9Science Learner’s Material Module 1 Respiratory and Circulatory Systems Working with Other Organ Systems This instructional material was collaboratively developed and reviewed by educators from public and private schools, colleges, and/or universities. We encourage teachers and other education stakeholders to email their feedback, comments, and recommendations to the Department of Education at [email protected]
Department of Education Republic of the Philippines Science – Grade 9 Learner’s Material First Edition, 2014 Republic Act 8293, section 176 states that: No copyright shall subsist in any work of the Government of the Philippines. However, prior approval of the government agency or office wherein the work is created shall be necessary for exploitation of such work for profit. Such agency or office may, among other things, impose as a condition the payment of royalties. Borrowed materials (i.e., songs, stories, poems, pictures, photos, brand names, trademarks, etc.) included in this book are owned by their respective copyright holders. Every effort has been exerted to locate and seek permission to use these materials from their respective copyright owners. The publisher and authors do not represent nor claim ownership over them. Published by the Department of Education Secretary: Br. Armin A. Luistro FSC Undersecretary: Dina S. Ocampo, Ph.D. Department of Education-Instructional Materials Council Secretariat (DepEd-IMCS) Office Address: 5th Floor, Mabini Building, DepEd Complex (ULTRA) Meralco Avenue, Pasig City Philippines 1600 Telefax: (02) 634-1054 or 634-1072 E-mail Address: [email protected]
Page ....................................................................................................... 5 Activity 2 ........................................ 3 Activity 1 – Part A ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 9 The Circulatory System ......................................................... 17 Activity 8 ....................... 4 Activity 1 – Part B ............................................................................................................................................... 18 Activity 9 .................................................................................................................... 12 The Human Heart ................................................... 3 The Human Breathing System ....................................... 6 Activity 3 ......................................................................................................................................... 14 Activity 6 .............................. 19 ............................ 10 Activity 4 ...................... 8 Enrichment Activity ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 16 Activity 7 ............................................................................................................. 2 Overview .................................. 13 Activity 5 ..................................................................................................................................................... 2 Pre-assessment ....................................................Module 1: Respiratory and Circulatory Systems Working with Other Organ Systems ........... UNIT 1 Living Things and Their Environment Suggested time allotment: 8 to 10 hours 1 . Circulatory system is responsible for distributing materials throughout the body. However. you will be able to answer the following key questions: • How do the respiratory and circulatory systems work with each other? • How do the diseases in the circulatory and respiratory systems begin to develop? • How can a person’s lifestyle affect the performance of the respiratory and circulatory systems? 2 . you were introduced to the different levels of organizations in the human body and the mechanisms involved in it. You also discovered how the digestive system breaks down food to nourish your whole body. tissues. At the end of this module. Now. explain the mechanism on how the respiratory and circulatory systems work together to transport nutrients. and treatment of diseases affecting the respiratory and circulatory systems. our bodies also require proper care and maintenance. Unit 1 MODULE 1 Respiratory and Circulatory Systems Working with Other Organ Systems Overview Your body is a fascinating creation that can carry out incredible tasks and activities. dance. you are expected to: 1. Respiratory system is made up of the organs in the body that help us to breathe. In Module 1. Both systems are essentially meant for each other. and organs. In the past. each part of your organ systems performs particular functions. which are collections of cells. 2. You will also understand the prevention. It is just fitting to keep going with a healthy lifestyle to ensure that each part is maintained appropriately while getting the most out of it. play. It is like a machine that is able to function with proper organization of parts and systems. each of which has a special job that keeps you alive. Take note that circulation means transportation or movement in circles. detection. infer how one’s lifestyle can affect the functioning of respiratory and circulatory systems. Whether you eat. you will learn how the different structures of the circulatory and respiratory systems work together to transport oxygen-rich blood and nutrients to the different parts of the body. Just remember that the word respiration is linked to breathing. The common purpose could not be attained without the other system. sing. and molecules to and from the different parts of the body. gases. or sleep. You have learned that the human body is composed of different systems. Notice your chest and belly moving and feel the soft air passing from the nose. and diaphragm. through the air tubes. and alveoli. lungs.Pre-assessment Direction: Fill in the K-W-H-L Chart below to assess your prior knowledge and understanding of the topic. windpipe. Alveoli are the airsacs that allow gas exchange in the lungs. The parts of the respiratory system that are in charge of supplying oxygen are the nose. damp. the entering air is made warm. bronchi. Imagine the air moving from the nose into the throat. Next. and clean of unknown particles. Perform the following simple activity to widen your understanding of the human breathing system. bronchioles. 3 . Trachea is the empty tube that serves as passageway of air into the lungs. the air moves down through the trachea. Working with the other Organ Systems. Listen to the quiet sounds of breathing in and out. K W H L What do I know? What do I want to How can I find out What did I learn? find out? what I want to learn? Skills I expect to use: The Human Breathing System Breathe in and out. Bronchi are the two branching tubes that connect the trachea to the lungs. Bronchioles are the hairlike tubes that connect to the alveoli. In the nose and nasal passages. nasal passageways. and into the airsacs. Respiratory and Circulatory Systems. 3. Let the bunch of grapes represent the breathing system. Hold up the bunch of grapes. gently take out some of the grapes to expose more of the branching stems (bronchioles).) Procedure: 1. the large branching stems as the bronchi. Trace the pathway of oxygen using the “Bunch of Grapes” model. etc. Within your group. When we breathe. the oxygen goes to the lungs. cauliflower. One by one. lanzones. 2. The individual grapes are the airsacs or alveoli. TRACHEA BRONCHI BRONCHIOLES ALVEOLI Figure 1. Note that air moves from the nose (nasal cavity) and mouth (oral cavity) to the trachea. The air we breathe carries the gas oxygen. bronchioles. locate the parts of the breathing system: the main stem as the trachea. and then into the alveoli (air sacs). and all the little stems as the bronchioles. The bunch of grapes model of the breathing system PART B Objective: Describe the function of each part of the breathing system Procedure: 4 . bronchi. Observe its structure.Activity 1 PART A What a Bunch of Grapes! Objective: Identify the key parts of the breathing system Materials: Bunch of grapes (or any other bunch of fruits or vegetables such as arosep or lato (seaweed). 4. What will happen if one part of the system fails to carry out its function properly? KEY CONCEPTS The air we breathe goes through the nose. How will you describe the pathway of oxygen in the breathing system? Q3. and then through the trachea or windpipe. finally becoming hairlike tubes called bronchioles. This is analogous to the process that makes air move in and out of your lungs. Have you experienced being in a jam-packed train? You almost certainly could not wait to get out where there are fewer people so you could freely move. nasal passages. The air molecules are either crowded outside and tend to get into the lungs where there are fewer air molecules (inhalation). Figure 2. which separates into two branches. called bronchial tubes or bronchi.Refer to the diagram. you will understand the mechanism and activities of the lungs and the diaphragm. The human respiratory system Guide Questions: Q1. Now. Previously. you have already learned about the essential parts of the breathing system and their functions. analogous to the branching pattern of grapes. or they 5 . in relation to the breathing system? Q2. What does each part of the “Bunch of Grapes” model represent. one entering each lung. and check your understanding of the breathing system by labelling each part and giving its functions in the box corresponding to the part. The bronchi subdivide many times inside the lungs. In the last part of the terminal bronchioles are tiny bubble-like bunch of structures called alveoli or airsacs. 6. your diaphragm muscle contracts downward and rib muscles pull upward causing air to fill up the lungs. 5. Your diaphragm loosens up and the ribs and lungs thrust in. Can you explain why? Well. they provide more breathing space in your chest. This also reduces the force on your lungs so the air will move in from the outside. 2 small) 1 sturdy straw 1 pair of scissors 5 rubber bands Procedure: 1. Activity 2 Bottled Balloons Objectives: • Explain how the lungs work • Describe how the movement of the diaphragm helps the air go in and out of the lungs Materials: 1 two-liter empty plastic bottle 3 balloons (1 big.tend to get outside because they are too crowded inside the lungs (exhalation). 2. 6 . cut the bottom out of the 2-liter plastic bottle. Breathing out is a reverse process. when your diaphragm goes lower and ribs shift up. 3. Stick the balloon ends of the straws through the bottle opening and screw the lid on tightly. When you breathe in. Make sure that each hole is just big enough for a straw to fit through. and secure them with rubber bands. The two straws with the balloons are inserted into the plastic bottle cap. Stretch out the larger balloon and place it over the open bottom of the bottle. Create two holes that are apart from each other in the cap of the plastic bottle. as shown in the figure below. 4. causing the gas to be exhaled. Using a pair of scissors. Refer to the diagram of the finished lung model below. Stick the two straws through the two holes of the bottle cap. Place one balloon on the end of each straw. Figure 3. Secure it with the rubber band as tightly as possible. Push the larger balloon towards the bottle in order to let the air out of the two small balloons. How does the movement of the diaphragm cause the air to go in and out of the lungs? Q8. Without it. A constructed model of the human chest cavity 7. Air pushes in from the outside where there is a higher air pressure. the diaphragm muscle contracts. Guide Questions: Q4. There is now more space and less air pressure inside the lungs. the diaphragm muscle relaxes. Simultaneously. Figure 4. that is. 8. away from the bottle. or inhale. What might happen if you prick the balloon? KEY CONCEPTS When you breathe in. the cells in the body would not be able to release the energy in food for power. Inhaling moves the diaphragm down and expands the chest cavity. Pull the larger balloon down. How do the respiratory and circulatory systems work together to carry out their common purpose? Perform the next activity to learn more about the gas exchange that takes place in the respiratory and circulatory systems. 9. There is now less space and greater air pressure inside the lungs. or exhale. the ribs move up and increase the size of the chest cavity. What happens as you pull down the balloon at the bottom of the model? Q6. The chest cavity returns to its original size. carbon dioxide is released. It pushes the air outside where there is lower air pressure. 7 . What does each part of the constructed lung model represent? Q5. When you exhale. When you inhale air. The diaphragm and ribs return to their original place. It pushes into the lungs where there is a lower air pressure. in order to blow up the two small balloons. What happens as you push up the balloon? Q7. When you breathe out. Write down your observations. Why do we believe that life is possible only on planets where oxygen is present? Oxygen is necessary for life to exist. your respiratory system gets oxygen. and they would die within minutes. Using the marking pen. left atrium. 2. The capillary area should have papers with carbon dioxide written on them. Assign some members of your group to stand still on the different marked areas. right ventricle. left ventricle. Let the partners start the tour in the lung area and together pick up a paper labelled as oxygen from another member standing at his post. and then to the left ventricle.glencoe. and right atrium. Assign and label different areas in the outdoor setting as: lungs. 3. Perform the activity with your group mates (7-8 persons). until the path of the journey is completely traced. Illustration of the gas exchange activity 5. veins. passing through the left atrium. 8 .com/sites/common_assets/health_fitness/gln_health_fitness_zone/pdf/h eart_rate_monitor_activities/the_heart/the_heart_activity_2. They should carry the strip of paper to the heart. As the partners go to every station.Activity 3 Just Go with the Flow! Objectives: • Describe blood flow and gas exchange within the heart. they must leave a trail of rope or ribbon held by another member in a designated area. 4. capillary. write down the word oxygen on as many paper strips as you can and place them in the lung area. Choose two members from the group to take the trip around the different posts. and lungs • Explain the mechanism of how the respiratory and circulatory systems work together Materials: Paper strips Rope or ribbon Marking pen Chalk Source: Glencoe/McGraw-Hill - http://www.pdf Procedure: 1. arteries. circulatory system. Use the chalk to mark and define the different areas such as what is given in the diagram below. Lung Area Right Atrium Left Atrium HEART Right Ventricle Left Ventricle Veins Arteries Capillary Figure 5. The leader may want to keep placing new papers into designated areas to keep the game going on longer. 8. How will you describe the sequence of oxygen. 10. 9 . illustrate the blood flow and gas exchange in the respiratory and circulatory systems using diagrams and arrows. How do the heart and the lungs work together? Q10. first to the right ventricle. Guide Questions: Q9. the activity is over. When there are no more strips of paper. record your observations and answer the guide questions. 7. After the activity. Color your work to show the distinction of oxygen and carbon dioxide carried in the blood. then to the right atrium. 9. Partners must run along the chalk marks representing the arteries into the capillary area. carbon dioxide. and blood flow in your own words? ENRICHMENT ACTIVITY In the given framework of the human body below. Make the partners run along the chalk marks representing the veins into the heart area. What does blood deliver to every part of the body? Q12. Tell the partners to exchange the strip of paper representing oxygen for a piece of paper representing carbon dioxide with a member in his designated area. Why is oxygen important to your body? Q13. What takes place when you inhale and exhale? Q11. 6. The partners must then run back into the lung area where the process begins again. and other chemicals to every cell in your body. The blood delivers carbon dioxide into the right portion of your heart. which transports essential nutrients. The heart pumps blood.KEY CONCEPTS Air first enters your lungs and then into the left part of your heart. from which it is pumped to the lungs. Carbon dioxide leaves your body through the lungs when you exhale. oxygen processes the nutrients to release energy. all the way through your body. Once it reaches the cells. It is then driven by your heart into the bloodstream. 10 . Carbon dioxide is given off during this process. oxygen. Blood vessel – carries the blood throughout the body • Arteries . Blood – carries the materials throughout the body CIRCULATION TYPE OF DESCRIPTION DIAGRAM CIRCULATION 11 . It circulates vital elements such as oxygen and nutrients. connecting the smallest arteries to the smallest veins . The circulatory system is the life support structure that nourishes your cells with nutrients from the food you eat and oxygen from the air you breathe.carry deoxygenated blood to the heart • Capillaries . At the same time. it also transports wastes away from the body.carry oxygenated blood away from the heart to the cells. The circulatory system functions with other body systems to deliver different materials in the body. Sequentially.the actual site where gases and nutrients are exchanged 3.the smallest blood vessels in the body. with their roles: 1. It can be compared to a complex arrangement of highways. Figure 6. Another name for the circulatory system is the cardiovascular system. tissues and organs of the body • Veins . Heart – pumps the blood throughout the body 2. avenues and lanes connecting all the cells together into a neighborhood. the community of cells sustains the body to stay alive. The human circulatory system The following are the three major parts of the circulatory system. Pulmonary Circulation lungs. to the 1. Coronary Circulation the heart Movement of blood from the heart to the 3. and back to the heart Movement of blood through the tissues of 2. excluding the lungs Activity 4 Let’s Organize! Objectives: • Identify the components of the circulatory system • Explain the different types of circulation Procedure: 12 . Movement of blood from the heart. Systemic Circulation rest of the body. accepting blood from the body (right Do you know how big your heart is? Take atrium) and from the lungs (left atrium). which is just as big as your moving blood to the lungs (right fist. Using the given graphic organizer. as seen in Figure 7. and functions to complete the entire concept. a look at your fist. CIRCULATORY SYSTEM Parts Blood Vessel Pumps the blood Carries the materials throughout the body throughout the body Types CIRCULATION Types Systemic Circulation Movement of blood through the tissues of the heart The Human Heart receiving chambers of the heart. 13 . The ventricles are the pumping chambers. fill in the missing parts. description. The heart is a hollow muscle. It has four chambers with specific tasks to ventricle) and into the body (left do: two ventricles and two atria. The atria are the ventricle). Refer to Figure 8. the bottom part relaxes. Q15. The major divisions of the heart The heart has two pumps. When the bottom contracts. 14 . do the next simple activity. All of the muscle tissues of the heart do not contract at the same time. There is a valve between each atrium and ventricle to prevent the blood from flowing backwards. When the top portion contracts. the top relaxes. Figure 7. Each pump has two chambers. Q14. When a chamber contracts. Valves control movement of blood into the heart chambers and out to the aorta and the pulmonary artery. The lower chamber is the ventricle that forces the blood out into the arteries. Evaluate how the heart can be compared to a mechanical pump. Different parts of the heart contract at different times. it becomes smaller and the blood inside gets squeezed or pumped out. the upper and lower chambers. Explain how the heart works. To have a better understanding of how your heart works. The upper chamber is the atrium that receives blood coming in from the veins. The valves are like one-way doors that keep the blood moving in only one direction. Photo of an actual human heart Aorta Right Pulmonary Right Pulmonary Artery Artery Right Atrium Left Atrium Left Ventricle Valve Right Ventricle Figure 8. 7. Carefully poke two holes in the surface of the balloon. pulling it down as tightly as you can. Set your pump in a large pan or the sink to catch the pumped water. Cut the neck of the balloon off at the part where it starts to widen into a balloon. 2. The straws should fit securely in the holes so no air can get through around the straws. Gently press in the center of the stretched balloon and watch what happens to the water in the jar. Bend the straws downward. 4. Fill the jar half full of water. 15 . the better. 6. Stretch the balloon over the opening of the jar. Set the neck part aside to be used later on. Slide the uncut end of the balloon neck onto one of the straws and tape it around the straw. The flatter you can get the surface of the balloon. 3. Stick the long part of a straw into each hole. 5.hometrainingtools. The detailed parts of the heart Activity 5 Pump It! Objectives: • Describe how the heart functions • Explain how blood is pumped by the heart Materials: 1 beaker or wide mouthed jar 1 large pan or sink 1 balloon adhesive tape 2 flexible drinking straws 1 pair of scissors water Source: Home Science Tools - http://www. Aorta Superior vena cava Pulmonary artery Pulmonary valve Left atrium Right atrium Aortic valve Tricuspid valve Bicuspid valve Right ventricle Left ventricle Interventricular septum Figure 9. Make them about an inch apart from each other and near opposite edges of the jar.com/make-a-heart-pump-science-project/a/1852/ Procedure: 1. KEY CONCEPTS The heart is a hollow muscular organ. 8. allowing blood to flow either forward into the next chamber. Your heart beat is the sound that your heart makes as it pumps blood. Will the heart model be able to function properly if the straw is blocked? Explain your answer. The valve acts as a one-way door. What does the water inside the jar represent? Q17. Since you have already understood how the heart functions and how blood is pumped all over the body. or out of the heart. Let us further investigate about it in the next activity. which is located in the center of your chest between the lungs. The heart pump model Guide Questions: Q16. It is a double pump that pumps on the left and right sides. each of which has left and right portion. Activity 6 The Rhythm of My Heart Objectives: Measure and describe your pulse (heart rate) after several different activities Explain how to use different time intervals to measure your heart rate 16 . The top chamber is the atrium (plural: atria). totaling to four chambers altogether. about the size of your fist. How will you compare the heart pump model and the human heart? Q18. The bottom chamber is called the ventricle. you are now ready to check your own heart rate. Figure 10. Refer to the photo below to know what your setup must look like. the atrium and the ventricle. How does the heart function as a pump? Q19. Every side is divided into two chambers. Compare your pulses. place your first two fingers either on your neck or on the inside of your wrist and locate your pulse. as your body does not need as much blood as it does when you exercise. That is your pulse. count the number of beats you feel. it delivers oxygen-rich blood to your body. especially when you have just finished exercising? Q25. Try the experiment again. Shorter time intervals may be used in taking the pulse as long as it comes to 60 seconds upon multiplying with a factor. Choose the length of the test you wish to perform and find your pulse again. Guide Questions: Q20. Once you have determined your resting pulse. After the activity. and for 60 seconds. Perform the next simple activity to learn more about the negative effects of cigarettes on a person’s circulatory and respiratory systems. you can now monitor your activities to avoid the dangers of cardio-respiratory diseases. 8. you should be breathing hard. or doing pushups. Another risk factor that drastically increases heart rate and decreases the amount of oxygen in the blood is smoking cigarettes. Repeat by counting for 15 seconds and multiplying your count by four. Your heart rate or pulse is the number of times your heart beats in a minute (BPM or beats per minute). When you are done. 17 . How would you differentiate your heart rates before and after exercising? Q23. When you are resting. skipping rope. multiply your count by two. 5. running stairs. 3. your heart rate slows down. 7. Once you find your pulse. What is the advantage of timing over a shorter period of time. 9. What is the advantage of timing for a full minute to find your pulse? Q24. Sit quietly for a few minutes before beginning the activity. Now that you are aware that strenuous activities may lead to an increased heart rate. When you are done. go to a place where you can exercise vigorously for at least one minute. When you are ready. but this time count for only 30 seconds. What was your calculated resting pulse? Q21. According to statistics. 6. Compare your resting pulse with your pulse after exercise. If you know that you have TAKE a serious medical condition. the maximum heart rate should be 220 minus a person's age. What was your pulse after exercising? Q22. which allows it to function properly. How would you interpret your highest heart rate in relation to that given number? KEY CONCEPTS Each time your heart beats. record your observations and answer the guide questions. 4. then counting for 10 seconds and multiplying by six. Exercise of this sort might include a fast jog. CARE! do not perform this activity.Materials: Stopwatch / timer Data Logbook Procedure: 1. 2. and so on. start the watch. and vascular diseases. allowing multiple statements to emerge clearly. Look for pictures of a smoker’s body on the internet. Group the cards with identical or similar statements together into clusters. Cigarette Smoking Circulatory System Respiratory System 7.clarkisit. Choose a group member who will act as moderator to solicit all the ideas of the members about the negative effects of cigarette smoking on the circulatory and respiratory systems. 8. emphysema.com/smokingkills) 2. Within your group. tuberculosis.Activity 7 Cigarette Smoking Is Dangerous to Your Health Objective: Explain the negative effects of cigarette smoking on the circulatory and respiratory systems Materials: meta cards marking pen adhesive tape Procedure: 1. The respiratory diseases caused by smoking are chronic bronchitis. and other respiratory infections. brainstorm ideas about the effects of cigarette smoking on a person’s respiratory and circulatory systems using the meta plan strategy. arteriosclerosis. coronary heart disease. Each participant must give at least three negative effects of cigarette smoking on both circulatory and respiratory systems. 6. KEY CONCEPTS Cigarette smoking harms nearly every organ in the body. causing many illnesses and affecting health in general. The moderator collects the meta cards and reads each one of them while showing the cards to the whole group so that everyone can read them. 5. After discussing the ideas within the group. Choose a representative to explain the work of the group. asthma. Take note of the illnesses that might develop due to cigarette smoking. (http://www. 3. The negative effects of smoking on circulatory system include increased heart rate and blood pressure. 4. 18 . stick and organize all the responses on the blackboard to categorize which answer falls under the respiratory and circulatory systems. Refer to the example given below. colds. lung cancer. cough. Answers must be written on the blank cards. 3. Consider the following criteria to serve as your guide in completing the given task. Carry out the next task to further broaden your learning. Activity 9 19 . The following activity that you will perform is a variation of a famous application game. Symptoms of these illnesses must not be neglected and appropriate cure must be given immediately. The leading causes of death around the world are diseases affecting the respiratory and circulatory systems. and their common causes. which includes balanced diet. Circulatory and respiratory diseases begin to develop with unhealthy living. proper hygiene. Circulatory and respiratory disease can easily be detected with regular health check-up and physical screening. they can be prevented simply by having a lifestyle that promotes wellness.” Use your analytical thinking in answering each set of puzzles. adequate rest. regular exercise. STORY-MAKING AND ROLE PLAYING CRITERIA CRITERIA Percentage Preparation 15% Achievement of Objective 35% Imagination and Creativity 30% Presentation 20% TOTAL 100% KEY CONCEPTS The best way to prevent diseases in the respiratory and circulatory systems is to have a healthy lifestyle. Activity 8 Prevention Is Better Than Cure Objective: • Identify ways of detecting and preventing diseases in the respiratory and circulatory systems • Appreciate the importance of a healthy lifestyle in avoiding such diseases Procedure: 1. You must also show the importance of keeping our bodies healthy and free from illnesses. and avoiding vices such as cigarette smoking and alcohol drinking. known as “Four Pics – One Word. 2. create a story that illustrates various ways of preventing diseases that affect the respiratory and circulatory systems. With your group mates. However. Present the story that you made in front of the class by means of role-playing.Enrichment Activity Gather and write down information about the different diseases affecting the respiratory and circulatory systems. What’s the word? H_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ N 3. 20 . Write your answers in the box provided for each number. What’s the Word? Objective: Infer how one’s lifestyle can affect the functioning of the respiratory and circulatory systems Procedure: All four pictures in each given set depict negative ways of living. They are connected by one common word that indicates the effect of one’s lifestyle on the functioning of the respiratory and circulatory systems. The expected answers are illnesses that are brought about by the negative lifestyles. What’s the word? A____A 2. 1. What are the negative lifestyles that are depicted in the pictures? Q28. Cut out different examples of unhealthy lifestyles from old magazines or newspapers. Parents and other persons who visit your school might also see your work. Audience: Your target individuals to receive the information that you will provide are the people in your school community including all students. The challenge is how you will be able to lead the people to take action rather than merely accepting the presented information. Therefore. stressful environments. and create a collage out of the cut-outs on your notebook or journal. How can lifestyle affect the functioning of the respiratory and circulatory systems? Q29. Vices. it is important that you convince them to consider the ways of taking care of their bodies. Role: Suppose you work for an advertising company as a graphic artist and your job is to create public informational materials. specifically of the respiratory and circulatory systems. You are asked to disseminate information to the public regarding a lifestyle that ensures healthy condition of the respiratory and circulatory systems. Compose a short poem about how one’s lifestyle can affect the functioning of the respiratory and circulatory systems. 2. What might happen if a person goes on with a negative lifestyle such as what was seen in the activity? ENRICHMENT ACTIVITY 1. Negative lifestyle weakens your system while healthy lifestyle leads to complete wellness. specifically the circulatory and respiratory systems. There are obstacles to overcome such as the reluctance and preconceived notion of people against changing their lifestyle to promote health. 21 . and school officials. teachers. and recite it in front of the class. How can these negative lifestyles be changed? Q30. What idea is common in each set of pictures? Q27. KEY CONCEPTS Several lifestyle choices can affect a person’s risk for developing respiratory and circulatory diseases. What’s the word? A_ _ _ _ A Guide Questions: Q26. Performance Task: Information Dissemination Activity Goal: Your objective is to present helpful information to the public about effective ways of taking care of the respiratory and circulatory systems based on gathered data. and unhealthy eating habits can cause various diseases. topic. Poster Making: Information Dissemination on How to Take Care of the Respiratory and Circulatory Systems RUBRIC CATEGORY 4 3 2 1 Presentation The poster The poster The poster The poster does clearly communicates indirectly not sufficiently communicates some of the communicates communicate any the main idea important ideas the idea and idea that can and strongly and slightly hardly promotes promote promotes promotes awareness awareness awareness awareness Creativity and All of the Most of the The graphics The graphics Originality graphics used graphics used were made by were not made on the poster on the poster the student but by the student. others. CATEGORY 4 3 2 1 22 . Many people are unaware of this. ingenuity in their creation. so they simply continue with their busy lifestyles. Standards: You will be given three (3) days to conceptualize and execute your ideas through poster-making.Situation: Upon gathering information from the school or local health workers. and exploiting their bodies. topic. neglecting their health. The challenge involves dealing with this by creating a poster that will stir up the people’s consciousness in having a healthy lifestyle. you have found out that poor lifestyle affects the performance of the respiratory and circulatory systems. reflect an reflect were copied exceptional student from the designs degree of ingenuity in their or ideas of student creation. topic. Accuracy and All graphics in Most graphics in Some graphics The graphics in Relevance of the poster are the poster are in the poster are the poster are the Content accurate and accurate and accurate and neither accurate related to the related to the related to the nor related to the topic. You may use any medium for your artwork. Your output will be assessed in accordance with the following rubric. Once the product is finished. post it in a conspicuous place such as the canteen where everyone can see it. Product: Design a wall poster or placard that will make members of your audience aware of how they can effectively take care of their respiratory and circulatory systems. arteriosclerosis. oxygen processes the nutrients to release energy. called bronchial tubes or bronchi. from which it is pumped to the lungs. Why is the human heart called a double pump? 5. If solid and liquid wastes are removed from the body through defecation and urination. forming hairlike tubes called bronchioles. nasal passages. • The heart is a hollow muscular organ. • Cigarette smoking harms nearly every organ in the body. The respiratory diseases caused by smoking are chronic bronchitis. The top chamber is called the atrium. cough. missing. elements as well as additional information. and other respiratory infections. which divides into two branches. all the way through your body. adequate rest. regular exercise. What does the circulatory system distribute to the body as it works with the respiratory system? 2. The bronchi subdivide many times inside the lungs. and vascular diseases. emphysema. asthma. The diaphragm helps the air go in and out of the lungs. the diaphragm muscle contracts. your heart rate slows down. Summative Assessment Answer the following questions briefly. tuberculosis. What will happen if oxygen is not transported by the blood to the different parts of the body? 23 . about the size of your fist. Carbon dioxide is the waste material given off during this process. proper hygiene. Required The poster All required Few required Required Elements includes all elements are elements are elements are required included. • Heart rate or pulse is the number of times your heart beats in a minute (BPM or beats per minute). allowing blood to flow either forward into the next chamber. causing many illnesses and affecting health in general. The negative effects of smoking on the circulatory system include increased heart rate and blood pressure. • The best way to prevent diseases in the respiratory and circulatory systems is to have a healthy lifestyle. or out of the heart. The nutrients obtained from the food during digestion are supplied by the circulatory system to the body. What happens to the diaphragm when a person breathes in or inhales? 4. The bottom chamber is called the ventricle. • Air first enters your lungs and then into the left part of your heart. coronary heart disease. which includes balanced diet. lung cancer. The valve acts as one-way door. It is then pumped by your heart into the bloodstream. At the end of the bronchioles are tiny bubble-like structures called alveoli. Circulatory and respiratory disease can easily be detected with regular health check-up and physical screening. or exhale. • When you breathe in or inhale. and then through windpipe or trachea. which is located in the center of your chest between the lungs. Carbon dioxide leaves your body through the lungs when you exhale. as your body does not need as much oxygen as it does when you exercise. Once it reaches the cells. and avoiding vices such as cigarette smoking and alcohol drinking. When you are resting. Summary • Air enters the body through the nose. the diaphragm muscle relaxes. When you breathe out. included. It is a double pump that pumps on the left and right sides. 1. The blood delivers carbon dioxide into the right portion of your heart. Each side is divided across into two chambers. what is released by the body as waste during respiration? 3. colds. and veins • Ventricle – the lower chamber of the heart that squeezes blood out into the arteries References Printed Materials: Rabago. Lessons 2 & 3 APEX Biology – Unit IV. or affecting the heart • Diaphragm – a large flat muscle that separates the lungs from the stomach area and that is used in breathing • Emphysema – a type of pulmonary disease involving damage to the airsacs • Pulmonary – relating to. Inc Strauss. Body Systems: Pulmonary System . How does singing from the diaphragm. including oxygen. capillaries. Philippines: Vibal Publishing House. 2013]. (2013).The Human Heart: An Online Exploration from The Franklin Institute. An old woman joined a kilometer-dash sprint and felt very exhausted afterwards. “Government Warning: Cigarette smoking is dangerous to your health. what might happen if these doors do not close? 7. 6. and is rarely treated completely • Coronary – relating to. Functional Biology .Scientific Video and Animation Site.edu/learn/heart/systems/pulmonary. E. Ltd. Blood circulation. When we breathe in.” How does cigarette smoking increase the risk of developing cardiovascular diseases? 9. Electronic Sources: (DepEd Materials) BEAM: Biology – Organ System – Circulatory System EASE Biology M11 Energy Producing & Distributing Systems.fi. made possible by Unisys. [online] Available at: 24 . Fi.com .com/video/2864/Blood-circulation [Accessed: October 10]. (2010).(2013). [online] Available at: http://www.html [Accessed: October 8. M. instead of the throat. Since the valves act as the doors of the heart.. or affecting the lungs • Pulse – the number of times the heart beats per minute • Vascular – relating to the blood vessels. [online] Available at: http://www. Biology: The Web of Life. help improve the voice quality of a singer? 10. How did the old woman’s activity affect her heart rate? Glossary of Terms • Arteriosclerosis – a condition in which there is thickening and hardening of the arteries • Atrium – the upper chamber of the heart that receives blood coming in from the veins • Chamber – the empty space of the heart where blood is contained • Chest Cavity – a hollow space in the body enclosed by the ribs between the diaphragm and the neck and containing the lungs and heart • Chronic Disease – any illness that is prolonged in duration. et. we inhale many gases present in the air. 2013.al.. Heart Pump Project. does not often resolve suddenly. L.dnatube.. You always hear and see the statement. which includes the arteries. Home Training Tools. 2nd ed. Lisowski. Lessons 11 & 12 (Online Resources) DnaTube. Philippines: Pearson Education Asia Pte Ltd. (2003).Modular Approach. What do you think happens to the gases that are not needed by the body? 8.edu. 2nd ed. The Organ Systems. 2013]. Smm. 2013. [online] Available at: http://www. 2013] The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc.org.com/make-a-heart-pump-science-project/a/1852/.htm [Accessed: October 4.com/webcontent/animations/content/humanheart.pdf. [Last Accessed October 4. [Last Accessed October 2. The Heart Activity. [online] Available at: http://www.com/sites/common_assets/health_fitness/gln_health_fitness_zon e/pdf/heart_rate_monitor_activities/the_heart/the_heart_activity_2. 2013] Sumanasinc.org/heart/lessons/movs/heartPump. Habits of the Heart. 2013. 25 .glencoe. 2013].html [Accessed: October 7.smm. http://www. [online] Available at: http://www.sumanasinc. Animation.com.hometrainingtools.