GINGEE FORT - TROY OF THE EASTGingee Fort counts amongst the few forts that are still in existence in Tamil Nadu. It is situated in the Villupuram district, which is situated at a distance of approximately 160 km from the Chennai city of India. The district also lies close to the union territory of Pondicherry. One of the most unassailable citadels of India, the fort was given the name of 'Troy of the East' by the British. The place where the Gingi fort today stands, was once the site of a small fort built by the Chola dynasty in 9th century. Gingee was ruled by the Pallavas during 600 A.D. to 900 A.D. During their reign a cave temple was excavated in the natural hill in Singapuram. They built a temple in Panamalai which is to the south of Gingee. In Mandagapattu, which is 17 kms, away from Gingee, a cave temple was excavated in a rock. These evidences conclude that Gingee was once under the rule of Pallava kings and also the cave temples and rock inscriptions at Singavaram and Melacheri situated near Gingee tell about the Pallava regime in Gingee.1014 A. Anandha Koan. . Gingee was under the contrl of Adita Chola (871 A. to 630 A. From the rock-cut inscriptions in Aanangur.) it was called "Singapuranadu".A rock inscription portrays Pallava Mahendravarman (580 A. East of Gingee. Krishna Koan and Pullia Koan even though there was no epigraphical evidences from Koan rule but it is specified in some books.D.D. From the Book ""Karnataka Rajakkal Savistara Charitham" British Historian Mecans says that after the rule of the Cholas.) as Vichitrachitha. Gingee was under the sway of chieftains.D. Gingee came under the supermacy of Pandya.D.D.D. .) Then during the reign of Adita Cola II and his broter Rajaraja Cola I (985 A. Pallava and Hoysalas.907 A. it is known that after the decline of the Pallava kings. D. Tanjore and Madurai. Then he asked his brother " Sambaji" to rule Gingee in 1690 A.D. During the peak of Krishna Deva Raya's power (1509 A.) captured Gingee fort after a tough fight against the Marathas. then handed over the rule to Swaroop singh who was the army head at Bundalakand in 1700 A.D. Chattrapathi Shivaji.) he ordered. a scion in the annuls of History wrested Gingee from the Muhammadans. After this the army general of "Golgonda" . "Mirjeeva" defeated Krishnappa Nayyaka and handed Gingee over the king of Bijapur. Kampannarayan handed Gingee over to Kopannarayer.D. afterwards it was handed over to Rajaram in 1697 A. . Taking advantage of this situation. with a large army.D.1698 A. and captured it. build tall and strong fort walls with granite.1529 A. In return. . There where frequent skirmishes among them. who belong to the Muhammadans dynasty. invaded Gingee at the beginning of the 16th Century A. This architecture is similar to that architecture in "Hampi".D. on conditions that he had to collect tax under the supervision of Sadad-ullah khan of Carnatic. Zulfigar Khan.D.Gingee was under the authority of Kopnnarayer during the 14th Century A. The Mughal General Zulfigar Khan (1697 A. After the fall of the Muhammadans rule at the end of the 17th century. Krisnappa Nayyaka to rule a region with Gingee as its capital. one of the Generals of Vijayanagar Empire helped Kampannarayan. The Nayyaka rulers. There was no unity among the Nayakas of Gingee.D.D. Historians hold the opinion that Kopannarayr. tall towers with sculptural workmanship granite temples on the plains and brick shrines on the peak. He and his successors ruled for about 150 years having capital at Gingee. the Bijapur Sultans. . At the end of the war. Desingh Raja by killing himself made a supreme sacrifice to avoid being a prisioner in the hands of Mogul rulers. and ruled till 1750 A. He hated to be a slave to the Mugal rulers and refused to pay the tax to the Nawab. for the purpose of trade and commerce. he deeply engraved his marks in the history of Gingee.D. French people who came to India. Then the Britishers under the command of General "Coot" attacked the French Army on April. captured Gingee and kept Gingee under their control for about ten years. . his son Desingh Raja came to the throne. 1761 A.After the death of Swaroop. His wife also throwing herself into fire committed suicide to safeguard her chastity which is considered as highly holy. After the death of Desingh Raja. So a war took place between Sad-ad-ullah khan and Desingh Raja. Historians say that though Desingh Raja ruled for short period. they brought Gingee under the control of the British Captain 'Stephen Smith'. During this period French People annexed Vandavasi in 1760 A.D. by winning the war. for about 36 years. attacked Gingee under the command of "Puli" and his troops.D. and Pondicherry in 1761 A. Sad-ad-Ullah khan conquered Gingee in 1714 A.D.D. Due to the political changes in Carnatic area.D. After few years. But he was defeated by the Britsh army. As Hyder Ali did not like the British rule in India. when Warren Hastings became the Governor General of India. by moving his troops via Polur and Vandavasi to caputure Gingee. Hyder Ali blamed Britishers for going against the treaty and waged war in 1780. the General of Mysore. the southern parts gradually fell into the hands of the British without any opposition.D. So the Britishers made peace treaty with Hyder Ali. After 1780 A.D. . A. the Britishers made Chennai fort for the transport facilities and the French made Pondicherry as their capital and started to rule Indian territory..After this time. Hyder Ali became the king in 1761 A. he waged war against the British many times. The Britishers did not take any steps to renovate the fort. Mughals and the indifferent attitude of foreigners. Chola kings. Muhammadans. was gradually destroyed. Hoysalas. which was surrounded by the granite walls.In the beginning. Vijayanagara kings. . Pandya. Today Gingee fort is placed as a memorial in the pages of history and also for the sake of its admirers. Gingee was the place of the Jains but later due to rule of Pallava. the temples inside the fort. the Gingee fort. the mandapas. . a long tail. These medium sized birds at about 16 inches in length including the tailfeathers have their origin in India The Rose-Ringed Parakeet or Indian Ringneck is classified as a smaller parrot known as a parakeet. Indian Ringneck Parrot and Rose-Ringed Parrot. and are smaller in size compared to most parrots. These parrots are about 16 inches in length and they have a stealthy appearance that sets them apart from most exotic birds.INDIAN PARROTS . These birds have a hooked beak.INDIAN RINGNECK PARAKEET Common Names of this paticular bird type are Indian Ringneck Parakeet. It's Scientific Name is Psittacula krameri manillensis. Although the female may not exhibit the impressive ring of the male. The two largest tail feathers. These elaborate tails can extend as much as 7 inches outward for the male and 6 inches outward for the female.Wild Indain Ringnecks are green with undertones of blue that can be seen during overcast days. Most of the time. Because these parrots are mostly green. however. the male has a black ring around his neck. pink. which are blue. make up a large part of the parrot’s size. . These parrots have yellow feathers underling their wings and tail. and blue. His ring is highlighted with turquoise. they are very difficult to see during roosting or perching in trees. Both males and females look very similar. the presence of these parrots can be given away through their contact calls. Both sexes have large tails that are comprised of 12 feathers. many Indian Ringneck enthusiasts will argue a slight green ring is visible. some major points of interest include California. Florida. Rose-Ringed Parakeets can be seen in rural areas feeding from birdfeeders or relaxing in parks. Like most parrots. These birds are truly masters at talking for their size and can easily compete with quakers. Quaker Parakeets are known for their talking ability but a ringneck can speak with clarity that is phenomenal. greys. and the UK. . little evidence has been published to prove this accusation. Along with being intelligent they are great at talking. and amazons. They have established colonies in environments which are not native to them.Indian Ringnecks are native to Asia and Africa and can be seen in the forests or arid environments. It’s not uncommon to see them thrive in urban areas as well. Indain Ringnecks are intelligent and DO make great pets. These birds are believed to cause major damage to crops. They learn concepts quickly and love to show off. however. food and water containers should be emptied. vegetables. it is a good idea to have a safe area for the pet to play and stretch its wings. and refilled daily to reduce the risk of bacteria growth and infection. As with all birds. nuts. As with most other bird species. and seeds. . a Ringneck will appreciate a variety of fruits and veggies in their diet. and the Ringneck is no exception. and cage accessories so that the bird is less likely to gnaw on something valuable or dangerous. so it is wise to provide an array of chewable toys. cleaned. perches.Wild Indian Ringnecks usually feast on a diet of fruits. Ringnecks also have powerful jaw muscles to maintain. Parakeets are very active birds. berries. While most vets agree that it is best for captive birds to eat a nutritionally balanced pelleted diet. aviculturists began breeding captive Ringnecks. Indian Ringneck Parakeets continue to gain increasing popularity as pets. With adequate attention. and with the advent of different color mutations the popularity of the bird began to explode. Now widely available in the pet trade. they were regarded as sacred beings when religious leaders began to recognize their ability to clearly mimic human language. . however. an Indian Ringneck Parakeet can quickly become a beloved companion and family member. In the 1920's. Ringnecks were kept in decorative cages and were admired for their colors and charming dispositions. Highly regarded by wealthy Indian royals.C. In their home country of India. handling. and love.Indian Ringneck Parakeets have been kept in captivity from as early as 200 B. Their relatively small size and beautiful markings help to make the Ringneck a good choice for many bird owners.