EPIC OF IBALONG When the hero Baltog came to the rich land of Ibalon, many monsters still roamedaround in its very dark forest. Baltog, born in Baltavara to the brave clan of Lipod, was the first to cultivate the fields in the rich land of Ibalon. Then, Tandayag attacked and destroyed Baltog‘s fields and crops. Tandayag was a monstrous wild boar but the hero Baltog was not afraid. One night, he waited for Tandayag and wrestled with it with all his might. The Tandayag had very long fangs. The earth shook at the Tandayag‘s step. But Baltog was strong and brave. He was able to pin down the monstrous wild boar and tear out its mouth. Baltog carried the Tandayag and hung it on a talisay tree in front of his house in Tondol. The people celebrated when they learned of the victory of their king Baltog. The clans of Panicuason and Asog came over to marvel at the monstrous wild boar in Ibalon. At that time the hero Handiong came with a band of warriors to the land of Ibalon. Handiong and his men had to fight thousands of battles, and face many dangers to defeat the monsters. They first fought the one-eyed giants in the land of Ponon. They fought without rest for ten months until all the one-eyed giants were killed. They went to the lair of the giant flying fishes called Tiburon which had slimy, scaly, and hardy flesh and sawlike teeth that could crush rocks. Handiong and his men did not stop until they vanquished every Tiburon. They tamed the fierce tamaraws. They drove away the giant Sarimaw which was larger than an elephant and very fierce. They used their spears and arrows to kill all the crocodiles which were bigger than boats. The savage monkeys were frightened and hid when they saw the rivers and swamps of Ibalon turn red with blood. 7 Oriol was the hardest to kill. A serpent with a beautiful voice, Oriol could change its image to deceive enemies. Oriol had escaped every trap and disappeared. 8 All by himself, Handiong looked for Oriol in the heart of the forest. He followed the beautiful voice and was almost enchanted by it in his pursuit. It is said that Oriol admired Handiong‘s bravery and gallantry. Thus, the serpent taught the hero how to conquer the monsters until peace came to the whole Ibalon. 9 Handiong built a town in Isarog and a season of progress followed. Under Handiong‘s leadership, the people planted rice which they named after him. He built the first boat to ride the waves of Ibalon seas. Because of his good example, inventors came forth from his people. Ginantong made the plow, harrow, and other farming tools. Hablom invented the first loom for weaving abaca clothes. Dinahon, an Aeta, created the stove, cooking pot, earthen jar, and other kitchen utensils. The brilliant Sural thought of the alphabet and started to write on white rock. It was a golden period in Ibalon when even slaves were respected under the laws of Handiong. 10 But there came the big flood freed by Unos, with earthquakes and the eruption of the volcanoes of Hantik, Kolasi, and Isarog. Rivers dried up and the seas receded. The earth parted, mountains sank, and many towns in Ibalon were destroyed. 11 Then appeared the giant Rabot, half-man half-beast, with terrible powers. Bantong, Handiong‘s good friend, was ordered to kill the new monster in Ibalon. He took with him a thousand warriors to attack Rabot‘s den. Bantong used his wisdom against Rabot. He did not attack the giant‘s den right away but instead observed Rabot‘s ways. He saw many rocks around the den. They were people turned into rock by Rabot. 13 He also learned that Rabot loved to sleep. When Rabot slept very soundly, Bantong was able to go near him. The giant died with a single stab by the brave and wise Bantong. Ibalon was at peace once more. The Three Heroes of Ibalon The epic tells the story of three Bicol heroes. Baltog, a mighty warrior of Batavara, came by chance upon the lush and virginal beauty of Ibalon. Extensive in area, rich in soil, and free from typhoons. Ibalon attracted Baltog's men to found a kingdom. In the course of time, Ibalon became prosperous and peaceful. But one day, the peace and prosperity of the land was threatened not by conquering strangers or black men but by a huge man-eating wild boar. The ferocious beast destroyed the crops and killed the people on its path. Vast areas in Ibalon were soon reduced to waste and countless people were either killed or maimed. Baltog stood dumb-founded as he surveyed the depredation wrought on his kingdom. One day, Baltog left his home alone, planning to confront his enemy. Under the cover of night, he went to the muddy field to wait for his enemy. Under the cover of night, he went to the muddy field to wait for his enemy. After much waiting, when the moon was bright, the man-eating wild boar came snorting, tearing crops as it went along. Baltog hid under the bushes. When the boar came within his reach, he sprang at it like a panther. Man and beast tumbled to the ground in mortal combat. Fortunately, Baltog was able to pin down the beast land, summoning all his strength, he finally subdued the boar. Baltog’s victory put an end to a terror that had ravished his kingdom for a time. Ibalon, however, saw few years of peace. One day, huge carabaos followed by winged sharks and giant crocodiles rushed to Ibalon. Every mortal was in fright: death and destruction took a heavy toll. The mighty Baltog could no longer defend his kingdom, for the years had sapped his strength. Defenseless, Ibalon had become an easy prey. Luck, however, was still with Ibalon. On that day, Handiong, a mighty warrior of the neighboring kingdom, happened to pass by Ibalon. Apprised of the plight of the people, Handiong came to their rescue. Handiong and his brave seasoned men threw themselves at their stampeding and winging wild enemies. For untold hours, Ibalon saw mortal combat. Blood flowed freely over the land and the streams. One by one the beasts were slain. Before sunset, Handiong and his men emerged the victors. Only one monster escaped Handiong’s mortal wrath; this was Oriol, the serpent who could transform itself into a beautiful woman. Handiong , however, repulsed the advances of the temptress. To save itself from extinction, Oriol struck alliance with Handiong. Through its help, the salimaws or evil spirits of the mountains were route doubt. This last victory brought to an end the second threat to Ibalon’s peaceful existence. Ibalon, under Handiong’s wise administration, became rich and peaceful again. But Handiong was getting on in years and outside his domain, Rabut, was eyeing his kingdom. This monster was far more terrible, for under its spell, mortals could be changed into stones. Luck again was with Ibalon. Handiong had mighty friend, a young warrior named Bantong. Bantong, in command of a handful of men, trekked one day into the monster’s lair and found the enemy taking its nap. With cat-like agility, Bantong came near his prey and with a mighty stroke delivered mortal blows at the monster’s neck. The wounded monster writhed in agony and in his struggle for breath, the earth shuddered and cracked and the waters of the sea heaved and rolled landward. With the death throes of the monster over, the dust clouds parted and Ibalon underwent great physical change. New islets began to dot the waters near the peninsula; the Inarinan River changed its course; and a dark lake had replaced the mountain at Bato. Finally, a tall and perfect cone reared its head to lord over the leveled ruins. This perfect cone is now known as the Mayon Volcano. MITOSIS VS. MEIOSIS Mitosis is a process of cell duplication, or reproduction, during which one cell gives rise to two genetically identical daughter cells. Meiosis, on the other hand, is a division of a germ cell involving two fissions of the nucleus and giving rise to four gametes, or sex cells, each possessing half the number of chromosomes of the original cell. Mitosis is used by single celled organisms to reproduce; it is also used for the organic growth of tissues, fibers, and membranes. Meiosis is useful for sexual reproduction of organisms. The male and female sex cells, e.g. the spermatozoa and egg, fuse to create a new, singular biological organism. Process Differences Mitosis is a method of reproduction for single celled organisms that reproduceasexually. An identical version of the organism is created through splitting of the cell in two. Meiosis may result in millions of spermazoa and egg cells with unique genetic patterns. The mating of the two cells formed by meiosis results in a unique genetic offspring of the same species. Meiosis is a major factor in evolution, natural selection, and biodiversity. The processes of cellular division shown in mitosis and meiosis are present in all manner of life forms including humans, animals, plants, fungi, and single celled organisms and species. Essentially any cell based organism of which all organic life is based will exhibit some form of mitosis and meiosis for growth and reproduction of the individual and species. Different Stages of Mitosis and Meiosis The different phases of meiosis are: Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase and Telophase. An overview of the process and phases of meiosis The stages of mitosis are: Interphase, Preprophase, Prophase, Prometaphase,Metaphase, Anaphase, Telophase and Cytokinesi s. The process of mitosis Differences in Purpose Both Meiosis and Mitosis are found in complex organisms which reproduce sexually. Mitosis may be used for human growth, the replenishment of depleted organs and tissues, healing, and sustenance of the body. Identical versions of cells can be created to form tissues through Mitosis. Meiosis is a special process reserved for the creation of the egg and sperm cells. The same patterns may be found in many species of plant and animal cell reproduction. Significance The importance of mitosis is the maintenance of the chromosomal set; each cell formed receives chromosomes that are alike in composition and equal in number to the chromosomes of the parent cell. Occurrence Meiosis is found to occur in humans, animals and plants while mitosis is found in single-cell species as well. History Meiosis was discovered and described for the first time in sea urchin eggs in 1876, by noted German biologist Oscar Hertwig. Walther Flemming discovered the process of Mitosis in 1882. Evolution Mitosis as a form of reproduction for single-cell organisms originated with life itself (around 4 billion years ago). Meiosis is thought to have appeared 1.4 billion years ago. Chromosomal pattern comparison In mitosis, each daughter cell ends up with two complete sets of chromosomes while in meiosis, each daughter cell ends up with one set of chromosomes. Both mitosis and meiosis are studied by scientists generally by using a microscope to identify and classify chromosomal patterns and relationships within the cell’s structure. An understanding of the way cells synthesize chromosomes for reproduction can be applied in bio-machines and nano-technology. Transplantation of genes and chromosomes through injection and implantation is used to experiment with bio-engineering and cloning. Understanding the process through which cells replicate also has application in medicine and the study of health and disease. If you're male, your body uses meiosis to create sperm cells; if you're female, it uses meiosis to create egg cells. Others cells in your body contain 46 chromosomes: 23 from your father and 23 from your mother. Your egg (or sperm) cells contain only half that number—a total of 23 chromosomes. When an egg and sperm unite to make a fertilized egg, the chromosomes add up to equal 46.