HEC101V - Revision

March 20, 2018 | Author: s206016395 | Category: Genetic Disorder, Stress (Biology), Self-Improvement, Nutrition, Foods



HEC101V – Revision Questions1. EXPLAIN HOW EDUCATION AND HEALTH ARE INTERRELATED. Good health is essential for efective learning. Illness and health imairments interfere !ith the learning rocess. ".#$ – %arot&' 2. ANALYSE THE IMPLICATIONS OF THE WORLD HEALTH ORGANISATIONS’S DEFINITIONS OF HEALTH. Health is (a state of comlete h)sical* mental + social !ell,-eing* and not merel) the a-sence of disease + in.rmit)/. Includes ensuring a health) environment and societ) to live in !hich create the conditions !hich allo! the attainment of health of all mem-ers of societ). 3. EXPLAIN THE WAY IN WHICH HEALTH INFLUENCES ALL ASPECTS OF THE CHILD’S DEVELOPMENT. CAN YOU THINK OF EXAMPLES WHICH ARE RELEVANT TO THE AREA IN WHICH YOU LIVE? 0h)sical health + Emotional 1eveloment 2here are man) emotional reactions !hich might -e caused -) ro-lems of h)sical health3 ,obese child3 self,conscious and !ithdra! due to teasing from friends ,tired child due to insu4cient slee3 overreact at slightest rovocation ,overprotected child3 demanding ,ill child3 irrita-le + an5ious ,hungry/poorly nourished child3 short temered* irrita-le and una-le to concentrate 0h)sical health + 6ocial 1eveloment ,illness isolates child from eer grou for a eriod of time !ith the result that the child ma) have to re,esta-lish social contacts uon return to school ,child ma) -e sociall) e5cluded -) the eer grou -ecause of -eing 7h)sicall) diferent8 in aearance9a-ilit)* eg3 o-ese child ma) -e e5cluded from grou -ecause of the ina-ilit) to comete h)sicall) !ith other children. ,child !ho his health) + feels con.dent is most li:el) to succeed in this resect 0h)sical health + Intellectual "cognitive' 1eveloment ,learners !ith health ro-lems such as3 oor vision; common cold; hunger or child a-use etc !ill not learn efectivel) ,some health ro-lems restrict learners h)sical mo-ilit) and ma) -e thus derived of learning oortunities ,some infections afect the functioning of the -rain and this can lead to decreased intellectual functioning. Eg3 children !ith HIV,infection ma) have neurological and learning ro-lems resulting from the efect of the HI,virus on the -rain tissue 4. HOW DO THE FOLLOWING FACTORS INFLUENCE THE HEALTH OF THE CHILD: a' Heredit) HEC101V – Revision Questions Heredit) determines 7!hat )ou can -ecome8 – ma5imum otential. 2his is !hat the child receives from his arents at the time of concetion. Genetic disorders ma) cause a-normal conditions in the child and can result in intellectual imairment or h)sical imairment. <irth defects and genetic diseases can result either from a-normal chromosomes* a-normal cell division or from interaction of man) genes !ith the environment. -' Environment 2he follo!ing factors can contri-ute to disease* disa-ilit) and death in 6=3 ,lac: of se!ers* drains or services to disose of solid + li>uid !astes ,lac: of safe + su4cient !ater sulies ,overcro!ded and inade>uate living conditions ,insu4cient safe + clean fuels for domestic coo:ing and heating – unhealth) fuels are used* such as coal9ara4n + !ood !hich cause ollution + health ro-lems for children. c' ?ifest)le + -ehaviour [email protected] -) asects such as ersonal health :no!ledge; customs; cultural and religious -eliefs; media [email protected] + -eliefs a-out disease causation. d' Health Care 6)stems =vaila-ilit)9lac: of reventative rimar) health services E5istence of a national health olic) [email protected] of traditional medicine e' 1eveloment 0overt) + lo! socio,economic status caused -) unemlo)ment; single arenting; teenage arents; lac: of education and raid ur-anisation ma) afect the health of the child. !"#$%T&%T'()#* S#+,* -TT. is a long term research roAect underta:en -) the Bniversit) of Cit!atersrand. 2he) stud)ing DEE0 children -orn in the FH< + 6o!eto areas -et!een GD =ril 1$$0 and H Fune 1$$0. Investigate the -iological* environmental* economic and s)cho,social factors associated !ith the survival and health of children living in an ur-an environment. BTT study found the following to be true3 ,educated !omen have fe!er children ,!omen !ith higher levels of education ma:e -etter use of ante,natal + ost, natal services ,their children have higher rates of immunisations ,their children are -etter nourished !hen comared to children of mothers !ith lo!er educational levels. /. DISCUSS THE MOST COMMON ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS WHICH INFLUENCE HEALTH IN SOUTH AFRICA. • 6afe and sanitar) environment • Qualit) medical and dental care HEC101V – Revision Questions • Cater sulies 0. EXPLAIN HOW ILLNESS AFFECTS THE CHILD’S NUTRITIONAL STATUS. 1. DISCUSS THE RELATIONSHIP ETWEEN HEALTH 2 LEARNING. Good health is essential for efective learning. Illness and health imairments interfere !ith the learning rocess. ".#$ – %arot&' 3. RIEFLY DISCUSS 3 ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS WHICH HAVE A NEGATIVE OR POSITIVE EFFECT ON HEALTH IN YOUR COMMUNITY. 4. DISCUSS THE MEANING OF THE FOLLOWING: 56"(7()#!&) #$"&+8$ $(9:#$ 6"&;&#!&)<. 2he goal of health education is health romotion and disease revention. Health romotion romotes the elimination of oor health ha-its and adotion health -ehaviours that increase health status. 2herefore* -) romoting ho! to life a health) lifest)le* illnesses and diseases can -e revented. 2he :e) to revention is education. Research indicates that revention rograms do !or:* that children can -e taught imortant safet) s:ills to revent a-use and illnesses and the) can -ecome emo!ered to rotect themselves. ".DH0 Ceinstein + Rosen' 1=. EXPLAIN WHAT IS MEANT Y: a' H(9:#$ .1H Health is (a state of comlete h)sical* mental + social !ell,-eing* and not merel) the a-sence of disease + in.rmit)/. >. H(9:#$ (,+?9#!&) Health Education can -e de.ned as3 (the deli-erate structuring of lanned learning oortunities a-out health !hich are aimed at voluntar) changes in health,related -ehaviours* to give individuals the oortunit) of achieving a more favoura-le osition on the health continuum/ Health Education includes3 ,-eing motivated to adot health,romoting -ehaviours ,heling individuals to ma:e + imlement informed health decisions ,changing -ehaviour voluntaril) to imrove health c' H(9:#$* :[email protected](A#*:( .1$ ?ifest)le consists of choices* actions* ha-its and atterns that are !ithin our control and that increase9decrease our ris: for illness9disease. d' T$( 5H(9:#$ (:!(@ M&,(:< .1I HEC101V – Revision Questions 2he H<% consist of # maAor comonents as an e5lanation of the circumstances that !ill result in actions -) individuals to rotect their health ". 1I' Jerceived susceti-ilit) of a health event Jerceived severit) of the health event Jerceived efectiveness of adoting certain -ehaviours to decrease the health event Jerceived -arriers to attemts to carr) out the desired -ehaviours e' H(9:#$ "!AB @9?#&"A .1$ Health ris: factors are characteristics or atterns of -ehaviour that are associated !ith the otential for develoing an illness9disease. f' T$( 3 :(7(:A &@ :&?+A &@ ?&)#"&: .1$ Jinternal locus of control K -elieve in their o!n a-ilit) to afect their health. Jpowerful-other locus of control K -elieve that their health is under the control of someone other than themselves. Jchance locus of control K -elieve that luc:9fate determines their health status. 11. EXPLAIN HOW YOU COULD INVOLVE PARENTS IN THE HEALTH EDUCATION CURICULUM OF THE FOUNDATION PHASE. 0arents can -e included in the life of the school* -) the follo!ing !a)s3 • as: arents to share their feelings9e5erience a-out ersonal health issues • esta-lish a school arent centre !hich can sul) resources and serves as a meeting lace for staf and arents • encourage school and communit) interaction through activities li:e disla)s in shoing areas in !hich arents* learners and teachers are involved • create hand-oo: of tis9guidelines for arents • u-lish a monthl) arent ne!sletter • arrange !ee:end9evening information sessions so that arents :no! ho! to -ecome involved in the school • arent9teacher note-oo:s for communication uroses 12. DISCUSSC GIVING RELEVANT EXAMPLESC THE CRITERIA FOR DETERMINING APPROPRIATE LEARNING EXPERIENCES FOR HEALTH EDUCATION IN THE FOUNDATION PHASE. Refer to age GG in 2?L01 13. EXPLAIN FULLY WHY HEALTH EDUCATION SHOULD E DONE Y CLASSROOM TEACHERS. 2he classroom teacher is a role model to learners. Classroom teachers have su-tle* -ut o!erful imact on learners health -ehaviours -) setting e5amles in eating ha-its* h)sical activities and resonses to stress. HEC101V – Revision Questions 2he classroom environment and health toics can -e integrated into the reading and !riting curriculum. ".I' 14. DICUSS THE FOLLOWING STATEMENT: 56$*A!?9: 9?#!7!#* ?9) "(,+?( #$( "!AB &@ A&;( ?$"&)!? ,!A(9A(A<. 0articiating in regular h)sical activit) has -een found to reduce the ris: for cardio,vascular diseases* dia-etes and some cancers. Regular h)sical activit) increase -one densit) and maintain !eight. 0h)sical activit) also imrove mental health and reduce deression. 1/. DISCUSS THE MAIN ATTRIUTES OF EMOTIONAL HEALTH. 10. DISCUSS THE ROLE OF THE TEACHER IN ESTALISHING EMOTIONAL WELL%EING FOR LEARNERS IN THE FOUNDATION PHASE. 2eachers must have a ositive [email protected] on the emotional !ell-eing of children. 2eacher must hel learners to -uild their con.dence and self,esteem. 2eachers romote good mental health ractices 2eachers aim to revent emotional ro-lems 2eachers assist arents to arrange treatment for children !ith emotional ro-lems 2eachers identit) children !ith ossi-le emotional distur-ances 2eachers o!n emotional state is ver) imortant to hel learners to achieve good mental health 11. DISCUSS THE FOLLOWING STATEMENT: 5#(9?$("A ?9) >( 9 A&+"?( &@ A+66&"# @&" 9 :(9")("’A (;&#!&)9: $(9:#$<. 13. DESCRIE HOW CHRONIC STRESS CAN CONTRIUTE TO THE DEVELOPMENT OF DISEASE. Chronic stress is correlated !ith a !ide variet) of diseases* from the common cold to cancer. 6tress !ears do!n the immune s)stem * !hich ma:es eole more susceti-le to disease. 1iseases related to a d)sfunctional immune s)stem !hich invites colds* [email protected]&a and cancers. ".GEL' 14. DESCRIE SOME POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE WAYS IN WHICH CHILDREN CAN COPE WITH STRESS. 1efence mechanisms are used to coe !ith stress* such as3 • Daydreaming a-out leasura-le situations • Repression K forgetting unleasant e5eriences • Denial K refusal to -elieve that a stressful situation is real • Rationalization K coming u !ith sociall) acceta-le Austi.cations for -ehaviour9situations HEC101V – Revision Questions • Reaction formation K adoting -ehaviours9attitudes that are e5actl) the oosite of ho! the erson reall) feels • ro!ection K lacing the -lame or ro-lems on someone else • Displacement K re,directing sociall) unacceta-le -ehaviour from the true source to a less threatening su-stitute • Regression K reverting to childish9childli:e -ehaviours • "solation K detaching oneself from the underl)ing cause of a stressor ".GH1 , Ceinstein + Rosen' 2eachers can hel children -) dealing !ith stress -) recognising earl) changes in -ehaviour* -) roviding a sta-le environment and -) encouraging children to tal: a-out their feelings. 6ome methods of coing !ith stress3 • Bse of music for rela5ation • Rela5ation activities K use of imager) and visualisation* ma:e, -elieve* -oo:s + stories* movement activities • 6hort eriods of vigorous la)* follo!ed -) rest • =rt activities K !ater la)* cla)9la)dough* ainting* sandit "sensoatic' • 1ramatic la) K using dolls9uets to act out feelings of fear* anger or frustration ". DG – %arot&' 2=. CRITICALLY DISCUSS THE FOLLOWING STATEMENT: 5;(,!?9#!&) !A 9) (D(?#!7( '9* #& ;9)98( A#"(AA<. 21. EXPLAIN THE EFFECTS OF THE FOLLOWING ON THE ODY: 9. A:?&$&: +A( • 1eresses and slo!s Central Mervous 6)stem • =fect -rain functioning • =fect seech + motor s:ills* slo!ing reactions >. T&>9??& +A( • 2emoraril) increases heart rate and -lood ressure ?. C&?9!)( +A( • 6timulant to the central nervous s)stem • 1octors use as anaesthetic • Mum-s su-Aective9emotional ain • Chen cocaine is a-used "snorted' K delusions* severe !eight loss and agitated -ehaviour ,. D9889 +A( • =ltered state of consciousness "descri-ed as (!asted or high/' • Can lead to erson feeling rela5ed* energised or alert • %ood enhancer – e5aggerates the e5isting mood of user 22. DESCRIE THE VARIOUS CATEGORIES OF CHILD AUSE 2 NEGLECT. =-use3 Jh)sical a-use K non,accidental inAur) or threat of inAur) caused -) child8s caregiver HEC101V – Revision Questions Jse5ual a-use K an) contact9interaction -et!een a child + an adult in !hich the child is used for se5ual stimulation of the adult Jemotional a-use K s)chological maltreatment* imairing a child8s s)chological gro!th and develoment. Meglect3 Jchild neglect K caregivers failure to rovide for a child8s h)sical* educational* or emotional needs Jh)sical neglect K lac: of food* shelter and clothing; failure to rovide ade>uate nutrition* safe and clean shelter* inade>uate clothing that is inaroriate for the !eather; oor h)giene; lac: of aroriate suervision "such as leaving child home alone for long eriods'; failure to rovide medical care. Jeducational neglect K failure to ensure that the child attends school regularl) and9or inattention to secial educational needs Jemotional neglect K refusal9failure to rovide s)chological care "-uilding ositive self,esteem; reassurance'; ermission for the child to use drugs9alcohol etc. 23. CRITICALLY DISCUSS SOME OF THE FACTORS WHICH HAVE EEN LINKED TO THE INCREASING INCIDENCE OF CHILD AUSE IN SOUTH AFRICA. • 6tress* such as .nancial9!or:,related stress • Fo- losses 9 Redundancies • =-sence of good arenting s:ills • 1rug9alcohol related ro-lems • ?ac: of atience 24. DISCUSS THE SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS OF THE FOLLOWING: 9. P$*A!?9: 9>+A( • Reeated9une5lained inAuries eg3 -urns9fractures9-ruises • Cears clothing to hide inAuries eg3 inaroriate for !eather conditions • Nre>uentl) late9a-sent • Bnusuall) fearful of adults; eseciall) arents • =ears malnourished or deh)drated • =voids logical e5lanations for inAuries • Cithdra!n9an5ious9uncommunicative or outso:en + disrutive • ?ac:s afection* -oth giving + see:ing >. P$*A!?9: )(8:(?# • =rrives to school unclean9-ad odour from dirt) clothing9hair • Is in need of medical9dental care • Nre>uentl) hungr) – -egs9steals food !hilst at school • Inaroriate clothing or foot!ear , often si&ed too small9large • 1resses inaroriatel) for !eather conditions – arrives !ithout Aerse) during !inter • Chronicall) tired – falls aslee at school 9 lac:s energ) to la) !ith others • ?oner – di4cult) getting along !ith other children ?. E;&#!&)9: 9>+A( HEC101V – Revision Questions • Generall) unha) – seldom smiles9laughs • =ggressive + disrutive OR sh) + !ithdra!n • Reacts !ithout emotion to actions • 1ela)ed gro!th and9or emotional +intellectual develoment ,. E;&#!&)9: )(8:(?# • 0oor academic erformance • Cithdra!n* inattentive and aathetic • Nre>uentl) a-sent9late • Bse an) means to gain teacher8s attention + aroval • 6eldom articiates in e5tra,curricular activities • Engages in delin>uent -ehaviours eg3 stealing; vandalism; se5ual misconduct; a-use of drugs9alcohol (. S(E+9: 9>+A( • Bnderclothing torn* stained or -lood) • Comlains of ain9itching in genital area • Venereal disease • Raid !eight loss9gain • 6udden failure in school erformance • Nascination !ith -od) arts – tal:s a-out se5ual activities • 1i4cult) getting along !ith other children – !ithdra!n* -a-)li:e* an5ious • Involved in delin>uent -ehaviour eg3 running a!a)* alcoholism* drug a-use or rostitution 2/. HOW WOULD YOU IDENTIFY AN AUSED CHILD AT SCHOOL? 2he teacher must -e a-le to recognise all the) h)sical and -ehavioural s)mtoms !ith indicate a-use such as3 ==<CC11HBC • (2eacher attention see:ing/ -ehaviour • Nre>uent late9a-sent from school • %aAor changes in -ehaviour such as3 aggressive; an5ious; !ithdra!n • Chronicall) tired – falls aslee at school9lac:ing energ) • Nre>uentl) comlains of ain • 1resses inaroriatel) for !eather conditions – arriving to school in !inter !ithout shoes9Aerse) • =rrives unclean9dirt) to school • Nre>uentl) hungr) • Bnha) – seldom smiles9laughs • Raid !eight loss9!eight gain 20. DISCUSS THE ROLE OF THE TEACHER WHEN CONFRONTED Y AN AUSED CHILD. • I,()#!F?9#!&) &@ #$( 9>+A(, ?$!:, K teacher must -e a-le to recognise all the h)sical and -ehavioural s)mtoms !hich indicate a-use. • I,()#!F?9#!&) &@ #$( 9>+A!7( 69"()# K teacher must -e on the loo:out for -ehavioural characteristics of a arent !hich could indicate that their child !as at ris: of a-use. HEC101V – Revision Questions • W"!##() "(?&",A K teacher should :ee !ritten records of all o-servations regarding susected and9or susected a-use. • R(6&"#!)8 &@ ?$!:, 9>+A( K teacher must reort susicions to the rincial as !ell as to the social !or:er* medical doctor9nurse or olice o4cer so that a roer investigation can -e underta:en. 2eacher must MEVER confront the arents herself as this could anger them* ossi-l) increase the a-use and destro) the arent,teacher relationshi. • H(:6!)8 9>+A(,G)(8:(?#(, ?$!:,"() K critical things !hich a teacher should rovide to suort and hel and a-used child so that the child develos a sense of !ell,-eing to rogress -e)ond a-use such as3 Jtrust Jredicta-le routines Jconsistent -ehaviour Jsafe -oundaries Jcon.dence and Jgood communication s:ills ".D0,D1 2?L01' 21. EXPLAIN HOW YOU WOULD EDUCATE FOUNDATION PHASE LEARNERS AOUT SEXUAL AUSE. • Children should -e taught that some arts of their -odies are rivate; for e5amle – those arts of the -od) that is covered -) a s!imming costume. 2he) need to :no! that no-od) has the right to touch those areas* e5cet a arent or health rofessional !ho is heling !ith or conducting a medical e5amination. Children should also :no! that no one has the right to as: them to touch these arts on another erson8s -od). • Children should -e heled to identif) and diferentiate -et!een diferent t)es of touching3 , #ood touches eg3 hugs9:isses !hich ma:e children feel ositive a-out themselves , $onfusing touches eg3 !hich ma:e the child uncomforta-le , Bad touches eg3 hitting* rolonged9e5cessive tic:ling or touches to rivate -od) areas • Children should -e taught to sa) MO to un!anted touches. Children must also :no! that -ad touches ma) come from some-od) the) :no!. • Children need to -e encourages to communicate oenl) so that secrets are discouraged. 2he) should :no! !ho the) can go to if something is -othering them eg3 li:e a arent9teacher. • 2eacher must use stories9games to constantl) reinforce revention concets -) for e5amle la)ing (!hat if.../ games !hich ose a h)othetical situation. 23. 5T$( A#"(AA &@ ;&,(") :!7!)8 $9A "(A+:#(, !) 9) !)?"(9A( !) ?$!:, 9>+A(<. CRITICALLY ANALYSE THIS STATEMENT. 24. DESCRIE THE EFFECTS OF HOSPITALISATION ON THE YOUNG CHILD. HEC101V – Revision Questions Children under the age of L )ears are articular) susceti-le to the stresses of hositalisation -ecause of their develomental level and age. Poung children are more rone to illness so the) are more li:el) to re>uire hositalisation* -ut at such a )oung age the) are least a-le to coe !ith hositalisation. Hositalisation can cause an5iet) -ecause the child is forci-l) searated from famil) and friends. =dditional factors include3 , <eing su-Aected to ain , Intrusive rocedures such as3 inAections , Bnleasant side efects of medication + treatments 3=. DISCUSS THE WAY IN WHICH THE TEACHER CAN PREPARE CHILDREN FOR HOSPITALISATION. 2he hosital is unfamiliar to children and can thus -e a scar) thought for children. 2he teacher can tell children a-out the hosital and even arrange an outing to the hosital. 2he teacher can arrange for a nurse9doctor to come to the school and tell children more a-out !hat haens at a hosital. 31. EXPLAIN WHAT YOU UNDERSTAND Y THE CONCEPT OF REGRESSION AS A SYMPTOM OF POST%HOSPITALISATION STRESS. Regression can -e de.ned as3 (a coing mechanism !here-) the individual reverts temoraril) to an earlier* reviousl) a-andoned develomental stage of -ehaviour in order to retain or regain master) of a stressful* an5iet),roducing9frustrating situation* thus achieving self, grati.cation and rotection. 2here are # main reasons !h) a child uses regression to coe !ith the stress of hositalisation3 , 2he degree of stress e5erienced , 2he arental,child relationshi !hich afects the child8s a-ilit) to coe !ith stress , 2he age factor K the G,I)r old are more li:el) to regress than an older child , 2he factor of individual diferences !hich !ill determine if a seci.c child uses regression -ecause of a lo! frustration tolerance or if the child fails to regress -ecause of a revious oortunit) to ractice coing !ith the stress of hositalisation. 2)ical signs of regression3 • <ed!etting • Canting to -e dressed • Ned9-athed again • 2hum- suc:ing • Chining • 2emer tantrums • Cr)ing • Clinginess • Mightmares • Me! fears HEC101V – Revision Questions • Increased demands for attention 32. DISCUSS COMMON SOURCES OF STRESS IN FOUNDATION PHASE LEARNERS AND EXPLAIN HOW YOU COULD HELP CHILDREN COPE WITH STRESS. Common 6ources of 6tress ma) include3 • 1ivorce • %oving to a ne! to!n9school • Illness • 1eath 33. A CHILD IN YOUR CLASS HAS RECENTLY DIED FROM A CHRONIC ILLNESS. EXPLAIN HOW YOU WILL DEAL WITH THIS SITUATION IN THE CLASSROOM SITUATION. 34. GIVE SOME EXAMPLES OF WAYS IN WHICH THE TEACHER CAN EXPLAIN THE CONCEPT OF DEATH TO A YOUNG LEARNER. 3/. DISCUSS THE FOLLOWING STATEMENT: 5?$!:,"() "(9?# #& ,(9#$ 9??&",!)8 #& #$(!" ,(7(:&6;()#9: A#98(A<. 30. DISCUSS THE WAYS IN WHICH THE TEACHER CAN SUPPORT THE FAMIL OF A CHILD WHO IS SUFFERING FROM A CHRONIC ILLNESS. 2he teacher must -e a-le to rovide s)mathetic and suita-le suort to -oth the learner and his9her famil)3 • 2eacher should suort -oth the child and arents !ith regards to learners needs for medication during school hours* e5tra rest eriods* seci.c toileting needs* a-sences from school* e5tra hel !ith school !or:* em-arrassment a-out h)sical aearance etc. • %aintain con.dential information – !ritten arental ermission is re>uired to divulge an) information to other staf. • %odif) the school rogramme for learner !ith chronic illness such as additional resting time or dietar) adatations. • 2eacher should -e a!are of the efects of an) medication !hich could cause changes in learners -ehaviour such as h)eractivit)9dro!siness. • 2eacher should determine from the arents* the learners o!n understanding and :no!ledge of his9her illness • 2eacher must ensure that the school and classroom environment ma:es allo!ances for the child8s seci.c chronic illness such as3 su4cient sace for !heelchair users; level of seci.c allergens "chal: dust* et hair* ollen' should -e eliminated if there are asthmatic or allergic children in the class. • 2eacher should -e a-le to coe !ith an) seci.c health emergencies related to a seci.c chronic illness such as3 asthma HEC101V – Revision Questions attac: or h)ogl)caemia due to lo! -lood sugar levels in a dia-etic learner. 31. DISCUSS THE ROLE OF THE TEACHER IN THE CARE AND SUPPORT OF LEARNERS WHO ARE INFECTED OR AFFECTED Y HIVGAIDS. 2he teacher should consider EVERPOME as otentiall) HIV,infected and ta:e the follo!ing recautions3 • Qee all sores9cuts on our hands covered !ith a !aterroof laster. • 1o not share items !hich ma) -ecome contaminated !ith -lood such as3 tooth-rushes • 2a:e universal recautions !hen treating an) -leeding !ound or dealing !ith an) -lood,contaminated -od) @uids or articles • 1isinfect all sills of -lodd or -lood,stained -od) @uids !ith 1310 solution • =l!a)s handle -lood,contaminated clothes9cloths !ith gloves and soa: these items in the -leach solution -efore !ashing it !ith hot !ater + soa. • =l!a)s ut u a notice* !arning arents and staf a-out an) chic:eno5 or other communica-le disease out-rea: in the school* as ersons !ith a lo! immunit) are articular) sensitive to some infections. • 2eacher should not discriminate against an) erson -ecause of his9her HIV status. 33. DISCUSS THE ROLE OF THE TEACHER WHEN DEALING WITH THE HIV%INFECTED CHILD DURING SPORTING ACTIVITIES. 34. DISCUSS THE IMPLICATIONS OF THE OFFICIAL SCHOOL POLICY ON HIVGAIDS FOR THE FOUNDATION PHASE TEACHER. 4=. EXPLAIN IN DETAIL THE IMPLICATIONS OF 5+)!7("A9: 6"(?9+#!&)A< @&" #$( 6"!;9"* A?$&&: A!#+9#!&). 41. RIEFLY INDICATE WHAT APPROPRIATE INFORMATION YOU WOULD INCLUDE WHEN PLANNING THE FOLLOWING LEARNING ACTIVITIES FOR FOUNDATION PHASE LEARNERS: 9. P(,(A#"!9) [email protected](#* • Road safet) rules eg3 ho! to cross a road safel) • 2ra4c O4cer >. !?*?:( [email protected](#* • Road safet) rules ?. H&;( [email protected](#* • Electrical e>uiment • 6har o-Aects • %edication • Nire revention • Chat to do !hen stranger is at )our front door HEC101V – Revision Questions • =ccident revention • Emergenc) contact num-ers ,. S?$&&: [email protected](#* • Outdoor la) rules • Indoor la) rules • 2oilet routine rules (. D()#9: $(9:#$ • <rush teeth t!ice dail) • 1ental chec:,us ever) I months – 2he 1entist • Nood for health) teeth @. F&&, [email protected](#* • Health) food V6 Bnhealth) food • 6ome foods must -e coo:ed • 6ome foods must -e refrigerated • Mutrients necessar) for health) -odies • Cleanliness 8. H(9:#$* @&&, @&" A?$&&: :+)?$(A • Health) food V6 Bnhealth) food • Mutrients $. C&)A+;(" $(9:#$ • %edicine • Reading la-els • =dvertisements !. P$*A!?9: F#)(AA • 1ail) e5ercise is imortant • %ovement rings !ith h)sical movements • Ch) h)sical e5ercise is good for )ou H. P"(7()#!&) &@ 6&!A&)!)8 • B. F&&, 8+!,( 6*"9;!, • Nood grous :. F!"( [email protected](#* • Nire revention • Niremen • Niretruc: • Mum-er to contact in case of .re 42. WHAT IS THE ROLE OF THE ECD TEACHING IN PROVIDING NUTRITION EDUCATION ACTIVITIES FOR THE YOUNG CHILD? 2he rimar) goal of nutrition education at the reschool level is to introduce children to some simle* -asic rinciles of nutrition and the encourage them to eat and enAo) a variet) of nutritious foods. ".##0 %arot&' 43. DISCUSS 4 WAYS IN WHICH NUTRITION EDUCATION ACTIVITIES CAN AID CHILD DEVELOPMENT. Mutrition education activities foster child develoment in the follo!ing areas3 , romote language development Jlearn food names* food rearation terms and utensil names HEC101V – Revision Questions Jlanguage s:ills and nutrition concets , romotes cognitive development Jlearn to follo! ste,-),ste directions in recies Jmath concets such as measurement* counting and time eriods Jscience concets such as changes form* heating* chilling etc , romote sensorimotor development Jhand,.nger muscle develoment through measuring* mi5ing + sreading. Jshaes* te5tures and colours are learned , romote social/emotional development Jlearn to !or: as art of a team J:no!ledge and accetance of cultural foods and diferences Jgain ositive self,concet !hen the) master s:ills such as ouring Auice into a glass for themselves ".###,##L %arot&' 44. DISCUSS THE CRITERIA USED FOR CHOOSING APPROPIRATE NUTRITION EDUCATION CONCEPTS FOR YOUNG CHILDREN. Mutrition education is an) activit) that tells a erson something a-out food. <asic concets of nutrition education3 , $hildren must have food to grow and to have healthy bodies Jall animals and lants need food Jeating food hels children gro!* la)* learn and ha) Jman) foods are good for us , %utrients come from foods& "t is these nutrients that allow children to grow and be healthy Jafter food is eaten* the nutrients are set free to !or: in our -odies Jnutrients do diferent things in our -odies Jman) dif nutrients are needed each da) Jfoods are the sources of all of the nutrients !e need , ' variety of foods need to be eaten each day& %o ( food gives all of the needed nutrients Jdif foods rovide dif nutrients so !e need to eat man) :inds of food Jnutrients !or: together in our -odies – !e need man) dif nutrients each da) Jchildren should -e e5osed to and encouraged to accet a variet) of fodds from each of the Nood Guide 0)ramid Jchildren should e5lore ho! foods difer in colour* shae* te5ture and taste Jchildren can learn to grou and identif) certain :inds of food such as3 fruit* -read and meats , )oods must be carefully handled before they are eaten to ensure that they are healthy and safe Jcleanliness is most imortant Jsome foods can onl) -e eaten coo:ed Jsome foods must -e refrigerated Jinvolving children !ith food rearation hels them learn a-out the things that must -e done to foods -efore the) ma) -e eaten Jeating foods that has not -een handled roerl)* can ma:e us ver) ill HEC101V – Revision Questions ". ##1 – %arot&' 4/. EXPLAIN WHY HEALTH 2 SAFETY EDUCATION ARE IMPORTANT FOR YOUNG CHILDREN. 40. HOW CAN TEACHERS DECIDE IF HEALTHC SAFETY AND NUTRITION RESOURCE MATERIALS ARE RELIALE? 41. DESCRIE HOW YOU WOULD DEAL WITH THE FOLLOWING EMERGENCY SITUATIONS: 9. L(9")(" '$& !A ?$&B!)8 >. L(9")(" '!#$ 9 )&A(>:((, Jut on .rst aid gloves Jlace child in sitting osition* do not tilt head -ac: J.rml) gras and s>uee&e the child8s nostrils !ith fore.nger + thum- "using tissue' for at least Lmins -efore releasing ressure Jal) an iceac: to the -ridge of the nose Jchild not to run around or -lo! nose for fe! hours Jinform arent that child had a nose-leed ?. A,+:# '!#$ A+A6(?#(, $(9"#%9##9?B J ,. L(9")(" '!#$ F"A#%,(8"(( >+") Jsu-merge the -urned art in cool !ater* or hold under running !ater for 1L,G0mins Jelevate -urned art to relieve discomfort Jcover -urn !ith sterile gau&e dressing and tae in lace Jdo not use greas) ointments or creams Jadvise arent (. L(9")(" '!#$ A(?&),%,(8"(( >+") Jsame as a-ove Jdo not o the -listers Jsee: medical attention immediatel) @. L(9")(" '!#$ #$!",%,(8"(( >+") Jsame as a-ove Jsee: medical attention immediatel) 8. L(9")(" '!#$ 9) (6!:(6#!? A(!I+"( Jrotect learner from falling or getting hurt -) assisting him9her to the ground Jmove a!a) furniture9ha&ards to revent inAur) Jloose clothing if it restricts movement Jno attemt must -e made to restrain the tongue Jno attemt to lace an)thing in the mouth or give li>uids Jreassure learner and monitor learner until sei&ure su-sides Jafter sei&ure* lace learner on side to revent an) @uids going do!n the throat Jallo! learner to rest JE%6 should -e activated !ith multile sei&ures or sei&ures for longer than Lmins $. L(9")(" '!#$ 9A#$;9#!? 9##9?B Jhel learners -) roviding reassurance and heling to locate medication or inhaler HEC101V – Revision Questions Jmove learner to an irritant,free environment as environmental allergens such as dust9smo:e9aint fumes can cause -ronchial sasms Jlace learner in sitting osition to ease -reathing Jencourage learner to drin: !ater "less severe' !. L(9")(" '!#$ $*6("8:*?9(;!? -,!9>(#!?. ?&;9 6igns3 J-lood sugar !ill -ecome to high Je5cess sugar in -lood gives -reath a fruit) odour Jleaner -ecomes tired and dro!s) -ecause -od) does not have fuel for energ) Jma) -e e5tremel) thirst) or even vomit 2reatment3 JInAect insulin H. L(9")(" '!#$ $*6&8:*?9(;!? -!)A+:!). ?&;9 6igns3 Jsugar is too lo! Jtoo much insulin or vigorous e5ercise can remove too much sugar from the -lood Jstaggering* oor concentration * anger* -ad temer* confusion* disorientation* s!eating* ale colour and sudden hunger 2reatment3 Jfeed learner sugar) items such as3 fruit Auice9co:e; chocolate9cand) J!ithin 10,1Lmins condition should imrove 43. HOW WOULD YOU ENSURE THE SAFETY OF LEARNERS ON THE PRIMARY SCHOOL PLAYGROUND? • 0la) areas are located a!a) from heav) tra4c* loud noises and sources of contaminated ollution • 0la) areas are !ell drained • <athroom facilities and drin:ing fountain is easil) accessi-le • = variet) of la) surfaces "grass9concrete9sand' are availa-le • <alance of shad)9sunn) areas • 0la) e>uiment is in good condition – no -ro:en9rust)9shar edges • ?arge ieces of e>uiment are sta-le and anchored into the ground • 0la)ground are enclosed !ith a fence !ith a gate and !or:a-le loc: • 2here are no oisonous lants9shru-s in the area • Grounds are maintained and are free of de-ris and -ro:en e>uiment • 6!imming ools are suervised and loc:ed !hen not in use 44. HOW WOULD YOU ENSURE THE SAFETY OF LEARNERS DURING SPORTING ACTIVITIES?
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