FCC Unit Optimization Using the Magna Cat Process



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FCC Unit Optimization Using The MagnaCat® Process ®by Terry L. Goolsby and Howard F. Moore Ashland Petroleum Company Ashland, Kentucky Dennis C. Kowalczyk Refining Process Services Cheswick, Pennsylvania and Tiffin E. Johnson, Mario L. Zampieri, and B. Karl Bussey The M. W. Kellogg Technology Company Houston, Texas Introduction The refining industry has experienced numerous changes in markets and refining operations. Refiners are looking hard at cutting costs, improving FCC operating efficiency and for processes which improve refining margins with the least amount of capital investment. Fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) in particular has a significant bottom line impact on both refining revenue generation and cost. FCC costs include fresh catalyst purchases as well as spent catalyst disposal which can be significant at times. Both of these can be offset to a degree by utilization of a new process called MagnaCat®. A series of previously published technical articles 1-5 and patents 6-8 describes this technique for using high field strength permanent magnets to continuously remove the older, higher metals laden, less active fluid cracking catalyst from the equilibrium FCC inventory by dry magnetic separation techniques to produce a catalyst with lower metals and higher activity and selectivity. The first commercial application of this technology has been successfully operating since April of 1996 at Ashland Petroleum's Canton, Ohio refinery. This paper describes the implementation of the MagnaCat® Process at the Canton refinery for upgrading FCC catalyst on a continuous basis. Since start-up, substantial improvements have been observed in the conversion level and product profile of the Canton FCC unit yielding significant economic benefits. The final section of the paper describes the design of the MagnaCat® process unit developed for commercial licensing. Page 1 Figure 19. they accumulate contaminant metals and become more susceptible to a high strength magnet. more metals-laden particles in the FCC catalyst inventory from the newer.Benefits of the MagnaCat® Process ® As FCC catalyst particles age in the unit. The MagnaCat® Process provides a mechanism for separation of the older. As metals are deposited on the catalyst over a period of time. The unit catalyst inventory contains a continuous spectrum of catalyst particles ranging from very old catalyst with high metals and low activity through day-old fresh catalyst. Instead of discarding a full equilibrium catalyst mixture. Figure 2. the magnetic susceptibility of the catalyst particles increases2. more active and more selective particles. Figure 1 Distribution of Catalyst Activity as a Function of Age Microactivity Estimated Days in Unit Figure 2 Page 2 . most active particles back to the unit. the refiner can preferentially discard the poorest performing FCC catalyst particles and return the freshest. First. however. while at the same time achieves a moderate reduction in contaminant metals level. With MagnaCat®. if catalyst addition rate is held constant. This results in a reduction in the level of contaminant metals in the equilibrium catalyst inventory. not an electromagnet. As catalyst particles get older. the FCC catalyst particles removed from the circulating inventory will be those containing the highest level of metals contamination. that FCC metals reduction is not the primary objective of MagnaCat® processing. Page 3 . the crystallinity deteriorates and more nonframework alumina is formed. The intended benefit of implementing MagnaCat® is to upgrade the entire FCC catalyst inventory via removal of the oldest catalyst particles. The MagnaCat® process provides a safe and clean method of FCC catalyst management. as contaminant metals concentrate on the catalyst surface. they produce less gasoline and more coke and hydrogen. as zeolite deactivates.Metals Distribution Correlates with Magnetic Susceptibility 5 4 3 2 1 0 0 10 20 30 Nickel 40 Vanadium 50 60 70 Magnetic Susceptibility Metals Content. This results in a significant upgrade in catalyst activity and selectivity performance. they catalyze undesirable dehydrogenation reactions and zeolite deactivation. ppm (Thousands) It should be no surprise that FCC catalyst activity and selectivity is degraded as the particles age. This leads to less selective cracking and the production of more coke and gas. No chemicals are involved in the process and no wastewater is generated. It should be noted. Second. The process requires very little power since the magnetic separation can be achieved with a permanent magnet. History of MagnaCat® Process Development ® Magnetic separation techniques have been used for many years in the mining. The recommended mode of operation involves implementation of MagnaCat® while holding the fresh catalyst addition rate constant. and Nippon Oil operated an HGMS carousel separator on their FCC unit in Japan for about one year. Permanent magnets are generally used in operations where the material being removed exhibits strong ferromagnetic and/or paramagnetic properties. These techniques include the utilization of electromagnets and permanent magnets for separation of magnetic from non magnetic material on a wet or dry basis. Due to high capital. This will result in a moderate reduction in the metals on equilibrium catalyst. Electromagnets use electricity to induce a magnetic field in a metallic object by flowing electrons through a wire round core to induce a magnetic field in a metal object in the center of the core. dry separation technology to cracking catalysts in the late 80's and performed small scale tests in 1991 and 19922. The unit's design reflects the accumulation of years of Research. and Engineering. 2) the suitability of the catalyst for magnetic separation. Ashland and Nippon Oil independently applied High Gradient Magnetic Separation (HGMS) technology to cracking catalysts in the late 70's and early 80's and were granted patents. power. Ashland demonstrated the applicability of this less expensive rare earth roll magnet. These types of magnets are relatively expensive and operating costs are usually high due to the consumption of electricity. and 3) the support of Canton refinery Management. and land costs. advancements in permanent magnet technology enabled magnetic separation techniques to be applied to processes in the Petroleum Industry. This first MagnaCat® was completed in December 1995. Page 4 . Development. while at the same time significantly upgrading the catalytic properties of the inventory. In the late 80's and early 90's. Refiners can take advantage of the improved activity and selectivity through: • Increasing unit throughput • Increasing unit conversion • Running poorer quality feedstock The second mode of operation involves reducing fresh catalyst addition rate until either constant metals level or catalyst activity is achieved. this technology was mothballed.The MagnaCat® process can be employed in essentially two operating modes. This would result primarily in a reduction in catalyst usage and disposal costs. The Canton MagnaCat® Project ® Ashland's Canton refinery FCCU was chosen as the site of the first commercial unit based on 1) the size of the FCC catalyst inventory. All other operating modes are intermediate to these two modes. food and other industries. The hopper catalyst is slightly fluidized. filters. catalyst water cooler.The Canton MagnaCat® Process unit was placed close to the FCCU with the majority of the unit contained within a 4 level steel structure. and catalyst transfer hoppers on various levels. The structure houses the catalyst hopper. This process begins at Canton with a slip stream of FCC equilibrium catalyst flowing from the regenerator through a boiler feed water catalyst cooler. catalyst is vibrated onto a belt in a thin layer as the belt rotates. Figure 3 The MagnaCat® Separator Magnet Feeder FCC E-Cat Belt Vibrator Lower Metals / High Activity Recycle Catalyst Magnet Higher Metals Discard Catalyst Collection Chutes The magnet separates the catalyst into least and most magnetic fractions. A slide valve regulates the catalyst in a dilute phase transport to the MagnaCat® catalyst hopper. The fractions then gravity flow into separate catalyst transporters. The Page 5 . In the magnetic separator. The belt surrounds two rollers. Figure 3. one a non magnetic follower while the other magnetic roller is motor driven. a third minor fraction comprised of catalyst clumps and non-catalyst material of greater than 100 mesh is also collected. and flows through a cooling water catalyst cooler to further reduce the temperature of the catalyst from 260°F to 100°F. the heart of the operation. magnetic separator. The catalyst then transfers into the magnetic separator feed hopper in a dense phase mode. bins. 43 17.25 40. 1996.51 22 Month March 28 to April 30.5 107.7 22. Continuous smooth operation of the MagnaCat® Process unit commenced in late March and early April 1996 as shown in Table I.76 29.8 838 118 654 182 Wt.Summary of Canton Refinery MagnaCat® Process Unit Tons Magnetic Catalyst Separation FCC Eq.55 118.67 72. metals (nickel and vanadium). 1996 May 30 to June 30. 1996 July 30 to August 30. Monitoring of unit magnetic separation performance with Refinery Operations included evaluation of the FCC ECAT. Table I . least magnetic recycle and most magnetic reject catalyst fractions to set unit operation parameters.57 82. 1996 June 30 to July 30.least magnetic or recycle is returned to the regenerator while the most magnetic or reject is transferred to the spent hopper along with the >100 mesh size particles. FCCU performance tests were performed on May 1 and July 12.05 192. and catalyst physical and chemical properties.24 70.9 27.5 167.01 87.15 149. 1996 April 30 to May 30. During that period 838 tons of equilibrium catalyst were processed at an average split of 78 weight percent least magnetic recycle and 22 weight percent most magnetic reject with the amount of most magnetic reject decreasing over the evaluation period.85 224. least magnetic recycle and most magnetic reject catalyst fractions included micro activity testing (MAT). Analyses performed on the FCC ECAT.65 41.% Least Mag 63. and Development and Engineering Departments evaluated the MagnaCat® Process unit from April 1 to August 30.49 78 Ashland Petroleum's Research. 1996 Total Catalyst Processed Days On Stream from April to August Wt.4 49.33 27. This also coincides with a noticeable decrease in the fresh catalyst addition to the FCC unit as shown in Figure 4.% Most Mag 36.24 38.99 12.95 233. Page 6 .85 196. Applications. Least Mag Most Mag 63. 1996 to document the MagnaCat® performance at estimated 40% and 100% catalyst inventory treated. it was determined that the entire FCCU catalyst inventory consisted of particles recycled from the MagnaCat® process. 1995.35 0. The conversion increased significantly as the MagnaCat® unit came on-line and the entire catalyst inventory had been processed through the magnetic separation loop.25 0.Figure 4 FCC Catalyst Optimization With MagnaCat® Average Monthly Fresh Catalyst Addition Pounds/BBL 0. For the July 12. with an estimated 40% of the equilibrium catalyst inventory consisting of particles processed through and recycled from the MagnaCat® unit. For reasons unrelated to the project. Table II presents four sets of mass-balanced Canton FCCU yields corresponding to the test runs described above. Page 7 .3 0. to establish a base case prior to start-up of the MagnaCat® process. 1995 and October 13. The data further indicate that the increase in conversion was accompanied by a proportionate increase in gasoline yield and strong increase in total yield of C3 plus C4 hydrocarbon.2 4 10 95 11 12 1 2 3 4 5 96 6 7 8 9 Time Commercial Performance Results with MagnaCat® ® Ashland personnel performed FCCU test runs on April 12. 1996.000 BPD. 1996 test. An FCC test run was performed on May 1. start-up of the MagnaCat® process was delayed into the second quarter of 1996. The feed rates for all of the test runs are relatively similar at approximately 23. 1 1.9 0.9 7.6 0. °F Feed Temperature.Table II . FCC feed quality information was measured and is reported in Table III.9 61. Vol% FF Propane Propylene Isobutane N-Butane C4 Olefins Gasoline LCO Slurry Coke.2 13. BPD H2 Production. SCF/BBL Conversion: Vol% FF Yields.7 5. hydrogen-to-methane ratio and hydrogen yield.7 4.8 2.7 MagnaCat® 7/12/96 100 972 1285 610 22810 1200 34 82.1 0.8 8.9 3.3 0.3 6.1 0.7 0.4 Base 10/13/95 0 975 1300 598 22980 2500 50 76. MBPD Vacuum Bottoms.1 As is common with commercial data.8 0.%/FF Base 4/12/95 0 975 1310 632 23340 2000 56 75.1 0.9 10.9 13.7 7.9 0.Commercial Canton MagnaCat® Results Case Date % of Inventory Separated Riser Temperature. API gravity was lowest at 26. In order to determine the impact of feed quality differences on FCC yield structure. We have attempted to account for these changes in the following discussion.6 0.7 0.3 9. all of these yield changes are not attributable to MagnaCat®. °F Feed Rate. with Page 8 . Changes in black oil injection rate and a hydrotreater catalyst change also effect these yields.5 8.1 9. This provides further evidence that processing metals-laden FCC catalyst through the MagnaCat® unit will remove the oldest particles and reduce the degree to which dehydrogenation reactions occur.1 4. The improved conversion and liquid yield profile was accompanied by a reduction in coke yield.8 65. °F Regen Bed Temp.5 0.2 4. Wt% FF H2 Methane Ethane Ethylene Yields.7 2.4 11.3 4.8 0.1 0.1 63.8 6.4 MagnaCat® 5/1/96 40 972 1300 620 23430 1600 47 81.5 18.5 for the feedstock samples collected in April 1995 and July 1996.7 0.8 1.3 4.5 0.4 0.6 4.7 4.2 62.6 6.9 17.3 1.5 1.5 6. Wt. 5 4. The differences in high boiling material correlate well with the measured carbon residue content.Canton FCC Feed Properties Feed Properties Date of Balance API Gravity UOPK Sulfur.1 0.3 12. Wt.34 1 <1 1 <1 MagnaCat® 05/01/96 29.17 1.8 14.18 0. Table IV presents the results of an off-line analysis of equilibrium FCC catalyst from the commercial operation.18 0.8 12.09 12.6 7.% Nickel. The results in Table IV show that the FCC catalyst samples collected during the two MagnaCat® test runs exhibited significant advantages in the areas of increased gasoline selectivity and lower coke and hydrogen selectivity. The level of saturates in the April 1995 and July 1996 feedstocks indicate lower cracking quality.1 7. Wt.3 18. ppm Vanadium.5 6.0 73.2 12.6 The boiling range for the four feeds is similar.% Saturates Mono-Aromatics Di-Aromatics >Di-Aromatics 592 803 1075 563 784 1043 550 770 1055 549 785 1035 65.3 6. Table III .6 17.ppm Base Base 04/12/95 10/13/95 26. Page 9 .43 1.5 2.8 5.98 1 1 MagnaCat® 07/12/96 26.% Ramsbottom Carbon.1 0.8 5. These results clearly demonstrate the powerful impact of removing the oldest catalyst particles in a magnetic separation unit.6 79. Wt. Catalyst performance differences were obtained by Microactivity testing with a constant feed.7 <1 <1 D1160.0 0. varying feedstock quality cannot explain the improved performance of the Canton FCCU which was achieved after full implementation of MagnaCat® processing. Distillation Degree F 5 50 95 HPLC.higher gravities in October 1995 and May 1996. Differences of this magnitude can only be explained by significant improvement in catalyst properties and performance. MAT testing eliminates differences in feed quality and unit operating variables.5 12.5 28. The two feed samples collected in 1995 contained slightly higher sulfur and more carbon residue than the two feedstocks used for the partial and full MagnaCat® test runs. Based upon this review.8 68.2 0. with the exception of the highest boiling materials as evidenced by the differences in the 95% points. m2/g Pore Volume. FCCU Balance Catalyst Analysis Catalyst Properties Date of Balance Carbon on Regen.5 62. %) H2 Yield (Wt.7 1.14 0.67 0.Table IV FCC Catalyst Optimization With MagnaCat® MagnaCat® Improves Equilibrium Catalyst Selectivity Date % MagnaCat® In Inventory MAT Conversion (Vol.1 8.42 89 92 88 88 0. cc/g Average Particle Size.21 7/12/96 100 70.7 1.13 135 144 146 146 72 75 72 70 0.22 0.69 0.3 0. Wt.69 0. Microns Apparent Bulk Density. 9 1.0 0.67 5.44 0.38 63. ppm Iron.21 0.4 0.0 Base 900 2000 8100 1000 2100 7400 1100 1900 7700 1000 1700 7000 Page 10 .42 0.4 1.67 5/1/96 40 70.16 0.9 87 3.19 Table V contains analytical property data for each of the equilibrium catalyst samples Table V.) 4/12/95 0 70.05 90 2.%) Gasoline Selectivity (V/V) Coke Yield (Wt.41 85 3.7 0.7 0.5 7.%) H2/C1 Ratio (Wt/Wt) Gasoline Yield (Vol. m2/g Matrix Surface Area.%) Coke Selectivity (Coke/2nd Order Conv.56 59.47 10/13/95 0 71. ppm Base MagnaCat MagnaCat® ® ® 04/12/95 10/13/95 05/01/96 07/12/96 0.% Total Surface Area. ppm Vanadium.2 0.2 8.62 60.14 0.31 91 2.12 0. g/cc Relative Zeolite Metals Analysis Nickel. 8 TPD as recovery section constraints were being exceeded. It is important to note that the fresh catalyst addition rate remained relatively constant in the range of 3. Figure 7 illustrates the improvement in gasoline selectivity (vol/vol) as the MagnaCat® process is integrated in the Canton FCCU operation. it was necessary to reduce fresh catalyst addition at Canton to 2.from the series of FCC test runs. Page 11 . Catalyst addition rate was calculated as an average for the thirty days prior to each test run. The spike in hydrogen yield during the mid-May to early June time period is attributed to increased processing of residual bottoms and not to catalyst properties. Figure 5 FCC Catalyst Optimization With MagnaCat Gasoline Comparison 67 66 65 64 63 62 61 60 59 58 57 4/95 10/95 5/96 7/96 MAT FCC R Figure 6 illustrates the trend toward reduced commercial FCCU hydrogen make as the full FCC catalyst inventory is upgraded via magnetic separation.9 to 4.4 TPD between April 1995 and May 1996. In May of 1996. These results show that the metals content of these samples is relatively constant across the series. Figure 5 illustrates that the observed trend in gasoline yield for the equilibrium catalyst samples is confirmed by the gasoline yield trend on the commercial unit. R FCC Catalyst Optimization With MagnaCat R FCC Catalyst Optimization With MagnaCat Seven Day Average of Daily FCC Data 30-May-96 23-May-96 16-May-96 09-May-96 02-May-96 25-Apr-96 19-Apr-96 13-Apr-96 07-Apr-96 80 60 40 120 100 20 0 01-Apr-96 90 85 80 75 70 Seven Day Average of Daily FCC Data 31-Aug-96 29-Aug-96 22-Aug-96 15-Aug-96 08-Aug-96 01-Aug-96 25-Jul-96 18-Jul-96 11-Jul-96 04-Jul-96 27-Jun-96 20-Jun-96 13-Jun-96 06-Jun-96 30-May-96 23-May-96 16-May-96 09-May-96 02-May-96 25-Apr-96 19-Apr-96 13-Apr-96 07-Apr-96 01-Apr-96 31-Aug-96 29-Aug-96 22-Aug-96 15-Aug-96 08-Aug-96 01-Aug-96 Hydrogen Make (Daily Data) 25-Jul-96 18-Jul-96 Gasoline Selectivity 11-Jul-96 04-Jul-96 27-Jun-96 Date Figure 6 Figure 7 13-Jun-96 06-Jun-96 Hydrogen. SCF/BBL Page 12 20-Jun-96 . gasoline octane is clearly increased over this time period.Figure 8 presents a plot of research octane number (RON) during the MagnaCat® implementation period. based on the commercial Canton unit. MagnaCat® Process Unit Modular Design The licensed MagnaCat® process unit.60 per barrel of feed. is designed to be easily integrated into an operating FCC unit. The results indicate that both the partial (40%) and full (100%) MagnaCat® cases show significant economic benefits over the conventional FCCU yields measured during 1995.30-0. The unit has virtually 100% turndown flexibility and can be taken off line for maintenance or at the discretion of the operators while the FCC unit is operating. Although there is fluctuation resulting from frequent feedstock changes. Page 13 . MagnaCat®’s modular concept maximizes installation of the unit on pre-turnaround basis with a minimum amount of tieins and other construction activity required during the turnaround period. Figure 8 FCC Catalyst Optimization With MagnaCat Effect Upon Octane 95 94 93 92 91 90 04/01/96 11-Apr-96 21-Apr-96 01-May-96 11-May-96 21-May-96 31-May-96 10-Jun-96 20-Jun-96 30-Jun-96 10-Jul-96 20-Jul-96 30-Jul-96 09-Aug-96 19-Aug-96 29-Aug-96 08-Sep-96 18-Sep-96 28-Sep-96 Daily Data The economic benefit for MagnaCat® at Canton consists of a combination of improved FCC product value and FCC catalyst savings. the economic benefits of MagnaCat® are determined to be in the range of $0. Based upon a comparison of the 1995 and 1996 cases. the catalyst discard rate from the MagnaCat® unit will vary from 4 to 12 tons per day with the remainder recycled to the regenerator. the more magnetic.2 meters) is located adjacent to the main module and provides operating and maintenance access to its first platform level.5 feet (3. and then flow regulated by a slide valve. is readily transportable and quickly field installed. ladder access can be provided in lieu of the stair tower. dry plant air is used to transport the catalyst to the catalyst hopper located above the second platform level of the module. higher metals fraction is discarded to the FCC unit’s spent catalyst hopper or an alternate location.7 meters) by 12 feet (3.2 meters). The less magnetic stream. Downstream of the slide valve. is recycled to the regenerator. The shop-fabricated module contains the majority of the MagnaCat® process equipment and instrumentation. which is higher activity and lower metals. Included in the discard will be pieces of refractory.7 meters) with a height of 40 feet (12. The catalyst cooler and slide valve are typically located a short distance from the regenerator withdrawal nozzle. and other non-catalytic material typically found in the circulating catalyst stream of any FCC unit. A choke feed system maintains steady catalyst flow from the catalyst hopper to the two parallel magnetic separators where the equilibrium catalyst is split into two streams. Page 14 . Fluidization air supplied to the hopper provides minimal aeration to maintain an even catalyst temperature profile in the hopper and into the magnetic separators. they can be incorporated into the module design when necessary. The magnetic separators are enclosed within easily accessible panels to limit catalyst dust. The presence of these undesirable components in the equilibrium catalyst will appreciably decrease after the MagnaCat® unit completes the initial processing of the FCC unit’s entire catalyst inventory. The module’s structural framework has a footprint of 12 feet (3. The catalyst hopper serves as a feed buffer for the magnetic separators. A third minor stream consisting of catalyst clumps and non-catalyst material of greater than 100 mesh is also collected and combined with the more magnetic stream for disposal. When plot area is limited.7 meters) by 10 feet (3 meters) and a height of 10. A small bag house mounted on the top of the hopper removes catalyst fines from air discharging to the atmosphere. lower activity. clumped catalyst. aerated. Modular Process Description Hot equilibrium catalyst withdrawn from the regenerator is cooled by boiler feed water in a proprietary design catalyst cooler. Depending on the magnetic susceptibility of the equilibrium catalyst and the desired operation. A three dimensional module layout is shown in Figure 9 for reference. The magnetic separators.Modular Capacity and Dimensions The standard MagnaCat® process unit with one module has a nominal processing capacity of up to 40 tons per day of equilibrium catalyst. A separate stair tower module with a footprint of 12 feet (3. Figure 9 Page 15 . instrumentation. and electrical motors are located on the first platform level.along with process valves. Additional parallel modules are supplied for equilibrium catalyst processing requirements exceeding 40 tons per day. Harrell L. a short pay back period. least active and least selective FCC catalyst particles. along with additional module control functions. Larry D. and M. David W. A lower capacity MagnaCat® process unit capable of processing up to 20 tons per day of equilibrium catalyst is designed with a single magnetic separator on the module. We particularly wish to acknowledge the support of the Ashland Research. giving the refiner the flexibility of increasing the MagnaCat® unit’s capacity to the maximum of 40 tons per day at minimal cost by simply adding the second magnetic separator. Kellogg. Steven A. Applications. Tullock. Personnel directly involved include Rick L. Based upon a combination of increased FCC product value and FCC catalyst savings. MagnaCat® is providing Canton with a $0.The recycle and discard catalyst streams from the separators gravity flow to the recycle and discard transport hoppers located at the module’s grade level.30-0. Good. John L. Shafer. Acknowledgments The authors wish to express their appreciation to Ashland Petroleum Company. including sequencing of the associated valves. The commercially licensed MagnaCat® process unit developed from the original Canton unit utilizes a modular design concept to minimize installation downtime. Implementation of the MagnaCat® process at the Ashland Canton FCC unit has been a clear commercial success on both an economic and technical basis. and Development and Engineering Departments for their involvement in the development of the MagnaCat® technology.60 per barrel improvement in FCC operating economics. Based upon extensive studies conducted over the past five years. and proven technology. A programmable logic controller (PLC) provided with the module controls the operation of the two pneumatic transporters. Judith A. Duff. most metals-laden. Raimondo. Conclusions The MagnaCat® process has been proven to upgrade the FCC catalyst inventory through the magnetic separation and removal of the oldest. Danny E. Newman. The unit does not interfere with FCC converter operation. Barnett. Page 16 . it is clear that MagnaCat® can provide similar benefits for other FCC units processing even small amounts of residual material. and consumes minimum utilities. W. All other equipment for this design is sized to process 40 tons per day of equilibrium catalyst. With reasonable initial investment. Removal of these particles leads to improvements in the areas of increased gasoline selectivity as well as lower coke and gas selectivity. the MagnaCat® process is a desirable addition to any FCC unit processing a metals contaminated feedstock. The PLC can be located on the module or installed in the FCC unit’s control room. Refining Process Services. Reese. Hai Dang. has virtually 100% turndown flexibility. low operating expense. Ray Herbrich. Dennis C. References 1. Mink. 1991). 1995)." US Patent 4. Harold Rocketto. Johnson. Robert C. Maurice M. and Howard F. Robert J. William D." 1993 Spring National AIChE Meeting. William P.Gene M. Bombay. Campagna. "Advances in Resid FCC Technology. Gordon Chow. 1993). and E. "Resid FCC Regenerator Design. Waldie. Applied Catalysis. Goolsby. Goolsby.773 (September 27. Tiff Johnson. and Tiffin E." 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