English Notes Grammar

March 18, 2018 | Author: Anonymous B92CQpRe4Z | Category: Verb, Semantics, Languages, Semantic Units, Syntactic Relationships



The Present Continuous Tense is formed from the present tense of the verb be and the present participle(-ing form) of a verb: Use 1. We use the present continuous tense to talk about the present: • for something that is happening at the moment of speaking: I’m just leaving work. I’ll be home in an hour. Please be uiet. !he children are sleeping. • for something which is happening before and after a given time: "t eight o’clock we are usually having breakfast. When I get home the children are doing their homework. • for something which we think is temporary: #ichael is at universit$. %e’s studying histor$. I’m working in &ondon for the ne't two weeks. • for something which is new and contrasts with a previous state: !hese da$s most people are using email instead of writing letters. What sort of clothes are teenagers wearing nowada$s( What sort of music are they listening to( • to show that something is changing) growing or developing: !he children are growing uickl$. !he climate is changing rapidl$. *our +nglish is improving. • for something which happens again and again: It’s always raining in &ondon. !he$ are always arguing. ,eorge is great. %e’s always laughing. . What are you doing ne't week( . We can use the present continuous to talk about the past: • • When we are telling a story: When we are summarising the stor$ from a book) film or pla$ etc. We use the present continuous tense to talk about the future: • for something which has been arranged or planned: #ar$ is going to a new school ne't term.: Possessive Pronouns .Note: We normall$ use always with this use. -. Subject I ou !e She It "e #hey Object me $ou him her it us them Possessive adjectives m$ $our his her its our their Possessive pronouns mine $ours his hers its ours theirs We can use a possessive pronoun instead of a noun phrase: Is that /ohn’s car( 0o) it’s 1m$ car2 0o) it’s mine. Whose coat is this( Is it 1$our coat2( Is it $ours( %er coat is gre$) 1m$ coat2is brown %er coat is gre$) mine is brown. but not 3usan is a friend of me or I am one of Susan$s friends. We can sa$: 3usan is one of my friends. or I am a friend of Susan$s. We can use possessive pronouns after of. or 3usan is a friend of mine. but not I am a friend of 3usan Comparative and Superlative Adjectives . We often use the with comparative ad7ectives to show that one thing depends on another: When $ou drive faster it is more dangerous 8 !he faster $ou drive) the more dangerous it is.randfather is looking older and older. When the$ climbed higher it got colder 8 !he higher the$ climbed) the colder it got. When we want to describe how something or someone changes we can use two comparatives with and: !he balloon got bigger and bigger. . I’m feeling happier now. !hat’s the best film I have seen this $ear. %e is a better pla$er than 5onaldo.We use comparative adjectives to describe people and things: !his car is certainl$ better but it’s much more e%pensive. 9erbs . 6rance is a bigger countr$ than 4ritain. +verest is the highest mountain in the world. +ver$thing is getting more and more e%pensive. 0ew *ork is much bigger than 4oston. We need a bigger garden We use than when we want to compare one thing with another: 3he is two $ears older than me. Superlative adjectives : We use the with a superlative: It was the happiest day of m$ life. I have three sisters) /an is the oldest and "ngela is the youngest . must. have. like. ?opular verbs link the sub7ect of a sentence to its complement.     Transitive Verbs and $ntransitive Verbs " transitive verb is followed b$ a direct ob7ect: <3he sells seashells.< "inite Verbs and #onfinite Verbs " finite verb e'presses tense and can occur on its own in a main clause: <3hewalked to school.< Dynamic Verbs and Stative Verbs " dynamic verb indicates an action) process) or sensation: <I bought a new guitar. ?atenative verbs) for e'ample) 7oin with other verbs to form a chain or series. know.< "n intransitive verb doesn=t take a direct ob7ect: <%e sat there uietl$.< &egular 'erbs and Irregular 'erbs See the answer to question #3. "nd verbs can pla$ many different roles.1. ?ausative verbs show that some person or thing helps to make something happen. have. could. word (rain or snow) for e'ample) can serve as either a noun or a verb) the same verb can pla$ a number of different roles depending on the conte't.< " nonfinite verb (an infinitive or participle) doesn=t show a distinction in tense and can occur on its own onl$ in a dependent phrase or clause: <While walking to school) she spotted a blue7a$. How Many Different Types of Verbs Are There? When we talk about the different kinds of verbs) it generall$ makes more sense to define them b$ what the$ do rather than b$ what the$ are. " le%ical verb (also known as a full or main verb) is an$ verb in +nglish that isn=t an au'iliar$ verb: it conve$s a real meaning and doesn=t depend on another verb: <Itrained all night. should. %ere are 7ust some of them.) >oes that cover everything verbs can do( 6ar from it. will) and would.< " stative verb (such as be. .  Learn more about the different kinds of verbs at the glossary entry for 9erb.< (!his distinction is especiall$ trick$ because man$ verbs have both a transitive and an intransitive use. own) and seem) describes a state) situation) or condition: <0ow I own a .< !he primar$ au'iliaries are be. "nd we haven=t even touched on the passive or the sub7unctive. Au iliary Verbs and !e ical Verbs "n au%iliary verb (also know as a helping verb) determines the mood or tense of another verb in a phrase: <It will rain tonight. /ust as the :same.and do. !he modal au'iliaries include can. may.ibson +'plorer. 6urthermore) -F of these [email protected] are Ild +nglish words) and three more) get. Are there any e amples of &n'lish verbs that are both re'ular ( wea) ) and irre'ular ( stron' ) ? Ine that comes to mind is the verb <to fl$. 4ut in the 7argon of baseball) <fl$< is a regular verb: fly. make) C. leave) [email protected]< If /eter ever <flew out to center)< we=d have uite a different stor$. flew. walked). "eak verbs (also called regular verbs) form the past tense b$ adding #ed.. take) 1F. find) 1D. Inl$ try and use came from Ild 6rench. tr$) -A. 4. know) E. . called and walk. !he editors at the O ! offer these observations: 3trikingl$) the [email protected] most fre uent verbs are all oneGs$llable wordsH the first twoGs$llable verbs are become (-Bth) and include (-Cth). 5. have) . %hat are the most common verbs in &n'lish? "ccording to the Oxford nglish !ictionary) these are the [email protected] most commonl$ used verbs in +nglish: 1.< In most cases) <fl$< is an irregular verb: fly. come) 1-. see) 11. What we=re doing with all those bod$ parts is called verbingGGusing nouns (or occasionall$ other parts of speech) as verbs. do) A.2. go) D. flown. use) 1C. Learn more about Weak 9erbs and 3trong 9erbs. seem) and want) entered +nglish from Ild 0orse in the earl$ medieval period. work) -1. gave and stick. call. flied. feel) -.. See also" !he 1FF #ost ?ommonl$ Jsed Words in +nglish. give) 1B. 3o we sa$ that <>erek /eter flied out to center to end the inning. It seems that +nglish prefers terse) ancient words to describe actions or occurrences. look) 1A. want) [email protected] Strong verbs (also called irregular verbs) form the past tense or the past participle (or both) in various wa$s but most often b$ changing the vowel of the present tense form (for e'ample) give. #d) or #t to thebase formGGor present tense formGGof the verb (for e'ample) call.. See also" !he &anguage of 4aseball. flied. tell) 1E. stuck). %hat is Verbin' ? In a single work da$) we might head a task force) eye an opportunit$) nose around for good ideas) mouth a greeting) elbow an opponent) strong#arm a colleague) shoulder the blame) stomach a loss) and finall$ hand in our resignation. seem) --. sa$) @. get) B. think) 1. 3. %hat(s the difference between a " wea) verb " and a "stron' verb "? !he distinction between a weak verb and a strong verb is based on how the past tense of the verb is formed. be) -. ask) -F. %ere is how each one is used: " present participle b$ itself can=t serve as the main verb of a sentence. (3amuel /ohnson) Preface to /ohnson=s edition of 3hakespeare) [email protected])   . that he &ast the latter part of his life in a state of hostilit$.< !he present progressive is used for ongoing actionsGGthat is) for actions occurring at the moment of speaking and for actions that take place over a short period of time. (ast is a noun (meaning <a previous time<)) an ad7ective (meaning <ago<)) and a preposition (meaning <be$ond<). %hat(s the difference between passed and past ? (assed is both the past and past participle form of the verb &ass. .< Ine wa$ to make this word group into a sentence is b$ adding a sub7ect and a predicate: <' remember 3adie) tapping her cane to the music. 1C11) . .< Learn more about 9erbing. . %hat is the difference between the present pro'ressive and the present participle ? " present participle is a verb form with an <Ging< ending (for e'ample) <tapping<).race me no grace) and uncle me no uncles. !hepresent progressive aspect is a form of the verb <to be< &lus a present participle (for e'ample) <is tapping<). 7.9erbing is a timeGhonored wa$ of coining new words out of old ones) the et$mologicalprocess of conversion (or functional shifting). !his word group) for instance) is incomplete: <3adie) ta&&ing her cane to the music.< In contrast) a verb in the present progressive tense ma$ itself serve as the predicate of a sentence: <3adie is ta&&ing her cane to the music.< %ere) <tapping< begins a present participial phrase that modifies the noun <3adie. . Learn more about !he Present Participle and the Present Progressive. !he editors of )erriam#*ebster+s !ictionary of nglish . 3ometimes it=s also a kind of word pla$ (anthimeria)) as in 3hakespeare=s $ing %ichard the Second when the >uke of *ork sa$s) <. (/onathan 3wift) -ournal to Stella) [email protected] /an. 3o we could have a sentence that contains both a present participial phrase (<tapping her cane to the music<) and a main verb in the present progressive tense (<is singing<). 6.sage (1EEA) offer several e'amples: I did not tell $ou how I &ast m$ time $esterda$. he was much offended . In fact both words are derived from the verb &ass) and at one time &ast was commonl$ used for the past tense and the past participle. 4ut who knows( Perhaps this) too) shall pass.onquer) 1CC.) 0owada$s &ast has lost its status as a verb form (it=s bus$ enough serving as a noun) ad7ective) adverb) and preposition)) leaving &assed to fill the role of past tense.oldsmith) She Stoo&s to . (Iliver .  .I know what has &ast between $ou.
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