSE” and the aircraft will be configured. Styles may also be set from the FS menu bar. If the metric unit is not selected the input of data when configuring the CDU will trigger errors. Choose “iFly”→“iFly Jets: The 747-400”→“Styles”. The iFly Developer Team 11 . Then on the “Go To Airport” page. set London Heathrow (EGLL) as the location and Gate 340 as the position.Configure FS and then Select the iFly 747-400 Now start Flight Simulator with the default flight with the engine running and go to the Settings International page and set “Metric (altimeter in feet)” as Units of measure: International. REMAINDER OF PAGE BLANK The iFly Developer Team 12 . Unit of Measure. select any Heavy gate. Next select “Create A Flight” then click “Change Location”. milibars)” on the SETTINGS – GENERAL page. If you are using default FS2004 scenery. MUST be set to “Metric (altimeter in feet)” for this tutorial. NOTE: FSX users need to select “Hybrid (feet. and Wide screen is for 1680x1050 or similar displays. Normal screen is suitable for 1280x1024 or similar displays. Select iFly Developer Team as the Aircraft manufacturer and the iFly 747-400 GE with the monitor you are using as the Aircraft model.Then click “OK” to go back to the Create a Flight page then click “Select Aircraft”. The iFly Developer Team 13 . The iFly Developer Team 14 . Then click Selected Weather and on the WEATHER tab select Clear Skies as the Weather theme. Click “OK” and you will be back to the Create A Flight page. This will clear the weather and set the atmospheric pressure to 1013Hpa/29.Click “OK” and you will back to the Create A Flight page.92mb. Click “Fly Now” and you are at the gate with a Cold and Dark aircraft: NOTE: The tutorial flight is 4. a trip which takes around ten hours at normal FS speed.779NM.S. REMAINDER OF PAGE BLANK The iFly Developer Team 15 . You may want to depart EGLL at about 1300 hours local time in order to arrive at KSFO while it is still daylight on the West coast of the U. The iFly Developer Team 16 . but is included in the close up panel screenshots which follow. Each of the 2D panels may be selected using the Panel Selector positioned at the upper left corner of the monitor. For easier explanation. OVERHEAD GLARESHIELD CENTER FORWARD LEFT FORWARD RIGHT FORWARD CONTROL STAND FORWARD AISLE STAND AFT ASILE STAND NOTE: The OVERHEAD MAINTENANCE Panel (iFly AFT OVHD) is not shown above. each panel is identified and that information will be used during explanations in later sections of this tutorial.Instrument Panels Now is the time to become familiar with our “office”. the 747-400 flight deck. OVERHEAD PANEL (iFly FWD OVHD) LEFT CENTER RIGHT OVERHEAD MAINTENANCE PANEL (iFly AFT OVHD) The iFly Developer Team 17 . LEFT FORWARD INSTRUMENT PANEL RIGHT FORWARD INSTRUMENT PANEL REMAINDER OF PAGE BLANK The iFly Developer Team 18 . CENTER INSTRUMENT PANEL GLARESHIELD PANEL First Officer Captain MODE CONTROL PANEL (MCP) THROTTLE PANEL The iFly Developer Team 19 . FORWARD AISLE STAND (iFly THR) CONTROL STAND (iFLY THR) REMAINDER OF PAGE BLANK The iFly Developer Team 20 . AFT AISLE STAND (iFly AFT ELEC) REMAINDER OF PAGE BLANK The iFly Developer Team 21 . flaps and the landing gear. so the first thing we need to do is get the power on. If the landing gear is not down and locked. and verify that it is positioned at “AUTO”. On the Left FWD OVHD panel check the hydraulic DEMAND pump selectors to verify they are off. LEFT FWD OVHD PANEL LEFT FWD OVHD PANEL Now the cockpit has electric power supplied by the batteries only. Check the STANDBY POWER switch. we should check the status of the hydraulic system. the batteries can support the system only for a short time. 2. The iFly Developer Team 22 . The green indicator means that the landing gear is down and locked. 3. open the FWD OVHD panel. Now back to the FWD OVHD panel. making sure that all controls and switches are in the correct position. 7. 4. Before connecting to any exterior power or APU power. a red indicator will illuminate. windshield wipers.Electrical Power Up Supplementary Procedure There is no electrical power supplied to the cockpit. 5. The guard will close automatically after 2 seconds. check that two windshield wiper selectors are both positioned “OFF”. In the lower part of the Center FWD OVHD panel. Needless to say. Using the Panel Selector. On the Center Instrument panel check the landing gear lever and verify that it is positioned at “DN”. 1. Now close the FWD OVHD panel and come back to the main panel. Verify that the green DOWN indicator is displayed on the upper EICAS. or is in disagreement with the landing gear lever’s position. Verify that the ALTERNATE FLAPS selector on the Center Instrument Panel is OFF. Now close the FWD OVHD panel using the Panel Selector and then select the main panel. 6. Check the battery switch: Click the switch to open the guard and verify that the switch is “ON”. Note that the “Ground Support” option will only be available when the aircraft is on the ground with throttles closed. 10. Next press EXT PWR switches 1 and 2 and confirm that “ON” is displayed for each switch. Either can provide sufficient electric power to the aircraft. In FS. EXT PWR 1 and 2 AVAIL are illuminated. Now. Now take a look at the Left FWD OVHD panel. verify that the aircraft is not moving in the parking area. click “Connect”. It is OK to have only the exterior power supply connected and carry out the procedures explained later in this tutorial without starting the APU. Then close the throttle panel. no ground crew will bring power to the aircraft. in order to explain in detail the functionality of every device. confirm that “TR” is selected with the APU Start Source switch on the AFT OVHD Panel 13. Connecting external power: 8. However.Now we have finished the checks before applying external or APU power. In order to explain how to apply these two electric power sources. The switch will automatically position to “ON”. Open the THR panel using the Panel Selector and confirm that the Park Brake lever is pulled up. Otherwise this option is grey and unavailable. Then in the FS dropdown menu→“iFly”→“iFly Jets: The 747-400”→“Ground Support”→“Ground Power”. Next we will start the APU. on the Left FWD OVHD Panel. then APU power. stationary and the Park Brake is on. the following steps can be skipped and you can go directly to the Preliminary Preflight Procedure section. We have now successfully connected external power to the aircraft. 11. 9. Before starting the APU. and then disconnect external power. The iFly Developer Team 23 . Ground power is now connected to the AC transfer buses. If you do not want to start APU. This simulates the process when the ground crew inserts the power supply into the external power socket of the aircraft. we will first connect external power. First. so we can only simulate this process. turn the APU selector to START. Now check that BUS TIE switches are set to AUTO. indicating power is connected and its capacity meets the electrical requirements of the aircraft. we will start APU. 12. When the APU is running. Press the APU GEN 1 and APU GEN 2 switches and “ON” will illuminate. the APU generators) is the one that will provide electricity to the aircraft. the APU generator 1 and APU generator 2 AVAIL lights on the Left FWD OVDH panel will illuminate. This completes the Electrical Power Up Supplementary Procedure. Confirm that the BUS TIE switches are in AUTO. The power source which is connected last (in this case. 16. we need to ask the ground crew to remove the external power cable. 15.14. but this does not mean that both power sources are providing electrical power simultaneously. Contact the ground crew as in step 9 above. Now the APU is supplying electrical power to the aircraft. External power and the APU generators are now connected. Since the APU is now providing electrical power to the aircraft. All following procedures assume completion of the Electrical Power Up Supplementary Procedure. and choose “Disconnect”. REMAINDER OF PAGE BLANK The iFly Developer Team 24 . Verify that only expected messages are shown and that oxygen pressure. Close the Lower EICAS. Note that while the selector may be rotated. Check that Guards are closed on the AFT OVHD PANEL and. Confirm that the Park Brake remains engaged. LEFT FWD OVHD The aircraft initial position must be entered to complete the alignment. and choose “Fast Alignment Time” to reduce the alignment time to about two minutes and 30 seconds (used in this Tutorial). rotate the three IRS mode selector switches to “OFF” for 10 seconds then to back to “NAV”. which takes about ten minutes. all other lights are off. To align the IRS. AFT OVHD PANEL D. Now close the AFT OVDH panel and then look at the Upper EICAS. 2. Open the Lower EICAS and click STATUS. It is recommended that a full IRS alignment. Confirm that the APU START SOURCE switch is in the TR position. with the exception of the split system break OPEN light. This done on the CDU POS INIT page. LOWER EICAS ENG 3.Preliminary Preflight Procedure 1. The iFly Developer Team 25 . you can go to FS menu -> “iFly”→“iFly Jets: The 747-400”→“Styles”→“IRS alignment”. You may also choose “Instant” alignment time. hydraulic quantity and engine oil quantity are sufficient for flight. If you do not wish to have a realistic alignment time. See paragraph 2 of the CDU Preflight Procedure below for details. this system is not modeled. C. the PFDs and NDs located on the Main Instrument Panel will “come alive” and display data. When the alignment is complete. be performed before each flight. Set the LOWER LOBE CARGO CONDITIONED AIR FLOW RATE SELECTOR as needed. B. If a crew change or maintenance action is involved: A. LOWER EICAS STATUS Next click ENG and verify that engine oil quantity is sufficient for flight. thus starting the IRS alignment process. you should see a series of box prompts at “5R”. If we enter the airport ICAO code here the position of the reference airport will be displayed in “2R”. 1L 1R 2L 2R 3L 3R 4L 4R 5L 5R 6L 6R 1. Press SHIFT+Z and the current position of the aircraft will be displayed on the upper left corner of the screen. 2. we will give a number to each LSK (Line Select Key). Using the Panel Selector. click IDENT to check data such as the aircraft type. and then enter it for the IRS system. For easier explanation. engine model and navigation database are correct. this step is not so important for a FS pilot. on the INIT/REF INDEX CDU page. Similarly. Now look at “2L”. This may not be the same as the current aircraft position. then press “1L” to arrive at the IDENT page. Then press “6R” on the IDENT page to access the POS INIT page. If you have correctly initiated IRS alignment during the Preliminary Preflight Procedure. The position must be entered accurately with the CDU keypad. we can also transfer the position to the scratchpad. On this page we should check if the aircraft type. Of course. then press “6L” to access the INDEX page. Also. Also check “4L” for correct time display. as shown in the figure below. The POS INIT page can also be accessed from the CDU INDEX page. the GPS position from the CDU POS INT Page 2/3 can be copied to the CDU scratchpad then entered on page 1. the CDU Preflight Procedure can be started.CDU Preflight Procedure After the Preliminary Preflight Procedure is completed. The iFly Developer Team 26 . You can also enter the current position into the scratchpad manually. We must finish some CDU operations. such as checking the IDENT data and entering the performance and navigation data. open the CAPT CDU and. so if you are short of time you may skip this step and go to step 2. If the page popping up is not the IDENT page. Enter the current position of the aircraft here to complete IRS alignment: Click “1R” to transfer the last position stored by the FMC to the scratchpad and then click “5R” to enter the position for the IRS to use. the first waypoint on the route is entered at “1R”. 6 below. Now skip to No. Then press “6R” to activate the route.simbrief. The route used in this tutorial was saved as “EGLLKSFO”. Now it is time to enter the route data. This method is time consuming.rfinder. A route may also be entered waypoint by waypoint. as shown at the right. and then press the “EXEC” button to execute the route. For example. You may ask. or if your flight plan is direct between waypoints (no airways) leave “2L” blank and the CDU will automatically consider the route to be direct (DCT) to the next waypoint which you will enter in “2R”. The maximum length of a flight number is 8 characters. for example see www. THE CONCEPTS IN THIS TUTORIAL REMAIN VALID. or continue reading for a discussion of manual route entry. where waypoints on the route are entered.com/home/. enter the flight number at “2R”. and does take more effort for longer routes. If desired. so enter EGLLKSFO in the scratchpad and press “3R” to complete the process of entering the route. Each line represents a segment of the route. REMAINDER OF PAGE BLANK The iFly Developer Team 27 . The route used in this tutorial is as follows: EGLL WOBU3F WOBUN DCT WELIN UT420 TNT UN57 POL UN601 STN UN610 RATSU DCT 65N020W DCT 67N030W DCT 69N040W DCT 70N050W DCT 70N060W DCT ADSAM NCAA 100A LAT1 YBE DCT YZU J527 YNY DCT TWISP DCT RBL GOLDN6 KSFO NOTE: OVER TIME RUNWAY DESIGNATIONS AND PROCEDURE NAMES WILL CHANGE DUE TO SHIFTNG OF EARTH’S MAGNETIC POLE. a dotted line will appear in “2L” Enter the airway departing the first waypoint here. A saved route can be entered in “3R”.asalink. as do applicable charts. USERS MAY WISH TO FLY THE TUTORIAL WITH CURRENT RUNWAY DESIGNATORS AND PROCEDURE NAMES. first enter “EGLL” into “1L” then “KSFO” into “1R”. Press “NEXT PAGE” to go to the second page of RTE. Press “6R” on the POS INIT page to access the RTE page. installs with this document. As the departure airport is already entered in the CDU. The white light above the “EXEC” button of the CDU will illuminate. The tutorial route.3. After the first waypoint is entered in “1R”. “How can I find a route?” There are many software flight planners and websites capable of searching for routes.net/free/ and for a full flight plan package see http://www. EGLL to KSFO. NONETHELESS. The route can also be entered on the LEGS page. Normally. Choose the waypoint by pressing its left corresponding LSK. the Select Desired WPT page will automatically display.4W00803.4’ is entered as N4715. On this page. ignoring SID/STAR. to which special attention should be paid. Examples: - 65N020W is entered as N65W020 N47º 15.4. and then input the second waypoint. the waypoints with the same names will be sorted according to their distance from the current location of the aircraft or from a waypoint along the route. the name of a route between waypoints is on the left side of the current line. They are entered in the CDU with no space or slash between the latitude and longitude entries and leading zeroes must be entered. In our example. Before entering a waypoint. so we input it “1R”. we need to introduce the Select Desired Waypoint page.4’ W008º 3. the starting point of a route is the waypoint on the right side of the current line. there are latitude and longitude coordinates which need to be entered in the CDU. 5. Note this example in on the third RTE page. At the right. When the name of an entered waypoint is not unique in the navigation database. on “3R”. then airway UT420 at “3L” and the next waypoint. you will select the first waypoint on the list. These are called pilot defined waypoints and display in a seven-character format. which will be selected later. The iFly Developer Team 28 . The white light above the CDU “EXEC” button illuminates. Then press the “EXEC” button to execute the route. When the route is entered press “6R” to activate it. All digits and decimal points (to 1/10 minute) must be entered unless the latitude and longitude are full degrees. N67W030 is in the scratchpad ready to be entered in the route by clicking “3R”. Continuing the example of manual route entry.4 and displays as N47W008. WELIN at “2R”. Continue this process until the entire flight plan is entered in the CDU. TNT. and the last point of the route is on the right side of the current line. the first waypoint is WOBUN. As seen in the complete route above. If the EGLL DEPARTURES page does not display.6. Then press “1L” to access the EGLL DEPARTURES procedures page. 27R is the active takeoff runway. There is no transition. only the Standard Instrument Departure (SID) procedures that are associated with the 27R runway will be displayed on the left side of the screen. If necessary. press “6L” to access the DEP/ARR INDEX page. use “PREV PAGE” and “NEXT PAGE” buttons to find the WOBU3F departure procedure on the left side of the screen. Press the CDU “DEP/ARR” button to display the DEP/ARR INDEX page. see page 64 for discussion of the procedure to clear the DISCONTINUITY. Do not proceed until this is accomplished. Now it’s time to choose the departure procedure at EGLL. After selecting the runway. if the CDU LEGS page displays boxes and “--ROUTE DISCONTINUITY-”. as shown on the right. REMAINDER OF PAGE BLANK The iFly Developer Team 29 . use “PREV PAGE” and “NEXT PAGE” buttons to find the 27R runway on the right side of the screen. Press the LSK to select the procedure. and we use the WOBU3F departure procedure. If necessary. Now press the “EXEC” button to execute the departure procedure. <SEL> means that the item is selected. NOTE: While unlikely at this point. Press the LSK corresponding to the 27R runway to select it. In this tutorial. “EXECUTE” the cruise altitude entry. If the PERF INIT page does not display. Note “5R”. then “3L” to access the PERF INIT page. and descending. STEP SIZE. which. will result in the FMC being unable to calculate required data. 1L = 2L + 3L. weight of the aircraft. STEP SIZE is 2000ft in RVSM airspace or 1000ft if the aircraft is on the directional North Atlantic Track System (NATS). Flight crews are seldom certain of this information until close to starting the descent and the arrival runway is known. Clear the message by pressing and holding the CDU CLEAR button The Cost Index (CI) at “5L” is used to calculate the economic speed of climbing. by the cost of the fuel by quantity (kgs/lbs). unfueled. In the FS menu bar choose iFly Styles and set the “Unit” to “Metric System”. All box prompts here must be filled in. The ICAO 4000ft STEP SIZE is used for this tutorial. fuel weight. “1L” is the gross weight of the aircraft. Press the CDU INT REF button. It is determined by dividing the cost per hour to operate the aircraft. excluding the fuel. Valid entries are 0 to 9999. press “6L” to access the INDEX page. The FUEL data at “2L” is automatically obtained by sensors. The bigger the value the higher the ECON speed and the smaller the value the lower the ECON speed. We will enter the KSFO arrival procedure and runway later while in flight. and “3L”. we need to enter the performance data. 8. Click “3L” and the system will calculate the ZFW and GR WT. Generally. 30000 feet is the initial cruise altitude. CI is defined as a ratio of the flying time to the cost of fuel. Enter 100 for this tutorial. Enter the cruise altitude for the route at “1R” as feet or flight level. The CDU will likely display an “INSUFFICIENT FUEL” warning at this point. data on the right side of the CDU is entered. so we can enter either 30000 or 300 in the scratchpad then press “1R” to enter it into the CDU. Please confirm the weight unit again. which may be ignored as the system will update after takeoff. or zero fuel. With route entry complete for now.7. The tutorial uses a fuel reserve of 17. In other words. 10. Then enter the required fuel reserve at “4L”. cruising. if missing. “2L”. REMAINDER OF PAGE BLANK The iFly Developer Team 30 . In our example. To change the STEP SIZE enter a number in the scratch pad then press “6R”. Next. Dashes are optional data.7. “1R”. NOTE: The speed limit for our departure is 250kts below 10. If there is no data here. “3R” on that page is the Transition Altitude. EGLL has a Transition Altitude of 6000 feet. Make a note that 18000 feet is the Transition Altitude in the U.“5R” hold the wind data for the displayed waypoints. so make that change now by entering 6000 in the scratchpad then pressing “3R”. In this tutorial. there is no weather forecast in FS. However. Then. wind speed and direction are entered at the boxes which will display at “4R”. Wind direction data must be 3 digits add a 0 on the left if wind direction is not 100 degrees or more. we do not input any data. the FMC will calculate using no wind during the cruise and the standard air temperature.11. 12. The default unit is degrees Celsius. we will assume the normal ATC “No speed restrictions apply” for the departure. add the suffix F after the temperature. Press “1R” and the WOBUN WINDS page displays. Now press the CDU VNAV button which takes you to the CLB page. Pressing “6R” takes you to the RTE DATA page.S. The default restriction of 274/10000 may be changed with an entry at “4L” on the CDU CLB page. Note “6R” on the ACT RTE LEGS page at the right. The default Transition Altitude is 18000 feet. However. thereby increasing the accuracy of FMC calculations.000ft. On the RTE DATA page. add on weather programs will provide the data to enter. but is important when flying with weather injected into FS. so you may leave these lines blank. If you would like to input degrees Fahrenheit. above which the system uses Flight Levels (FLs) and below which it uses feet. This step is not used for this tutorial. The iFly Developer Team 31 . as we are a “HEAVY”. Altitude is entered in feet or Flight Level. Generally speaking. Enter the air temperature data at that the waypoint altitude at “5R”. Altitude at the waypoint is entered first at “1L”. and TO-2 takeoff thrust. If you have already entered data. The allowed input values are 10 or 20. 14. the aircraft will switch from takeoff mode to climb mode. In this tutorial. The data at “1L” is the Selected Temperature and the system-read Outside Air Temperature. “1L” is the takeoff flap setting. TO produces full thrust. then press DEL and then 1L to delete the SEL data. the CLB-1 mode will automatically arm. At this page. input the runway wind and slope data in “4L” and thrust reduction altitude in “3L”. Press “6R” at the THRUST LIM page to access the TAKEOFF REF page. In the example to the right. The iFly Developer Team 32 . When using injected weather. The maximum temperature for SEL input is 70 degrees Celsius (about 158 degrees Fahrenheit). When climbing above the “3L” altitude. TO-1. TO-1 provides a thrust reduction of about 10% and TO-2 provides a thrust reduction of about 20%. the less the FMC calculated takeoff thrust will be. Input 20 into the scratchpad and then press “1L” to complete the input. 15. The higher the temperature input at SEL. we use the TO mode without SEL temperature. Press INT REF again then press “6R” to access the THRUST LIM page. and it will vary as the takeoff mode or SEL data input changes.13. The FMC allows a maximum reduction of about 25% in takeoff thrust. we pressed “3L” to select the TO-1 mode. We will use FLAP 20. “2L” ~ “4L” are TO. The selection of a takeoff thrust mode will automatically arm the “2R” ~ “4R” climb thrust modes. The final calculated takeoff N1 data will be displayed in “1R”. Press 2L to select the TO mode. The takeoff reference page allows the crew to manage takeoff performance. then a “NO V SPEED” warning will appear on the PFD. Besides using the V speed calculated by FMC. This requires reentry of the V speeds. After the correct input. Record the data for later use NOTE: All aircraft performance data must be Entered and Executed in order for the system to correctly draw the route on the ND. Input the speed into the scratchpad and then press its corresponding LSK to complete the input. Press “4R” and the system will display the CG (17%) and TRIM (7. Now press “RSK1”. VR. The system will set an approximate TRIM. 17. “RSK2” and “RSK3”. SID or thrust setting causes “TAKEOFF SPEEDS DELETED” to display. you can also enter the V speed manually. If any of the data is still in small font. but the exact number must be entered later in the tutorial. Hydraulics must be pressurized to set TRIM. which means that the V speeds are entered into the system.16. The data for V1.6 units) for the current aircraft load. the warning will disappear. and V2 will change to large font. The iFly Developer Team 33 . Note: Any change to the departure runway. NOTE: See the iFly Aircraft Operating Manual (AOM) for much more detail on the FMS/CDU. ENGINE pump switches to ON. Verify that the hydraulic SYS FAULT lights are illuminated. GENERATOR CONTROL switches to ON. B. B. Set the HYDRAULIC panel: A. Set the ELECTRICAL PANEL: A. Your Left FWD OVHD panel should now look like the screenshot on the right. Verify that the OFF lights are extinguished. UTILITY power switches to ON. Left FWD OVHD Panel 1. Check BUS TIE switches are in AUTO. Verify ENGINE pump PRESS lights are ON. Verify that the ALTN lights are extinguished. Verify that the HYD PUMPS PRESS lights are illuminated. 2.Preflight Procedure IMPORTANT NOTE: This procedure presumes that the Supplementary Electrical Power Up Procedure was accomplished. Verify that the BATTERY switch OFF light is extinguished. Place the ELECTRONIC ENGINE CONTROL switches in NORM position. C. Verify that the ISLN lights are extinguished. The iFly Developer Team 34 . 3. Verify that the OFF lights are illuminated. D. D. C. Set STANDBY IGNITION selector to NORM. C. 11. LANDING light switches to OFF. Verify that the VALVE lights are OFF. (3) Stabilizer pump PRESS lights are off. Fuel jettison selector to OFF. TAXI lights switch to OFF. 7. APU fire switch In. D. NACELLE ANTI-ICE switches to OFF. E. C. B. Windshield WIPER selectors to OFF. B. Verify that the VALVE lights are extinguished. D. APU BTL DISCH light Extinguished. 8. C. START SWITCHES to IN. Verify that the FWD and AFT lights are extinguished. B. Fuel jettison NOZZLE valve switches to OFF. WING ANTI-ICE switches to OFF. Verify that the VALVE lights are extinguished. Verify that the INOP lights are OFF. 12. E. Verify that: (1) Main 1 and 4 FWD and AFT PRESS lights are illuminated and Main 2 and 3 FWD PRESS lights are illuminated. BTL A DISCH and BTL B DISCH lights Extinguished. Your center FWD OVHD Panel should now look like the screenshot to the right.5. B. F. 6. RUNWAY TURNOFF lights to OFF. WINDOW HEAT switches to ON. CARGO FIRE DISCH LIGHT Extinguished. B. Verify that the Engine start lights are extinguished. Set Windshield protection panel: A. Set FUEL TRANSFER MAIN 1 and 4 switch off. Set Lighting panel: A. Set Fuel panel – manual configuration (NOTE: the Configuration Tool has an option to set this panel automatically): A. (2) Override 2 and 3 pumps and center pumps PRESS lights are off. Set FIRE PANEL: A. B. Check EMERGENCY LIGHTS switch Guard closed. The iFly Developer Team 35 . Set all X FEED valve switches to ON. Set CONTINUOUS IGNITION switch to OFF. Set FUEL JETTISON panel: A. 10. Set Engine START panel: A. Set AUTOSTART to ON. CARGO FIRE ARM switches Off. Engine fire switches IN. 9. Center FWD OVHD Panel 13. Set Anti-ice panel: A. Set all fuel pump switches to OFF. B. Verify that the VALVE light is OFF. Set AUTO IGNITION switch to SINGLE (GE engines). Set CABIN ALTITUDE panel: A. Outflow value manual switches to OFF C. H. NAV light switch as needed. C. Set YAW DAMPER switches ON. Pack control selectors NORM. ENGINE BLEED air switches ON. B. Engine bleed air SYS FAULT lights OFF. 20. Verify that the VALVE light is OFF. F. B. B. LEFT and RIGHT ISOLATION valve switches ON. GASPER switch ON. Set Lighting Panel: A. F. 16. FLIGHT DECK TEMPERATURE selector to AUTO. Cabin Altitude AUTO SELECTOR to NORM. TRIM AIR switch ON. I. D. Set Bleed air panel: A. 17. Set ECS panel: A. C. LOGO as needed. D. WING light OFF. AFT CARGO HEAT switch OFF. E. Check that the PASSENGER OXYGEN switch is closed. PASSENGER TEMPERATURE selector to AUTO. B. STROBE OFF. NOTE: Do not push the switch. Pack SYS FAULT light OFF. E. APU bleed air switch ON.15. LANDING ALTITUDE switch in default AUTO position (not pushed). C. Right FWD OVHD Panel Your Right FWD OVHD panel should now look like the screenshot to the right. J. HUMIDIFIER switch ON. REMAINDER OF PAGE BLANK The iFly Developer Team 36 . ZONE SYS FAULT light OFF. C. NOTE: INOP will display until HYDRAULICS are pressurized. G. BEACON OFF. HIGH FLOW switch OFF. 19. UPPER and LOWER RECIRCULATION fan switches to ON. D. Verify that the VALVE lights are OFF. EQUIPMENT COOLING selector NORM. 18. C. This sets the pitch command to about eight degrees up and the roll command to wings level. AIR DATA source to L. EIU source to AUTO. Select the STATUS Display on the Lower EICAS menu and check that crew and passenger oxygen pressure is adequate for dispatch. MCP. Use of the default FS “B” key to set the pressure can be problematic. D. On the Glareshield. B. LEFT INSTURMENT PANEL 25. 23. Set the CRT select panel: A. On the Mode Control Panel. LEFT INSTURMENT PANEL 26. set both Flight Directors to ON and the Auto throttle to ARM. NOTE: With the selected Weather theme the barometric pressure is already set to 1013Hpa. INBOARD CRT TO NORM CENTER INSTRUMENT PANEL The iFly Developer Team 37 . IRS source to L E. 24. set the Captain EFIS Control Panel as shown at the right.21. 22. as shown below. Set the SOURCE SELECT panel as shown on the right: A. LOWER CRT to NORM B. Set the Clock to the current time. FLIGHT DIRECTOR source to L. NAVIGATION source to FMC L. 27. TCAS OFF on ND if the EFIS Control Panel TFC switch is pushed. C. Set Alternate flaps and gear: a. Set the GND PROXIMITY panel: A. Verify that the Flight instrument indications are correct: A. HEADING reference switch to NORM CENTER INSTRUMENT PANEL 33. GEAR OVERRIDE switch OFF D. FMA annunciations are correct: (1) A/T mode blank (2) Roll mode is TO/GA (3) Pitch mode is TO/GA (4) AFDS status is FD (5) FD pitch bar is 8º nose up 28. Ground PROX light OFF B. LEFT FORWARD INSTRUMENT PANEL RIGHT FORWARD INSTRUMENT PANEL 29. GROUND PROXIMITY TERRAIN OVERRIDE switch OFF. NO VSPD until selected. ALTERNATE FLAPS selector OFF c. EIU selector to AUTO CENTER INSTRUMENT PANEL 32. Set CRT BRIGHTNESS controls as needed CENTER INSTRUMENT PANEL 31. Ground proximity FLAP OVERRIDE switch OFF C. B. FMC master selector to L CENTER INSTRUMENT PANEL The iFly Developer Team 38 . Alternate flaps ARM switch OFF d. Landing gear lever DOWN b. ALTERNATE GEAR EXTEND switches OFF CENTER INSTRUMENT PANEL 30. AUTOBRAKES selector to RTO. NOTE: AUTOBRAKES may not engage in RTO until IRS alignment is complete. CENTER INSTRUMENT PANEL REMAINDER OF PAGE BLANK The iFly Developer Team 39 . B. Pull and release Attitude indicator caging control. D. Verify that the indicator is correct and that no flags are shown. Set the standby altimeter. B. CENTER INSTRUMENT PANEL THR PANEL 35. Verify that lower EICAS secondary engine indications display existing conditions with no exceedances shown. AFT ELEC PANEL 36. Check Standby instruments: A. ILS selector to OFF. Verify that upper EICAS primary engine indications display existing conditions and that no exceedance is shown. C. Verify airspeed indication is correct.34. Check the EICAS displays: A. SPEEDBRAKE lever to DOWN 38. Set Left. 41. Set the PARKING BRAKE and verify that the PARK BRAKE SET message shows on the upper EICAS. NOTE: The flap position indicator does not show when the flaps are up. 48. FUEL CONTROL switch fire warning lights OFF 44. 45. Forward thrust levers CLOSED 40. THR PANEL CENTER INSTRUMENT PANEL 42. 47. Reverse thrust levers DOWN 39. Call for the PREFLIGHT checklist. Set the transponder panel. NOSMOKING to AUTO or ON b. STABILIZER TRIM cutout switches Guard closed. Set audio control panels as needed.On the CONTROL STAND (THROTTLE): 37. Set Passenger signs: a. ALTERNATE STABILIZER TRIM switches to Neutral On the AFT AISE STAND (AFT ELC PANEL): 46. FUEL CONTROL switches to CUTOFF 43. Center and Right radio tuning panels and verify that the OFF light is extinguished. Set flap lever to agree with the flap position. SEATBELTS to AUTO or ON 49. AFT ELEC PANEL REMAINDER OF PAGE BLANK The iFly Developer Team 40 . .CUTOFF REMAINDER OF PAGE BLANK The iFly Developer Team 41 .Heading and Altimeter Set Parking Brake……………………………………………………………Set Fuel Control Switches…………………………………………….…………………………………………………Tested Flight Instruments…………………………….Preflight Check List Oxygen……………. Set the MCP: A. Arm LNAV. Verify all Exterior Doors are closed. Set the HYDRAULIC panel.000 lbs of fuel or more in the in the CENTER Wing tank: (1) CENTER FUEL PUMP switches to ON. A. 5. B. B. Place Hydraulic demands pumps 1.700 kgs/17. Verify that the PRESS lights are OFF.2 and 3 selectors to AUTO. Pilot flying (PF) selects TAKEOFF REF page. 7. Set the IAS to V2. Complete the Taxi and Takeoff briefings. THR PANEL LEFT FWD OVHD PANEL CENTER FWD OVHD PANEL 8. B. Verify that only expected alert messages are shown. 1. 6. With 7. Pilot monitoring (PM) selects LEGS page. in this case 174 kts. NOTE: Pressurize number 4 system first to prevent fluid transfer between systems. Verify that the PRESS lights are OFF. Set the initial altitude.000ft. Place Hydraulic demand pump 4 selector to AUX. 271 degrees.Before Start Procedure NOTE: This procedure requires completion of the CDU Preflight Procedure. 3. 6. Verify that the SYS FAULT lights are OFF and that the PRESS lights are OFF. RIGHT FWD OVHD PANEL 9. Obtain clearance to pressurize hydraulic systems and to start engines. Place all MAIN tank FUEL PUMP switches to ON. Set the FUEL panel: A. E. Set HDG to runway heading. B. FIRST OFFICER GLARESHIELD The iFly Developer Team 42 . C. Verify that the SYS FAULT light is OFF and that the PRES light stays illuminated. Arm VNAV. Set the CDU display: A. 4. 2. Set the BEACON light switch to BOTH. Push the RECALL switch. D. V2.fuel in tank 3 is less than or equal to tank 4.Closed and Locked Passenger Signs….………………………………………………….Completed Trim……. FIRST OFFICER GLARESHIELD 11..fuel in tank 2 is less than or equal to tank 1 plus 1.……………………………………Completed Beacon…………………………………………………………………. Verify Aileron and Rudder trim are at 0 units.000 lbs/500 kgs.IMPORTANT NOTE: If a FUEL TANK/ENG message shows on the EICAS. or .fuel in tank 2 is less than or equal to tank 1. Both OVERRIDE pumps 2 switches OFF B. CROSSFEED valves 1 and 4 switches OFF 10. CENTER INSTRUMENT PANEL CENTER FWD OVHD PANEL Push the CANCEL switch and verify that all messages are cancelled.Then: A.SET CDU Preflight…………………………………………………….BOTH The iFly Developer Team 43 .6 UNITS and verify that the trim is in the green band. Set Stabilizer TRIM to 7. THR PANEL BEFORE START Flight Deck Door……………………………………….…………………………………………………………………SET Taxi and takeoff briefings…... Both OVERRIDE pumps 3 switches OFF C.HDG. .ALT SET Takeoff speeds……………………………………………………….. Call the BEFORE START CHECKLIST.. or .…. verify that: ..000 lbs/500 kgs and that the fuel in tank 3 is less than or equal to tank 4 plus 1.AUTO MCP………………………………………………………. press “4R” to start the PUSHBACK. REMAINDER OF PAGE BLANK The iFly Developer Team 44 . enter the turning angle. After entering the data as shown above. To stop the PUSHBACK process. PARK BRAKE ON after pushback.Pushback Procedure The PUSHBACK function is embedded in the CDU. the straight line distance for PUSHBACK should be entered. Memory Items: - The aircraft turns opposite from the nose gear turn direction. In the example above. press “4R” again. And at 3L. At 2L. At 1L. then heads left (front wheel turning right) to turn 90 degrees to complete the PUSHBACK. the aircraft first moves backwards for 60m. Click “MENU” → “SIMU” → “PUSHBACK” to access the PUSHBACK configuration page. you can choose to have the Nose Gear turn right or left. THR PANEL C. 4 engine being started. repeat steps 3-4 to start engines 1. CENTER FORWARD INSTRUMENT PANEL After the Number 4 engine is stable at idle. SET Pack control selectors 2 and 3 to OFF. 4 CENTER FWD OVHD PANEL B. 3 and 4 then 1 and 2. we start the engines after the PUSHBACK process is completed. In this tutorial.Engine Start Procedure Note: This tutorial demonstrates single engine autostart. Pull Engine START switch No. The iFly Developer Team 45 . two engines are autostarted together. Move FUEL CONTROL switch No. verify that there is N1 rotation and verify on the lower EICAS an oil pressure indication by idle N2. 1. The screenshot to the right shows No. in that order. The engine start procedure can be carried out during the PUSHBACK process or after the PUSHBACK process completes. Call “START Number 4 ENGINE”: RIGHT FWD OVHD PANEL A.2 and 3. On the lower EICAS. 4 to RUN. select the secondary engine indications. On the upper EICAS. 3. Normally. THR PANEL 2. Push RECALL and verify that only expected messages display. verify freedom of movement. On the STATUS page of the lower EICAS. Move the control wheel and control column to full travel in both directions. AFT ELEC PANEL 10. Move the rudder to full travel in both directions. LEFT FWD OVHD PANEL 6. LEFT FWD OVHD PANEL 3. Blank the lower EICAS display by pushing the STATUS button again. THR PANEL 8. Set the Transponder as needed. Set the PACK selectors to NORM. that the controls return to center and that flight control movement displays correctly. B. Verify freedom of movement. 4. FIRST OFFICER GLARESHIELD The iFly Developer Team 46 . Set the NACELLE ANTI-ICE switches as needed. Set Hydraulic demand pump #4 selector to AUTO. Set the AFT CARGO HEAT switch as needed.Before Taxi Procedure 1. 9. Check the Flight Controls: A. THR PANEL 7. Flaps 20. CENTER FWD OVHD PANEL LEFT FWD OVHD PANEL 5. LEFT FWD OVHD PANEL 2. that the rudder return to center and that correct movement displays. Set takeoff flaps: for this tutorial. Set the APU selector to OFF. Call for the BEFORE TAXI CHECKLIST BEFORE TAXI Anti-ice……………………………………………………As Needed Recall…………………………………………………….Checked Autobrake…………………………………………………...RTO Flight Controls…………………………………………Checked Ground equipment……………………………………Clear REMAINDER OF PAGE BLANK The iFly Developer Team 47 Before Takeoff Procedure After receiving taxi clearance, position the TAXI light switch ON, then advance the throttles to about 50% N1. After the aircraft starts moving, observe ground speed indicated on the ND. Use throttles to keep ground speed below 30 knots on straight taxiways and 10 knots in tight turns. Speed during long taxi distances or high weights/hot temperatures should not exceed 20 knots. Taxi to the runway 27R holding point and hold. When clearance to enter the runway is received, perform the following when the aircraft is positioned for takeoff. CENTER FWD OVHD PANEL 1. Set the Transponder/TCAS to TA-RA. AFT ELEC PANEL 2. Set packs as required for takeoff. The tutorial uses a packs-on takeoff. RIGHT FWD OVHD PANEL 3. Set lights and strobes ON, as required. CENTER AND RIGHT FWD OVHD PANELS 4. Set the terrain display ON as needed. CAPTAIN GLARESHIELD CENTER INSTRUEMENT PANEL Accomplish the BEFORE TAKEOFF checklist. BEFORE TAKEOFF Flaps……………………………..…………………………………………SET The iFly Developer Team 48 Takeoff Procedure After receiving takeoff clearance, confirm that the parking brake is released and the aircraft is aligned with the runway centerline. A standing takeoff will be used for this tutorial. 1. With the brakes engaged, advance the thrust levers to approximately 70% N1 and check that the engines are stable and normal readings are displayed. CENTER INSTRUMENT PANEL 2. After confirming that engine displays are normal, release the brakes and press the TO/GA switch. Check that the takeoff thrust is correct. (The real TO/GA switch is located below the throttle levers. To press that switch, we must view the VC mode. Therefore, for more TO/GA convenient operation, we have added a hidden TO/GA click spot to the MCP.) MCP See the following screenshots. The three columns inside the FMA (Flight Mode Annunciation) on the PFD, from left to right, are Auto Throttle Mode, Roll Mode, and Pitch Mode Now check the FMA. The autothrottle mode should be THR REF with a green box around it (adds emphasis when the mode first appears), and pitch and roll modes should be TO/GA. The two pictures below show the differences on the FMA before pressing TO/GA and after TO/GA is pressed. Also note that LNAV and VNAV are displayed in white, indicating they are armed. Before TO/GA Switch Push After TO/GA Switch Push (both FDs ON and A/T armed) LEFT FORWARD INSTRUMENT PANEL “TO/GA” means that the current pitch mode is TAKE OFF/GO AROUND. Takeoff is a flight director only function of the TO/GA mode. Flight director pitch and roll commands are displayed and the autothrottle maintains takeoff N1 thrust limit as selected from the FMC until HOLD appears on the FMA. That is to say, under TO/GA, the autopilot system does not control the aircraft, so the pilot controls the aircraft manually by following FD cues. The iFly Developer Team 49 After pressing the TO/GA switch, THR REF continues to display until speed reaches about 65 knots. As shown in the screenshot below, the auto throttle mode becomes HOLD with a green box around it and then becomes HOLD without the box. HOLD means power is removed from the autothrottles and the thrust levers remain stationary. At that point in the real world, the pilot flying must maintain the required N1 value and the thrust levers can be move manually; however, due to the limitations in Flight Simulator we suggest “firewalling” (push fully forward) hardware thrust levers for the remainder of the flight to prevent conflicts with the autothrottles. Look at the screenshot in paragraph 1 of this section: the green 104.4 is the value at which thrust should be kept. Generally, once the throttles are set leave them alone unless there is a gross error. LEFT FORWARD INSTRUMENT PANEL When Airspeed is at V1, the panel system automatically calls out “V1” then at VR, “ROTATE”. At VR, rotate at 2.5 degree/second (2 degrees for an engine failure) towards 15 degrees pitch attitude. The Flight Director is not used during rotation. During the entire takeoff process, the pilot must monitor the engine instruments, the vertical speed, and the airspeed indicator. 3. When the aircraft lifts-off, the pitch command target speed is V2+ 10 to 25 knots (the MCP speed we set was V2), and the roll command remains wings level. 4. After seeing a positive rate of climb displayed on the altimeter, select the landing gear lever to “UP”. If an engine fails during the takeoff, the target speed of pitch command is: • V2, if the speed is less than V2; • the current speed, if the speed is between V2 and V2+10; • V2+10, if the speed is higher than V2+10 5. At 50 ft AGL (ABOVE GROUND LEVEL) LNAV activates (if armed) and replaces TOGA as the roll mode. The pilot flying should now be following the lateral guidance on the PFD. LEFT FORWARD INSTRUMENT PANEL The iFly Developer Team 50 VNAV activates (if armed) and become the pitch mode. and in our example. Retract the flaps on the schedule annunciated on the PFD speed tape and watch to see that the indicated flap and slat positions are the same as those of the flap lever. VNAV ALT maintains altitude. the airplane levels at the MCP altitude and the pitch flight mode annunciation becomes VNAV ALT. The iFly Developer Team 51 . The FMC changes the reference thrust limit to the armed climb limit: CLB (in our case) or CLB1 or CLB 2. is 1500ft). In summary. press the VNAV switch to select the VNAV mode. There are three VNAV modes: • VNAV SPD: The AFDS maintains the speed displayed by the airspeed indicator and/or on the CDU CLIMB or DESCENT page. On some departures.6. “VNAV SPD” pitch mode means that the aircraft is using speed specified in the CDU to maintain pitch. or select normal climb speed. if not previously armed. MCP LEFT FORWARD INSTRUMENT PANEL 9. and it may be necessary to SPEED INTERVENE. the MCP speed window will blank. The pitch mode of the FMA is VNAV SPD. • VNAV PTH: The AFDS maintains the FMC altitude and path or flies the descent path indicated by the pitch command. the AFDS pitch and A/T mode will be commanded by the FMC. the allowable input range is 800ft~9999ft. After VNAV mode is engaged. At 400 ft AGL. LEFT FORWARD INSTRUMENT PANEL 7. See the AOM for details. Pitch commands the current airspeed and the autothrottle sets the selected reference thrust and annunciates THR REF. and the flight director status shows that CMD has replaced FD. When the aircraft reaches the thrust reduction altitude (which can be set in the TAKEOFF 2/2 page of CDU. it may be necessary to remain at Flaps 5/Flaps 1 to control airspeed in turns. the flight phase changes from the takeoff phase to the climb phase. 8. • VNAV ALT: When a conflict occurs between the VNAV profile and the MCP altitude. Now Press CMD A to engage the autopilot. When VNAV mode is engaged. now the aircraft is tracking the current FMC route under the control of AFDS roll and pitch commands and using the FMC calculated N1 value for speed. and the aircraft automatically flies the vertical profile. When the flaps and slats are completely retracted. 10. ………………. • The performance data have all been entered.. The current FMA status is given below..UP and OFF Flaps………………………………………………………………UP. • The flight director switches are both positioned to the “ON” position. After the landing gear is completely retracted.” CENTER INSTRUMENT PANEL Call for the AFTER TAKEOFF checklist: Landing gear. Now let’s have a look at the current status of the aircraft. No lights REMAINDER OF PAGE BLANK The iFly Developer Team 52 . the MCP speed window will be blank: • VNAV mode is engaged • A/T engaged in the FMC SPD mode • During two engine AFDS go-around 11.……. move the landing gear lever to the “OFF” position by clicking “OFF” or assign a key combination such as “SHIFT+O” in the iFly Key Assignments dropdown and use that to position the lever to “OFF.…………………………….VNAV can be armed on the MCP before takeoff if the following conditions are satisfied: • An active route has been entered. MCP LEFT FORWARD INSTRUMENT PANEL Under the following situations. From the above LEGS page and the ND snapshot figure. Set the passenger signs according to needs. waypoints. we can see that we are now flying toward CPT waypoint. magenta. At transition altitude. 2. Now have a look at the target speed. 6000ft in our case.Climb Procedure Now the aircraft is flying along the FMC route under the control of the AFDS. and waypoint name are displayed in magenta. and the heading of the aircraft. the active airspeed. and offset data. Press LEGS located on CDU to access the LEGS page. while other waypoints and the altitude data are displayed in white. On the ND. 1. speed. inactive data. are displayed in magenta. position the landing light switches to “OFF”. and altitude. There are some operational principles that should be followed during the climb phase. When the flight altitude is above 10000ft. modified data. white. the active speed and altitude are displayed above the speed indications and the altitude indications respectively. as shown below: CDU LEFT FORWARD INSTRUMENT PANEL On the CDU. set the altimeters to standard. including the route. On the PFD photo below. REMAINDER OF PAGE BLANK The iFly Developer Team 53 . 3. target altitude. cyan. the active data. altitude. From the picture.Next we check the active speed. Now the IAS/MACH window on MCP is blank. which involves the CDU LEGS page and the CDU CLB page. the Speed Bug and Selected Speed are both displayed in magenta. They point to the airspeed: • manually selected in the IAS/MACH window • airspeed computed by the FMC when the MCP IAS/MACH window is blank. so the FMC computed airspeed is displayed on the PFD. the active speed is displayed in magenta. Calculated Waypoint Speed or Specified Waypoint Speed Target Speed Speed Restriction Selected Speed Speed Bug LEFT FORWARD INSTRUMENT PANEL On the CDU and PFD. we can see that the current active speed is 344 knots. On the PFD. REMAINDER OF PAGE BLANK The iFly Developer Team 54 . we can see that the altitude is set to 30. Altitude entry is not allowed on the LEGS page for CRUISE phase waypoints. Rotate the Altitude Selector to adjust the MCP ALTITUDE in 100ft increments. Calculated Waypoint Altitude or Specified Waypoint Altitude Cruise Altitude Selected Altitude Selected Altitude Bug LEFT FORWARD INSTRUMENT PANEL The Selected Altitude Bug and Selected Altitude located above the PFD altitude indications both display the MCP ALTITUDE setting. At or below altitude restrictions are entered with a suffix letter B (example: 13770B). During the CLIMB. The reverse (B first) is entered for the DESCENT. followed by a suffix letter A. The iFly Developer Team 55 . During the DESCENT phase. the highest altitude setting is the active altitude. Otherwise. Mandatory altitude restrictions are entered without any suffix letter (example: 20000). On the PFD just above. followed by a suffix letter B (example: 6890A13770B). The cruise altitude is displayed on the CDU CLB page. altitude restrictions that are between two altitudes are displayed with the lower limit first.000ft. the aircraft would remain at 6. the AFDS uses the lowest altitude among the three as the active altitude. At or above altitude restrictions are entered with a suffix letter A (example: 6890A). then the upper limit.000ft and that the aircraft is in the climb. During the TAKEOFF and CLIMB phases.Next we check the active altitude. We set the MCP to the CRUISE phase altitude before the aircraft passed waypoint “WOBUN”. The Calculated Waypoint Altitude or the Specified Waypoint Altitude is displayed on the LEGS page. which involves the LEGS page and the CLB page. This clears the next waypoint altitude (in this case 6000 at WOBUN) and the aircraft will start to climb to the MCP altitude immediately. the FMC will automatically switch to the next waypoint. and now the aircraft is flying towards waypoint “AKUPA”.We would like to emphasize again that when the aircraft passes waypoint “WOBUN”. 3. The FMC cruise altitude is not affected. This is because we have armed the LNAV mode before takeoff and have been flying according to FD commands after takeoff. otherwise the aircraft will remain at the current MCP altitude.000ft prior to WOBUN and ATC states “climb and maintain FL180 (18. Be careful with this. after the aircraft passes a waypoint. on the CDU Legs page delete the WOBUN altitude restriction. Set the cleared altitude in the MCP ALTITUDE WINDOW and press the ALTITUDE SELECTOR knob. you must adjust the MCP altitude to a higher altitude or the cruising altitude. Now look at the ND. There are a couple of ways to satisfy this requirement: 1.000ft)”. Then manage the altitude clearances by setting them on the MCP. Tip: Changing the Altitude So the aircraft is at the programmed 6. CENTER INSTRUMENT PANEL The iFly Developer Team 56 . Push “6R” on the VNAV CLB page. As expected. ALL waypoint altitude restrictions between the current aircraft altitude and the MCP ALT or the FMC cruise altitude are deleted. Therefore. “WELIN” waypoint has been passed and is now displayed in white. While still on the ground. 2. CLB DIR(ect). Confirm there is sufficient fuel to reach the destination airport. After the aircraft climbs above the transition altitude.Next we look at the first PROGRESS page on the CDU. T/D (top–of–descent). S/C (step climb). The second line displays the waypoint we are now approaching. time. the barometric setting display located below the PFD altitude indication will turn amber with a square box around it. This page provides quite a lot of flight data. and the predicted fuel quantity when reaching that waypoint. The data of this line is very important. and fuel quantity which remained when passing that waypoint. The third line displays the next following waypoint and its corresponding data. and should be checked often during the flight.92 inches Hg/1013 HPA) as the barometric altitude reference and STD will display on the PFD. If the fuel quantity displayed at “4R” is less than the RESERVES value on the CDU PERF INIT page. and then the system will use the standard barometric setting (29. STD CAPTAIN GLARESHIELD REMAINDER OF PAGE BLANK The iFly Developer Team 57 . The fourth line displays the corresponding data when reaching the destination airport. The first line displays the last waypoint we passed and the altitude. the CDU will display an “INSUFFICIENT FUEL” warning message. “5R” displays the time and flight distance to T/C (top– of–climb). “5L” displays the active speed. Press the “STD” switch. predicted arrival time. and the distance-to-go (DTG) from present aircraft position to the waypoint. and E/D (end of descent) according to the current flight phase. indicating that we need to set the Barometric Standard Switch located on the EFIS Control Panel to “STD”. This is the top-of-climb point. The changeover altitude will vary depending on aircraft REMAINDER OF PAGE BLANK The iFly Developer Team 58 . the left one shows the situation when the aircraft is climbing using IAS. set both Center L and R Pump switches OFF. and the higher the aircraft climbs the lower the vertical speed will be. the altitude range arc displays before the T/C point. the aircraft will reach the MCP altitude when it reaches the arc on the map. After passing this point.200kgs and the pitch is 5º or more. the deviation between these two points becomes less. marked “T/C”. The changeover occurs when the MACH speed indicated on the PDF matches the MACH set by the FMS. which is shown on the CDU ACT ECON CLB page. showing that according to the current vertical speed and ground speed. As altitude increases. The green arc in the figure is the altitude range arc. CENTER INSTRUMENT PANEL CENTER FWD OVHD PANEL Now look at the CDU CLB page. in this case . The altitude range arc position on the ND is calculated according to the current vertical speed and ground speed. LEFT FORWARD INSTRUMENT PANEL A FUEL LOW CTR L or R EICAS message will display in the Climb when the tank quantity is about 7. In the following two figures.836. If the message displays. the aircraft reaches the cruise altitude and begins the cruise phase of our flight. usually. so. and the one on the right after the change to MACH.Continuing the climb we see a green circle on the ND.000lbs/3. The aircraft is now past the T/C and in the Cruise phase of the flight. If the MCP IAS/MACH display is not blank. Lower cruise altitudes may not produce a changeover to MACH.loading and the selected cruise altitude. REMAINDER OF PAGE BLANK The iFly Developer Team 59 . it will automatically changeover between IAS and MACH. responding to ATC. there is not that much to do during the cruise phase. then after passing the T/C. Ensure that the aircraft turns properly toward the next waypoint. the following should be accomplished at each waypoint or every hour: - Check that the track and distance to the next waypoint and the flight plan agree. Press “CRZ” on CDU to access the cruise page. Those modes and FLCH pitch mode are described in the AOM. In the interests of good airmanship. keeping up with aircraft system status. These modes are described in the AOM The most often used pitch and roll modes for the cruise phase are VNAV+LNAV. we can select various modes. compare the fuel totalizer reading and flight plan required fuel at each waypoint to ensure arrival at the destination with the correct amount of fuel. The iFly 747-400 is designed for use under time acceleration. with particular emphasis on the fuel system and step climbs. we will use a VNAV + LNAV mode. Through the CRZ page. which ensures the most economical operation of the aircraft. - Using the CDU PROGRESS page. REMAINDER OF PAGE BLANK The iFly Developer Team 60 . the CRZ page will automatically display. and planning ahead. During the remaining time of the cruise phase.Cruise Procedure Aside from checking the navigation. which may be set to automatically activate on the Configuration Tool Miscellaneous page. NOTE: The TERRAIN DISPLAY may be ON during the CRUISE as desired or required. - Check the EICAS synoptic pages at TOC and every hour thereafter for normal systems operation. just as on the CLB page. The automatic time acceleration function is limited to 8X. The CLB page is displayed on the CDU before reaching the T/C point. The roll mode of HDG SEL and the pitch modes of ALT HOLD or V/S may also be used during the cruise phase. CENTER INSTRUMENT PANEL CENTER FWD OVHD PANEL CENTER INSTRUMENT PANEL When tank quantity is about 3. Then set the L and R STAB pumps to ON. Note the fuel lines in green: they show the “route” which fuel takes from the tanks to the engines. This is a very useful display to use when setting or changing any fuel flow setting. THR PANEL LOWER EICAS The iFly Developer Team 61 .000lbs/1. When that message displays and the fuel quantity in Tank 2 is less or equal to Tank 1 or Tank 3 is less or equal to Tank 4.000lbs/1. When the pitch is less than 5º and tank quantity if 4.800kgs or more in the Cruise. CENTER INSTRUMENT PANEL CENTER FWD OHD PANEL As described in Climb Procedure above. if the FUEL LOW CTR L OR R message annunciated during climb. Then set both Center L and R Pump switches OFF. both Center L and R Pump switches were positioned to OFF. CENTER FWD OVHD PANEL CENTER INSTRUMENT PANEL CENTER FWD OVHD PANEL The screenshot at the right shows the LOWER EICAS FUEL SYNOPTIC page. set the STAB pumps OFF.300kgs and pitch is less than 5º. The final normal Cruise fuel-related EICAS message is FUEL TANK/ENG. both Override Pumps 3 switches OFF and Crossfeed Valve 1 and 4 switches OFF. Then set both Center L and R Pump switches to ON. as in this tutorial flight.CRUISE FUEL SYSTEM MANAGEMENT With 599kgs/1000lbs fuel in each of the STAB tanks. a FUEL OVD CTR L or R message will display. set both Override Pumps 2 switches OFF. when the ECAS displays a STB tank warning message again. Failing to perform this procedure may very well result in fuel starvation and engine flameout. Conversely. the EICAS will display FUEL PUMP STAB L and FUEL PUMP STAB R when cruise altitude is reached. FUEL LOW CTR L or R will display. The iFly Developer Team 62 . in 2.000ft. Per the ND screenshot at the right.STEP CLIMBS From the upper right corner of the CDU ECON CRZ page shown on page 60 above. LEFT FORWARD INSTRUMENT PANEL And here are screenshots at the completion of the first S/C. See the screenshots at the right for the set up for our step climb to 34. to 38. the CRZ page title changes to CRZ CLB.433NM.000ft in 767 nautical miles. The step climb will then start automatically when the aircraft reaches the S/C point shown on the ND. The Green Arc is no longer displayed on the ND and the CDU PROGRESS page tells us we will need to execute another S/C. This enters the MCP altitude as the active cruise altitude. upon reaching the S/C point on the ND. we know that we can perform a step climb (S/C) to a more economical altitude of 34.. pressing the ALTITUDE SELECTOR button. The CDU ACT CRZ CLIMB pages displayed when the step climb was executed and the screenshot shows that FL340 will be reached in 34NM at 0930Z. LEFT FORWARD INSTRUMENT PANEL MCP CDU Now see the screenshots at the start of the S/C. we need to be ready to execute the first step climb of our flight.000ft using the MCP method discussed above. In either method. The S/C point will be shown on the ND well before executing the climb. The primary method of performing step climbs is by setting the new altitude on the MCP and. without creating a modification. Step climbs may also be performed by entering the desired altitude at “1L” on the CDU CRZ page. Note the PFD FMA annunciations and the Green Arc displayed on the ND. which we’ll do next. If necessary. use the “PREV PAGE” and “NEXT PAGE” CDU buttons to find the ILS28R approach procedure on the right side of the page. ENTERING AND MODIFYING THE ARRIVAL ROUTE To select our arrival procedure. REMAINDER OF PAGE BLANK The iFly Developer Team 63 . Do not select an arrival procedure transition. and you will see <ACT> (active) by the STAR and the runway. press “6L” to access the DEP/ARR INDEX page. <SEL> means an item is selected. Next find the “GOLDN6” arrival procedure on the left side of the page. press the CDU “DEP ARR” button to display the KSFO ARRIVALS page. we will use the GOLDN6 arrival and ILS28R approach. If that page does not display. check the active route for the correct arrival and approach procedures. Press “3R” to select it. FS is now paused. In this tutorial. as we will join the procedure past the standard transition points. and it’s now time to enter the KSFO arrival procedure and runway as we discussed back on page 30. Then press “2R” to access the KSFO arrival procedure page. Press “2L” to select it.Before reaching the Top of Descent (T/D). Make modifications as necessary. Recall that we configured the aircraft to pause FS 10NM from the top of descent. Do not select a transition. Press “EXEC” to add the modifications to the route. Note the system-predicted altitude at LOZIT. Press the “LEGS” button to enter the CDU LEGS page. one after RBL and one after SFO It is very easy to remove the discontinuities. The STAR requires 11. This indicates that the FMC requires your input to correctly sequence the waypoints. This indicates a modification has occurred and the ERASE prompt appears at “6L”. Note the CDU page at the right. as shown on the next screenshot. “4L” in the example on the right and the DISCO is removed.. Repeat this process for the DISCO after SFO.000ft at LOZIT for KSFO arrivals. “PYE” in the example on the right. Be certain that all discontinuous route segments are removed. i. STAR or APPROACH. When “PYE” is inserted at “4L” the page title changes to MOD RTE LEGS until the “EXEC” button is pressed. Finally.Now we must check to ensure that the modified route is correct.e. Look at the LEGS page and you will see two DISCOs. Selecting ERASE will delete all changes made since the page changed from ACT RTE LEGS.e.. Sometimes after entering or modifying a ROUTE. The iFly Developer Team 64 . Select the first waypoint after the DISCO. Then select the discontinuous point. and this waypoint will transfer to the scratchpad. The page title then becomes ACT RTE LEGS. i. Use “PREV PAGE” and “NEXT PAGE” buttons to browse page by page to see if all segments of the route are connected. 6840ft. Enter “/11000” in the CDU scratchpad then click “3R” to transfer the new altitude. press “EXEC” to execute the modifications. a ROUTE DISCONTINUITY (DISCO) and an associated prompt box may be displayed on the CDU LEGS page. SID. Next insert MENLO at “4L”. The iFly Developer Team 65 . Also. but you will need that space anyway. then immediately following SFO (at “5L”) insert OSI. Have a look at the KSFO ILS28R chart included with this Tutorial in order to see what this RTE MOD accomplishes. We will next check the route using the PLAN page. Enter OSI in the scratchpad. In order to slow things down a bit and make the arrival more realistic. Now press LAST PAGE and click “5L” to close the DISCO.The active arrival procedure takes us over the SFO VOR then direct to CEPIN INTERSECTION on the ILS28R approach. This will create a DISCO. we need to make more changes to the route. which provides a pictorial view of the waypoint sequence. EXEC the change and the new arrival will be active in the system and the LEGS page will look like the screenshot to the right. This places CEPIN in the scratchpad. Then press NEXT PAGE and click “1L”. On the CDU LEGS page locate SFO. don’t forget to see the MSA on the chart and do not descend below it. The flight crew must cross check altitudes to ensure safety of flight. The screenshot at the right shows our original arrival route. with the ND oriented to true North. Adjust the ND RANGE SELECTOR for the desired presentation. To access the PLAN page. The route was over the SFO VOR direct to CEPIN then reversed 180º for the ILS28R approach.Good practice is use of the CDU PLAN page to check routes and modifications to routes. select PLAN on the EFIS CONTROL Panel ND MODE SELECTOR and set the desired ND range on the ND RANGE SELECTOR. Note STEP at “6R”. CAPTAIN GLARESHIELD Next press LEGS on the CDU. This provides a very clear “picture” of where the aircraft is programmed to go. LEFT FORWARD INSTRUMENT PANEL Now unpause FS (“P” key) and continue the tutorial flight. This modification is realistic and much more comfortable for the passengers! Returning the ND and CDU to normal operation is simply a matter of placing the EFIS CONTROL PANEL ND MODE SELECTOR in MAP and adjusting the range as desired. which identifies that waypoint as the center on the ND display. Note the <CTR> to the right of AXMUL. Clicking “6R” will step through all the waypoints in their order on the LEGS page. That’s not very realistic and could be quite uncomfortable for the folks in the back who pay your salary! LEFT FORWARD INSTRUMENT PANEL And on the right is the modified arrival route. The iFly Developer Team 66 . “4R” displays selected approach reference flap and speed setting. “1L” displays the aircraft weight. REMAINDER OF PAGE BLANK The iFly Developer Team 67 . Pressing the LSK corresponding to “1R~2R” will transfer the flap and speed setting to the scratchpad. the FMC automatically calculated weight data will replace the manually entered data. It can also be entered manually. APROACH REF shows the approach planning information and the approach speed reference (VREF). It can be entered manually. This data is the same as that on the PERF INIT page.000ft. which is +05 knots by default. So press “2R” and “30/147” is displayed in the scratchpad.Descent Procedure The DESCENT phase begins before the aircraft descends below cruise altitude. The Descent Procedure should be completed by the time the aircraft is at 10. This page is also reachable from the CDU INDEX page. if in small font. Enter the VREF speed on the CDU APPROACH REF. “1R~2R” are the landing reference speed for two landing flap settings. which will be displayed in large font. VREF CDU Press the CDU INIT REF button and we’ll see the APPROACH REF page. after which you can press “4R” to enter the speed into FMC. Then press “4R” to complete the entering of approach reference flap and speed. In this flight. indicating that the flap setting is 30 degrees and that the landing speed is 147kts. The following should be accomplished as the aircraft approaches the T/D: 1. we will use Fap30 as the landing flap setting. the maximum being +20 knots. which. After exiting this page. “5R” shows the wind correction for approach. Don’t forget the wind correction of +5 kts when you set MCP speed. On this page. “3L” and “4L” show the flight plan landing runway and its length. means that the data was calculated by the FMC automatically. Check and modify the minimums altitude required for the approach. set the clearance limit altitude on the MCP. 5. Set VREF. Normally. Set the autobrake according to conditions of the runway and the weather. 3. set 200ft. The following tasks should be accomplished prior to commencing the descent: Prior to the top of descent. When cleared to descend. 4.Checked Autobrake……………………………………………………………………Set Landing data………………………………………VREF ___ Minimums ___ Approach briefing……………………………………………………Completed 1. 6. MINS - + CAPTAIN GLARESHIELD 3. REMAINDER OF PAGE BLANK The iFly Developer Team 68 . Use 2 for this landing. Press the left red area above the RADIO/BARO switch to select RADIO. and then press the 2 red areas below to set the altitude. Set as desired AFT ELEC PANEL It’s now time to call for the DESCENT checklist: Recall…………………………………………………………………. modify the active route as required for the arrival and approach. In our case. 2.. Set or verify that the navigation radios and course are correct for the selected approach. Set RADIO or BARO minimums. a setting of 2 is sufficient. Set the AUTOBRAKE selector.2. Familiarize yourself (brief) with the approach to be flown and double check the nav/radio setup. 7. Upon intercepting the planned descent path. during which the MCP altitude provides altitude intervention. but approaching the location where we need to start the descent into the San Francisco area. We can see there is a green circle about 21NM ahead of the aircraft beside which “T/D” is marked. the aircraft will stay at the MCP altitude even if it has started the descent phase. • Start the descent phase by pressing ALTITUDE SELECTOR if the MCP altitude is lower than the cruise altitude and the aircraft is within 50NM from the T/D point under the VNAV cruise mode. VNAV uses FMC SPD as the autothrottle mode. T/D When the MCP altitude is lower than the cruise altitude. as the pitch mode. The methods of starting the descent include: • The descent phase starts automatically if the aircraft passes the T/D point under the VNAV cruise mode. the aircraft transitions to the planned descent path. you MUST set the MCP altitude to be lower than the cruise altitude. instead of a normal descent phase. This starts a descent at approximately 1. The dashes in the following figure represent the flight path of an early descent. Otherwise. it actually starts the early descent mode. VNAV starts the early descent with a reduced descent rate until the aircraft intercepts the idle descent path. the aircraft will descend along the idle descent path. If the aircraft starts the descent phase by the last two methods outlined above. After intercepting the idle descent path.250 feet per minute using the active descent speed schedule. • Start the descent phase by pressing “6R” on the CDU DES page when a T/D is set and the descent phase is not active. This concept is similar to the climb phase. the early descent mode will be started if the ALTITUDE SELECTOR is pressed when the aircraft is within 50NM of the T/D.Now let’s have a look at ND to focus on the current aircraft position. We are still in the CRUISE. This is the top of descent point. No matter how the descent phase is started. The iFly Developer Team 69 . and VNAV PTH. or set it to be the landing airport’s altitude. or you may see IDLE display as the A/T mode. As the aircraft reaches the T/D point. Here we set the MCP to 11. Before reaching the T/D. the altitude constraint at the LOZIT waypoint show on the CDU LEGS page. as that is what is being regulated. If we do not set the MCP to a lower altitude.But if the ALTITUDE SELECTOR is pressed when the aircraft is more than 50NM from the T/D. MCP CDU The aircraft will start to descend automatically as it passes the T/D. set the MCP altitude to an altitude constraint lower than the cruise altitude. 50NM 50NM Old CRZ ALT T/D New CRZ ALT In this tutorial. the FMC will display a warning message “RESET MCP ALT” on the CDU when the aircraft is about 2NM from the T/D. Note that this altitude must be reset in order to meet follow on constraints. it only sets a new cruise altitude. These two modes appear as follows: The iFly Developer Team 70 . the autothrottle (A/T) may stay in SPD mode.000. we will use the first method to start the descent phase. The roll mode continues to be LNAV. FMC will revert to speed descent mode. This mode may not necessarily comply with altitude or speed constraints. the pitch mode remains VNAV PTH and the A/T controls speed. In the real world. the autothrottle mode will change to HOLD: LEFT FORWARD INSTRUMENT PANEL Recall the discussion on page 50 concerning autothrottle HOLD and what it means to the flight crew. Path Descent (VNAV PTH) During the path descent process idle thrust and pitch control maintain the vertical path calculated by the FMC. See the AOM for a detailed discussion of PATH and SPD descent modes. If the speed limit is exceeded the FMC will revert to VNAV SPD and descend at the programmed descent speed. The FMA Pitch mode annunciation changes to VNAV SPD when descending in VNAV PTH.After a period of time. VNAV can perform the descent in two modes: Path Descent (displayed as VNAV PTH) and Speed Descent (displayed as VNAV SPD). The selected speed is maintained until the aircraft intercepts an altitude constraint and then VNAV PTH annunciates. The descent path is calculated for an idle thrust descent but the FMC will apply thurst to maintain speed on the path if required by. The descent path starts from the T/D point. If the aircraft does not have all necessary information to path descent. But we should explain in detail about the pitch mode. The iFly Developer Team 71 . because it is the same as the climb phase and the cruise phase. It should be emphasized that the path descent uses the target speed for planning purposes only. unforecast headwind in the descent. You can also enter the wind data on the Descent Forecast page. the CDU will display the message “DRAG REQUIRED” in order to keep along the path. If the airspeed increases significantly due to unexpected tailwind. There is not much to explain about this. When on a non-ILS approach using VNAV. for example. idle thrust and pitch control maintain the FMC programmed descent speed or the speed selected on the MCP speed window. FMC speed-intervention is then active and the IAS/MACH selector may be used to set command speed. Speed descent may also be selected by the flight crew by pushing the MCP IAS/MACH SELECTOR. and the following factors are also taken into account when performing the path calculation: • Applicable target altitude • Applicable target speed • Idle thrust • Speedbrakes retracted • Target speed on the DES page • Entered descent winds • ANTIICE ON altitude The target speed can be changed via LEGS or DES page. Speed descent (VNAV SPD) During the speed descent process. the pilot flying can tweak the thrust above idle if required to maintain speed on path. It will not descend through an “at or above” constraint (the FMC will go back to VNAV PTH) but it may violate an “at or below constraint” by flying above it. The FMC is able to switch automatically from the path descent mode to the speed descent mode. 000 at waypoint LOZIT.e. and the white scale is the deviation scale. From the FMA snapshot on page 70 above. i. and you will see that a scale is displayed at the lower right corner of the screen. Now the aircraft is descending automatically under autopilot control. The descent may also be monitored on the CDU PROGRESS page 2 by observing VTK ERROR at “2R”. Look at the ND.As shown in the CDU screenshot below. the aircraft is now in the descent. Their function is similar to the ILS glide slope indicator.. the deviation figure will be displayed above or below the scale. The scale can show a deviation of ±400ft.S is 18000ft. to indicate the deviation between the aircraft and the FMC planned descent path. we know that the aircraft is using the path descent mode. as shown in the following screenshot: LEFT FORWARD INSTRUMENT PANEL The magenta symbol is the VNAV path pointer. CDU Recall that the transition altitude in the U. so if not already done reset the CDU DES FORECAST page accordingly: CDU The iFly Developer Team 72 . If the deviation is more than ±400ft. heading for an altitude restriction of 11. After repeated modifications. In such cases. the route in the CDU may become unusable. other traffic. During the descent phase ATC may ask for a change of arrival procedure due to weather. having just made the turn at PYE: LEFT FORWARD INSTRUMENT PANEL Before the aircraft passes LOZIT set the KSFO ILS 28R G/S intercept altitude of 1800ft in the MCP ALTITUDE WINDOW. Pay attention after changing the current procedure: go back to the LEGS page to remove the Discontinuities which have appeared in the CDU and confirm that the route is correct. ATC may ask you to fly a holding pattern at a certain point. In such case. REMAINDER OF PAGE BLANK The iFly Developer Team 73 . Holds are discussed in the AOM.Let’s have a look at our current status. we can access the ARR page of CDU to re-select the directed procedure. which are covered in the AOM. we recommend the use of other autopilot modes. etc. the more often you are asked to fly a holding pattern. The busier an airport is. The aircraft is in the descent flying towards waypoint LOZIT. There are two things to notice on the above screenshot snip from the ND: the green circle. REMAINDER OF PAGE BLANK The iFly Developer Team 74 . KSFO. or a named waypoint. or donut. Let’s have a look at what we can expect to be displayed on the ND as we approach the SFO VOR. The green E/D represents the end of the descent. Recall that we previously modified the arrival route to make things a bit more realistic and easier for the flight crew to manage. The green donut is a deceleration point computed by the FMC. The first donut is where airspeed reduces to 240kts (the system uses 240kts to account for winds which could cause the aircraft to exceed the 250kt limit). The E/D is located 50 feet above the runway threshold (RW waypoint) for all approaches except VOR approaches. which may be the VOR. When an arrival or approach procedure is selected on the CDU ARRIVALS page and incorporated into the flight plan. The E/D for VOR approaches is the missed approach point. the FMC creates an E/D.Now we are still in the descent and getting much closer to our destination. Deceleration points do not have an identifier and represent when the FMC will slow the aircraft speed to conform to what is programmed. just prior to DUXBY waypoint and the green E/D just below 28R. runway waypoint (RWXXX). as the pilot flying. At 10000ft turn on the LANDING LIGHTS. Set as needed 1. Set the passenger signs as needed. Then press in the area of the two red boxes located below to adjust to a proper barometric value. BARO - + ST D CAPTAIN GLARESHIELD 3. The local barometric pressure may be preset and. At the transition altitude. AFT ELEC PANEL 2. All the while.Approach and Landing Procedure Having passed the transition altitude. MENLO in our case. press the STD knob. or before starting the approach. Presuming the route was properly entered. the aircraft will be descending along the VNAV PATH and the LNAV roll mode is keeping the aircraft on the planned course. set the TERRAIN switch to on.92 for this tutorial) by turning the knob.………. CAPTAIN GLARESHIELD 4. Call for the APPROACH checklist CENTER FWD OVHD PANEL Altimeters…………………………………………………………. press STD located in the middle of the SETTING knob to release from the standard barometric mode then set the local pressure (1013/29. the aircraft will automatically fly to glide slope intercept. Press the area located above the switch to select IN or HPA. Generally.Set The iFly Developer Team 75 . Check the altimeters. the aircraft is now well into the approach procedure. the switches are positioned at AUTO or ON.. You. After descending to the transition altitude. when reaching the transition altitude. The following should be completed before reaching the initial approach fix. must configure the aircraft to intercept the localizer and glide slope in order to successfully complete the tutorial flight. as show below. It will change to green when the G/S is captured. the aircraft is turning toward OSI and the start of the base leg of the approach. At MENLO intersection the aircraft will turn toward the final approach course. the system will automatically set the inbound final approach course. The LOC is not captured so it is “hollow” and. it is deflected to the right. It is time to focus on the approach and landing. White will change to green when the localizer is captured. which is where you want to be at this point in the approach. and there are important actions the flight crew must take: on the MCP. importantly. which signifies that the localizer is armed but not yet captured. The FMC has slowed the aircraft to the 10000ft altitude speed limit. which signifies additional speed reduction.Now the aircraft is over the SFO VOR and continuing the descent. Here is a screenshot of the PFD after taking those actions: Note that LOC is displayed in white on the FMA. The G/S pointer scale to the right of the PFD has the same characteristics as the LOC pointer scale. Remaining under LNAV and VNAV control. Also note the magenta pointer on the LOC pointer scale. When the localizer is intercepted. You will see G/S display in white under VNAV PTH when the glide slope is armed. press LOC to arm the localizer and set ALT to 1800ft for G/S intercept. signifying that the aircraft is left of the LOC. Note the donut between OSI and MENLO intersection. The iFly Developer Team 76 . and the MCP ALTITUDE is set to 1800 feet in anticipation of G/S intercept.Now let’s have a look at the status of our tutorial flight. Now continue the procedure. REMAINDER OF PAGE BLANK The iFly Developer Team 77 . This tutorial executes an autoland. with the flight management system controlling speed and vertical profile. so other the autopilots engage automatically at 1500ft AGL. When established on the LOC. speed is reducing toward 207kts and the aircraft is turning left to establish on the final approach course. The aircraft has followed the vertical and lateral profiles and is now just past MENLO intersection turning to establish on the ILS28R Localizer: Looking at the above screenshot. as a one person crew. Extend FLAPS according the flap extension scheduled display on the Speed Tape. The G/S is alive. LOC is displayed. so applying trim to the rudder will have no effect. usually at 400ft AGL. Do not be late arming the LOC or the APP modes as things happen in a hurry at this point. you will be busy. The FMC has set MCP COURSE to the final approach course. signifying that the localizer has been intercepted. Stay ahead of the aircraft and don’t hesitate to pause the sim if you need more time to understand what is occurring. 1500ft AGL on an autoland is also the point when the autopilots control the rudder. That’s important to know for an engine out event! The rudder remains under autopilot control until (1) the autopilot is disengaged after the landing or (2) after the first roll mode is selected on a go around. but note that the aircraft is well left of the final approach course. and. Also. arm APP. we see that the aircraft remains in VNAV mode. CENTER FORWARD INSTRUMENT PANEL Set the speed brake lever to ARM THR PANEL Call for the LANDING checklist: Speedbrake……………………………………………. Set MCP speed to VRef + 5 after selecting Flaps30. and verify that the SPEEDBRAKE ARMED is annunciated on the UPPER EICAS. verify that the gear is depicted as down on the ND and continue to extend the flaps on schedule. lower the landing gear. ARMED Landing gear………………………………………………Down Flaps…………………………………………….4. Set the MCP to the missed approach altitude of 3000ft. At glide slope intercept.___. Green light The iFly Developer Team 78 . CENTER FORWARD INSTRUMENT PANEL 5. Click the input box area beside the spoiler lever to arm the spoilers. extend flaps. At slower speeds (under the 270kt extend limitation) the landing gear provides a tremendous amount of drag and will effectively slow the aircraft. Speed is steady at VREF + 5 and the aircraft is centered on the LOC and “flying down” the glide slope. Be stable with the landing checklist complete by 1000ft AGL 5. Flap10 may be required to stop acceleration down the G/S. (used in this tutorial) 2. (If the aircraft is heavy. The iFly Developer Team 79 . perhaps never-before-experienced. following the PFD speed tape cues. indicating the all three autopilots are coupled with the flight controls. Then. which you do not want to experience!) By 1500ft AGL select landing flaps. There are two types of approaches: 1. Low drag: Start the approach at Flap5 with the gear up. Glide slope capture is show below. So if you are a little too high or fast.) At 2000ft AGL select Gear down. If quite high or fast then extend the gear. Flap20 and arm the spoilers (do not arm the spoilers until the gear is down – any fault in the spoiler mechanism may trigger the spoilers to deploy to the GRD position. LOC and G/S in green (active modes) and LAND 3 is show in green on the PFD. Full drag: Have the gear down and landing flaps selected by G/S intercept.TIP: Energy Management (Recovery from a high and/or fast condition) and Approach Types Using the speedbrake is the first thing which may come to mind. and in fact that is preferable to extending flaps at or close to the maximum placarded speeds due to the high flap mechanism wear factor. ROLLOUT and FLARE are armed (shown in white). Be advised there will be unexpected. extend the speed brake fully. reduce pitch and slow up. Study the photo to ensure you understand what is depicted: the PFD FMA shows SPD. noise in the passenger cabin if the gear is extended at 270 kts! If the aircraft is not stable (on speed and descent profile and with the engines spooled up by 1000ft AGL) then go-around. Use of the speedbrake is less effective at slower speeds and is not recommended beyond FLAP20. After touchdown apply reverse thrust as required. spoilers. This gives time to get a “feel” for the aircraft and weather conditions and avoids having to retrim the aircraft. 6.And here is the full view on the final approach. Autobrakes are set to 2. The automatic system will track the LOC to maintain lateral position on the runway. Flap30 is set. disengage reverse thrust. remembering the taxi speeds we discussed on departure from EGLL. After slowing to 60 knots. Note: On a manual approach disengage the A/P and A/T before the aircraft reaches 500ft radio altitude and start manual control. Exit the runway and taxi to the KSFO International Terminal. Do this in a smooth swift action in order not to disturb the A/T. autobrakes. etc. verify that the spoilers are extended and that the autobrakes are working properly. slowly close the thrust levers to the idle position and flare the aircraft. Follow the autoland approach procedure for reverse thrust. Steer the aircraft manually at that point. Disconnect the A/P and A/T prior to exiting the runway. The Gear is down. REMAINDER OF PAGE BLANK The iFly Developer Team 80 . 7. At about 40ft radio altitude. NOTE: Hardware throttle quadrant thrust levers must be brought to idle BEFORE the main landing gear touches down on the runway. Disarm the autobrakes before reaching taxi speed. the Speedbrake is armed and the missed approach altitude is set. REMAINDER OF PAGE BLANK The iFly Developer Team 81 . 2. Move or verify that the SPEEDBRAKE lever is DOWN. Set the AUTOBRAKES to OFF. Set a transponder mode as required by arrival airport directives.After Landing Procedure Start the After Landing Procedure when clear of the active runway. Turn off the TERRAIN switch. 5. 7. 1. Move the flap lever to UP. Set exterior lights as needed. 3. 4. Start the APU as needed. 6. we can start the shutdown procedure. 1. Place Hydraulic demand pump 4 selector in AUX. Set the NACELL and WING ANTI-ICE switches to OFF.3 to OFF. THR PANEL 6. set Hydraulic demand pumps 1. Set the fuel pump switches to OFF. push the APU GENERATOR switches and verify that the ON lights are illuminated. Turn off the BEACON light switch. If parked and pushback or towing is not needed. THR PANEL LEFT FWD OVHD PANEL If external power is needed. Set electrical power as needed.Shutdown Procedure After stopping in the parking area or at the gate. CENTER FWD OVHD PANEL 8.2. 3. Set the parking brake and confirm that the PARK BRAKE SET message is shown on the EICAS. CENTER FORWARD INSTRUMENT PANEL 2. 4. have the ground crew connect power and engage it as described on page 24. As the APU was already started. RIGHT FWD OVHD PANEL The iFly Developer Team 82 . Set the SEATBELTS selector to OFF. AFT ELEC PANEL 7. Set the FUEL CONTROL switches to CUTOFF. LEFT FWD OVHD PANEL 5. CENTER FWD OVHD PANEL 9. Set Hydraulic demand pump 4 selector to OFF. Position the APU selector as needed.…….. .. . Set the transponder mode selector to STANDBY.UP Parking brake……………………………………………….Set Fuel pumps………………………………………………….OFF Flaps…………………………………………………………. LEFT FWD OVHD PANEL 13.10. Call for the SHUTDOWN checklist: Hydraulic panel………………………………………. AFT ELEC PANEL 12. OF F REMAINDER OF PAGE BLANK The iFly Developer Team 83 .___ Fuel control switches………………………………………………… CUTOFF We a t h e r r a d a r… … …… … … ……… … …… … …… …… ……. CENTER FORWARD INSTRMENT PANEL 11.. Check status messages. .……………………………. The iFly Developer Team 84 . CENTER FWD OVHD PANEL 3.…………………………………OFF Packs…………………. but please do not forget to read the iFly 747-400 AOM for much more detail.OFF Now you have completed the entire flight process. Well done. Set the PACK control selectors to OFF. captain! The tutorial ends here.. Set the IRS mode selectors to OFF. LEFT FWD OVHD PANEL 2.. RIGHT FWD OVHD PANEL 4. CENTER FWD OVHD PANEL Call for the SECURE checklist: IRSs………………….…………………………………….Secure Procedure The secure procedure is started after completing the Shutdown Procedure. Set the AFT CARGO HEAT switch to OFF. 1.………………………. Set the EMERGENCY LIGHTS switch to OFF.OFF Emergency exit lights…….
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