Technical Questions1. What is pressure altitude? Pressure altitude is the height above the standard datum plane of 1013Hpa when above 10,000 ft in Australia 2. What do you know about the RR Trent engine ? The Trent is a three-shaft and second-generation hollow titanium wide-chord fan high bypass ratio engine. Fan diameter: Trent 800 at 110 inches (2.79 meters). Eight-stage IP compressor; six-stage HP compressor; single annular combustor with 24 fuel injectors (Trent 700 and 800); single-stage HP turbine; single-stage IP turbine; five-stage LP turbine (Trent 800, 500, 900 and 600). http://www.rolls-royce.com/civil/products/turbofans/default.htm 3. How does an INS work ? 3 Platform with rotating mechanical gyros updated by DME / DME, VOR / DME, VOR / VOR. System is self-contained. Timing accuracy remains a critical shortfall. Integrity could either be acceptable, in the case of a complete INS failure, or unacceptable, in the case of insidious drift rates. http://www.navcen.uscg.gov/pubs/gps/crd/crdfp-3.html http://www.gfy.ku.dk/~cct/WP333/WP333.htm 4. How does an Omega work ? Very low frequency ( 10KHz – 14 KHz ) Phase synchronizing system. Initially used for submarine navigation. Last antenna switch off end ’97. Antenna in USA, Norway, France, Japan, Australia. http://www.navcen.uscg.gov/omega/ogeninfo/omegaff.htm 5. How do winglets work ? Improve performance / reduces drag by reducing wingtip vortices between high pressure and low pressure zone at the end of the wing. The main advantage is a less fuel flow. http://www.visionengineer.com/aero/winglet.shtml 6. What are the advantages of the B 747-400 ? Range, higher Payload, no ETOPS limitation, It also presents major aerodynamic improvements over earlier 747 models, including the addition of winglets to reduce drag, a new flight deck with new avionics and the latest inflight entertainment systems. Boeing claims that it has also the lowest operating cost per ton-mile in the industry. http://www.boeing.com/commercial/747family/background.html 7. What type of engine is on your aircraft? What is the RPM ? RR Trent 884 / 892 RPM on the N1 is ? http://www.rolls-royce.com/civil/products/turbofans/default.htm 8. Explain Dutch roll The 'Dutch Roll' is a combination of rolling and yawing, which results in an elliptic motion of the wingtips. Ailerons bank / Rudder opposite to maintain HDG / or a point on horizon. Is there a critical engine on a propeller / jet aircraft ? For an engine with clockwise rotating props. The critical engine would be the outboard.What is a microburst? What do you do about it ? Two extreme types of microburst. The area blanked out is called contour and corresponds to the return levels that exceed a predetermined threshold.edu/~doswell/microbursts/Figure_08. aerodynamics.htm#anchor94041 9. http://www.fiu.PDF 10.allstar.http://www.How do flaps affect the take-off ground run ? Less flaps longer takeoff run but better climb vv. left engine.What is the difference between MRC and LRC ? LRC is 1% less then MRC but with a significant increase of speed.main?id=97 http://www. Avoid them ! http://www.pdf 13.htm http://www. 777’s has no winglets and is more advanced in design.What is VMCA on the B 777 ? VMCA on TO2 884 = 93 kts.whittsflying. How does an iso-contour radar work ? Contour or iso-counter refers to a weather radar display presentation that blanks the echo returns in the center of a storm cell.html 11.131/aerodynamics1/Multi/Page3. VMCA on TO2 892ER = 87 kts. and the other is the extremely wet environment. 14. There is no critical engine on an jet aircraft as the corresponding systems are redundant.JPG 15. reduced landing performance ( aquaplaning. wind shear.airliners.vt.com/commercial/747family/technical. 12.What is the relationship between VMCG and V1 ? VMCG≤ V1 18.edu/~lutze/AOE3104/range&endurance. http://www.com/Tech_Lit/Glossary/GLOSSARY. skid ) 16.flwsradar. .What is the difference between the B 777 wing and the B 747 wing ? Wing area of 747-400 is larger. cockpit layout including avionics.Define endurance/ range on the drag curve http://www.html 19.What is the biggest hazard in heavy rain on final approach ? Reduced visibility. 17. this produces left roll. Efficiency.net/info/stats.edu/aero/lift_drag. Range. One is the extremely dry environment in which moist convection is just barely possible.71Landing%20in%20Winds.cimms. VMCA on TO2 892 = 97 kts.194. http://142. which can produce microburst embedded in very heavy rain.26.boeing.aoe.com/Page4.ou.What is the difference between a B 747 classic and the B 747-400 ? Payload. The actuator provides elevator pitch-up position to maintain the correct attitude when airplane mach tuck speed is attained.What is Direct Lift Control (DLC) ? Spoiler movement to increase ROD without changing Thrust / Pitch 23. They also serve for the purpose of air extraction for air conditioning and pressurization.When do you turn on engine anti-ice ? Whenever icing conditions are anticipated or visible moisture. Speed brakes. an automatic control sub-system which provides pitch trim of an aircraft as a function of mach number.navygouge. destroy lift after touch down. 26. Basically ailerons. The mach trim actuator changes the position of the column neutral point without altering feel/force characteristics. ? 25. high efficiency.What are Kueger flaps ? Nose flaps formed by rotating part of lower wing surface.Why are bleed valves fitted to jet engines ? To regulate the internal pressure during all parts of flight.Define the two major types of drag ? PARASITE DRAG o Parasite drag is defined as all drag that is not associated with the production of lift INDUCED DRAG o Induced drag is that portion of total drag associated with the production of lift http://www. less noise 24.html . Mach data from the air data computer is used to generate a servo position command signal.Give six reasons for spoilers ? High speed turn device. rudder and elevator. Drag on ground. DLC. 28. http://digilander.htm 27. disadvantage higher drag.nasa. prevent stalling an engine. yaw and pitch control. The mach trim system provides automatic elevator displacement as a function of mach number in the mach tuck (nose down) region.gov/office/pao/History/SP-468/ch10-5. This signal is applied to the mach trim actuator.What are the advantages of a fan engine ? Higher Thrust due to high Bypass ratio.What are active controls ? Active controls enable an airplane to pull air across the plane in specific directions rather than passively letting the air flow over it.What is the purpose of a Mach trimmer ? In a flight control system.hq. visibility less then 1 NM. less fuel flow. Redundancy due 3 HYD systems. Advantage increased chord. temperature less then 10˚C down to -40˚C 22. for roll.htm 21.20. higher production cost http://www.it/andreatheone/dfcs.com/api/basics/ELOs/aero.libero. lerc. dirt.com. http://www.htm 37.html 30. 1013. wrong takeoff speeds.92 inches of Mercury (in.What are the three types of hydroplaning ? Dynamic Hydroplaning ( Standing water ).html 38.jet-jobs.html#dy http://www.05 VMCG ≤ VR ≤ 1. 34.25 Hpa Sea Level Temperature of 15° Celsius Relative humidity of 0 % Standard temperature lapse rate of 2° C per 1000 feet altitude Standard pressure lapse rate of 1 in.com/gs/perf.html 31.What is the relationship of V1.What are the various ICAO approach limits ? ( CAT I. rubber ) Rubber reversion hydroplaning ( high-pressure steam due to hot brakes melting ice ) http://www.gov/WWW/K-12/airplane/smotion.asp 33.What are the advantages and disadvantages of the INS system ? System is self-contained.jet-jobs.What is EPR ( engine pressure ratio ) ? EPR = PT8/PT2 PT8 = Outlet pressure / PT2 = Ram Air Fan pressure http://www. http://www.lerc.html 32.gov/pubs/gps/crd/crdfp-3.29.au/avfacts/editorial/tipstall/default.navcen.What are the four reasons for a variable incidence tail plane ? Over rotation. cargo shift during rotation.com/Data/systems/infoyawdampers. Viscous Hydroplaning ( dust.uncletom2000.com/articles/hydropln. Hg per 1000 feet altitude A standard decrease in density as altitude increases http://www.html#vis http://www.nasa.boeing-727.What is a super-stall ? Turbulent air due high pitch reaches the aft section of the aircraft and causes a super stall.1 VMCA ≤ V2 36. Hg).com/articles/hydropln. Timing accuracy remains a critical shortfall.What are the forces acting upon an aircraft in flight ? Thrust-Drag / Lift-Weight http://www. http://www.What are the purposes roll and yaw dampers ? The prime function of a yaw damper is to minimize Dutch Roll by providing automatic rudder displacement proportional to and opposing the amount of yaw experienced.uscg. tailwind.gov/WWW/K-12/airplane/epr.What is ISA ( ICAO standard atmosphere ) ? Sea Level Barometric Pressure of 29.aviationshop. Rotating gyros causing drag and that causes inaccuracy over the time period.nasa. CAT II … ) . VR and V2 ? VMCG ≤ V1 ≤ VMBE ≤ 1.jet-jobs.com/articles/hydropln.html#rub 35. edu/~doswell/microbursts/Figure_08.JPG 41.au/airsafe/trip/turbulen. i. http://www. range use MRC 45. where rapidly moving air is close to much slower air.cimms.What is the transport wander of an uncorrected gyro ? The systems typically assume the gravity field to be the normal (ellipsoidal) field.000 feet. raise speed brakes. One is the extremely dry environment in which moist convection is just barely possible. Airport elevation.unl. after a complete stop set the barking brake.casa.gov.CAT I = 200’-800m | CAT II = 100’-350m | CAT IIIa = 50’-200m | CAT IIIb = 20’-100m 39.html http://www. 44. tire pressure.htm 43. deflections of the vertical are ignored.How is range increased when flying into a headwind ? By selecting LRC or for max.Tire temperatures prior takeoff depend upon ? A/C weight. Severe wind shear is a rapid change in wind direction or velocity causing airspeed changes greater than 15 knots or vertical speed changes greater than 500 feet per minute in the vertical direction. This gives rise to errors.dk/~cct/WP333/WP333.math.What is the rejected takeoff drill ? Call stop.ou. which can produce microburst embedded in very heavy rain. 42. use thrust reverse. Two extreme types of microburst. taxi speed. It is most severe over mountainous areas. During the alignment the platforms stabilize and internal compass then finds during the alignment true north.gfy. http://www. .000 and 39. http://www.htm 40.edu/~jfisher/NSF_96/windshear.ku.e. close thrust lever / same time use brakes. OAT. and the other is the extremely wet environment.What is wind shear / micro burst ? Wind shear are any rapid change in wind direction or velocity.How does an INS find True North ? By entering the present position in LAT / LONG into the INS.What is a CAT ( Clear Air Turbulence ) ? Erratic air currents that occur in cloudless air between altitudes of 23. This turbulence can be caused by small-scale wind velocity gradients around the jet stream. The aircraft can’t be moved during the alignment. which for military systems is known to be the primary error source in navigation accuracy. geocities.airtab.airtab. 54.htm http://www. http://www.com/thapdfs/07stalls.What are the inputs to GPWS ? The GPWS uses inputs from systems providing radio altitude. airspeed/Mach number. http://www.htm 49.46. which brake gets the hottest ? The aft one.sasflightops.ntps.htm 51.Initially.org/non-members/safety/safetyPPDec00.com/pegasusair_tr/aoa.What is / are the purposes of vortex generators ? They work by creating a controlled swirl of air.How does stall speed vary with C of G ? Highest stall speed is at the most forward CG. or vortex which actually reduces wind resistance (or aerodynamic drag). 200 ER ) different from ( 300 ) ? B777-300 is a stretched version of the B777-200. http://www.What are the purpose of engine relight boundaries ? The same as In-flight Engine Start Envelope . 53. B777-200/200ER are same aircraft but with different engines ( 884/892 ). ( Insurance costs ) 52. http://www.Landing on a tandem bogie. because of warmed up air from the forward brakes. Better effectiveness means you can fly to a slower speed and still maintain directional control.What changes the AOA at the stall ? Lowest sustainable speed for required lift occurs at maximum AOA i.copanational. what is the most efficient means of breaking ? Reverse thrust and speed brake drag are the most effective during the high speed portion of the landing.htm 50.com/what. landing gear and flap position. and DH setting. At lower speeds brakes are getting more efficient. stall speed. http://www.pdf 48. subsequently increasing the rudder’s control effectiveness.htm 47.Why are B 777 takeoff limits ( 200.com/how.How does VMCA vary with C of G ? Any position forward of full aft effectively lengthens the control arm or distance between the rudder and the point which the aircraft yaws about. Takeoff weight is different because of different destination profiles. on wet runway.com/safety/gpws. They control boundary layer because they prevent separation by bringing air of high momentum into the boundary layer mainly at high angles of attack thus delaying a stall.e. They can also be used to control shock-induced separation. What is Mack tuck ? At high speeds ( even as low as Mach .com/machtuck_article.1903to2003.Wow does the temperatures affect the speed of sound ? The speed of sound is only dependent on temperature. This effect becomes more important as speed increases. 64. http://www. which will alter the amount of resulting force on the object.htm 63.gov/WWW/K-12/airplane/airsim.html 62.html 58. This tendency is called the "Mach Tuck. even though the overall speed of the aircraft is still sub sonic.What is a high-drag devices ? Spoiler.Why is ERP set by 60 / 80 kts ? Because of increasing Ram effect during takeoff run and therefore more accurate values.lerc.What happens to EPR on the takeoff roll ? EPR increases due to ram effect on the engine.85 ) the nose starts to droop.gov/essay/Theories_of_Flight/Devices/TH17. http://hypertextbook. By pulling the stick back to correct the flight path the upward deflection of the elevator has been known to cause a shock wave stall at the elevator hinge line.nasa.What are the wind / gust correction factors for VREF speed ? ½ headwind + full gusts up to a maximum of 20 kts. http://www.What happens to stall speed at very high altitudes ? Stall speed increases with higher altitudes because of lesser air density. the air molecules move around the object. The initial droop is caused by the center of pressure moving aft on the wing as a result of the air stream over the top of the wing being accelerated to supersonic speeds. http://www. The speed of sound is faster at higher temperatures because molecules collide more often.What are the effects of compressibility ? Aerodynamic forces depend in a complex way on the compressibility of the air.htm 59." http://www.aerodyn.ultralightfloats.org/HighLift/multi.com/facts/2000/CheukWong.55. some of the energy of the object goes into compressing the fluid and changing the density. But for high speeds.What do CSD’s ( constant speed drives ) do ? The CSD or IDG is fitted to the aircraft engine and takes a varying input speed from the engine. 60. If the object passes at a low speed the density of the fluid will remain constant. Near and beyond the speed of sound shock waves are produced that affect both the lift and drag of an object. The nose of the aircraft always tends to pitch nose down as the aircraft transitions from subsonic to supersonic speed. 61.shtml 56. mechanically compensating for this varying speed to give a constant output speed . full flaps. As the speed increases. the aircraft goes into an ever-increasing downward pitch.What is a high-lift devices ? Slats and Flaps are High-lift device’s. As an object moves through the air. 57. html 67.131/aerodynamics1/Drag/Stall_Pattern. 73.How do prevent span-wise flow on a wing ? By installing vortex generators and fences.edu/gallyt/ae301/Chapter5-Part3.Who was your first instructor ? Mr. and you have a severe rolling and yawing reaction of the airplane. more compact unit. have left turning tendencies. These include torque and Pfactor. http://www.What is mass balance for ? To trim an aircraft within the certified limits.glenndale.htm 65.26.com/constant_speed_drives. An IDG integrates the Generator into the same unit as the CSD. http://www. http://142. You could also consider both engines to be critical since the loss of either on would adversely affect the performance or handling qualities of the airplane.net/Flight_Training_Stuff/engine_out. the critical engine is the left engine on twins with props that rotate in the same direction.htm 71. the downward bite of the descending prop blades are the same on both engines. 66. Vautz 70. Put this on top of the left-turning tendencies already existing on the airplane. Thrust line is the distance from centerline of fuselage to downward bite of the propeller.to the Generator.pr.What advantages does a jet gain from a swept wing ? Swept wing increases the critical much number and decreases the wave drag http://backoff. just like single engine airplanes. in almost all American twins. no matter which engine you lose it is not the critical engine. Usually.tarel. In this manner a strong boundary layer buildup over the ailerons is prevented.pdf 72.Why do you do de-rated thrust takeoffs in a jet aircraft ? To safe engine life. .How did you prepare technically for the interview ? By reading and internet surfing 69. Twins.erau. Holding Fuel + 700 Kg Taxi 68. On airplanes with counter-rotating props.Why is #1 engine the critical engine on a multi-engine prop airplane ? Critical engine is the engine whose failure would most adversely affect the performance or handling qualities of the airplane.194. Therefore. when you lose the left engine the larger arm on the right engine causes more turning tendencies than when you lose the left engine the larger arm on the right engine causes more tuning tendencies than when you lose the right.Where does a swept wing stall first ? Swept wing will stall first at the tip.How do you do fuel planning on B 777 ? Burn off + 5% Contingency + Alternate Fuel + 30 min. giving a single. Because the downward bite of the prop has a larger arm from the center of thrust on the right engine than it does on the left in conventional twins. http://www. Crew must be certified. B777 requires following: EICAS MSG not displayed SGL SOURCE DISPLAYS.1 window heat system operational.edu/16.1 VMCA≤V2 .What is the correct technique from Dutch roll ? To use the rudder. SGL SOURCE RAD ALT. and time.gov/essay/Government_Role/landing_nav/POL14. VMCG≤ V1 | 1. 78. and airborne users to determine their three dimensional position. http://www.What are the advantages of MLS or GPS ? MLS allow pilots to pick a path best suited to their type of aircraft and to descend and land from more directions than the ILS. 24 hours a day in all weather.What is higher. Having different landing patterns can help reduce noise around airports and keep small aircraft away from the dangerous vortices behind large aircraft.centennialofflight.How many feet in millibar ? About 30 feet 76.navcen.htm 75.uscg. anywhere in the world.05 VMCA≤VR | 1.gov/gps/default.navcen. VMCG or VMCA on a B 747-400 ? Why ? VMCA is always higher than VMCG. and airborne users to determine their three dimensional position. sea. SINGLE SOURCE ILS and both ASA and FWD No. http://web.gov/essay/Theories_of_Flight/Transonic_Wings/TH20.ht m 74.htm http://www.centennialofflight. velocity. and time. GPS permits land. velocity.mit.61/www/lectures/lecture18.htm http://www. anywhere in the world. 24 hours a day in all weather. GPS permits land. Having different landing patterns can help reduce noise around airports and keep small aircraft away from the dangerous vortices behind large aircraft.pdf 79.htm 80.What are the advantages of MLS and of GPS ? MLS allow pilots to pick a path best suited to their type of aircraft and to descend and land from more directions than the ILS.What happens to your Mach # if you climb at a constant equivalent airspeed / EAS ? Mach # gets lower due to decreasing temperature 77.gov/gps/default.centennialofflight.uscg.http://www. sea.gov/essay/Government_Role/landing_nav/POL14.What do you know about CAT III approaches ? CAT IIIa = 50’-200m | CAT IIIb = 20’-100m | CAT IIIc = no limits Auto coupled approach with A/T is mandatory for CAT III + Auto brakes for CAT IIIb. Ground equipment meet required approach category. VMCA is an air speed while VMCG is a ground speed. What does the cost index mean to B 777? What things are considered by the FMC system when setting cruise speed in ECON mode ? Cost Index sets variable climb.How do you teach a student about VMCA ? VMCA.81. at about 13000 Kg.html 87. Suitable airport is like an adequate airport but with at least 2 separate approach procedures based on 2 aids serving 2 separate Rwy’s + specified WX criteria ( VIS. which was authorized for 180 minute ETOPS upon certification.How much fuel is used on B 777 ? How is it distributed ? Left 29100 Kg | Center 79300 Kg | Right 29100 Kg Center Fuel down to about 1000 Kg. 86. Xwind / gust ) To gain approval for 180 minutes ETOPS.87 Mach 777-300 330 KIAS / .copanational.Tell me about ETOPS. To be prepared for a go-around. then Wing Fuel. normal SOP’s. THR | TOGA | TOGA on the FMC. at least one letdown instrument approach.ps1fplan. http://www.htm 82. approach lights. no configuration change until out of wind shear.com/mb/docs/etops. ATC.org/non-members/safety/safetyPPDec00.attitude 15˚ nose up. 84. Call out -wind shear recovery. Wing Fuel the scavenge system transfer the remaining Center Fuel the Wing tanks. What is an adequate / suitable aerodrome ? What things are considered for an airline to be certified for 180 minutes ETOPS ? Adequate airport physically there equipped with a sufficient Rwy. What should you be caution of ? What things would you look for if winds hear was expected ? What is your recovery technique ? What selection will give you TOGA when you hit the go-levers ? Late visual contact to the Rwy.89 Mach Due to swept wing not to succeed Vmcrit. 85. single engine. ( Much tuck ) . or minimum control speed air.02/1000 hours.What is the B 777 VMO / MMO ? Why ? 777-200 330 KIAS / . altitude and wind factor.Your F/O is flying a non-precision approach and has rain on his windscreen. http://www. meteorological and aeronautical service. The latest landmark in ETOPS was achieved by the Boeing 777. the air carrier must operate the extended range fleet for at least one year in ER-OPS. RA callouts. cruise and descent speeds in the FMC. aircraft weight.Why do you teach VMCA in the airplane vice the simulator ? Shouldn’t we better teach VMCA in the simulator instead? 83. ECON considers the cost index set. with an IFSD of approximately . Problems during transition from instruments to visual cues. is the minimum speed at which a pilot can expect to recover directional control of the airplane within 20 degrees of heading change and then maintain straight flight with not more than five degrees of bank when one engine fails. Would you return to a IFR minimum approach in Honolulu or would you continue to Vancouver. YES I would continue to my destination if the engineer service would be the same. where it is CAVOK ? If the engine failure is caused by just an engine problem and not a common problem like volcanic ash. You lose an engine after takeoff. as in a basic turbojet. http://aerodyn. At high temperatures a diffusion bond is formed between these three pieces of material such that the finished blade is effectively a .Describe a fan engine The incoming air is captured by the engine inlet. 94. Dimensions.Describe.How do spoilers / ailerons work ? Spoilers are used for high and low speed roll control as well as speed brakes in flight and lift destroyer upon landing in order to pressure the gear on landing with the full aircraft weight. The hot exhaust passes through the core and fan turbines and then out the nozzle.gov/WWW/K-12/airplane/aturbf. 24 hours a day in all weather. 91. etc. 92. where it is mixed with fuel and combustion occurs. The air that goes through the fan has a velocity that is slightly increased from free stream. or goes around the engine.edu/courses/online/FAA %20Programs/2002_FAA_Key_to_FAA_Publications/TCDS/tcdsvol3/t00001se.http://aviation. just like the air through a propeller. 15 and 20. fuel contamination. So a turbofan gets some of its thrust from the core and some of its thrust from the fan. how you would design a high speed aircraft wing ? Delta wings are appropriate plan forms to fly at supersonic and hypersonic speeds. These are manufactured by placing a 3D-machined piece of honeycomb material between two sheets of pre-machined titanium. hollow blades designed and developed by Rolls-Royce.ohio-state.html 89.navcen. http://www. totally CAD planed.eng.org/Wings/waverider. Bypass ratio is about 80% of total thrust. The ratio of the air that goes around the engine to the air that goes through the core is called the bypass ratio.nasa.htm 93. and time. anywhere in the world. http://www. and airborne users to determine their three dimensional position. Back up electrical generators ( no need for APU generators in case of coupled approach ) Huge engines with high thrust.gov/gps/default. sea. The rest of the incoming air passes through the fan and bypasses. velocity.lerc. GPS permits land.What are the advantages of a wide-chord fan engine ? Unique wide chord.You are in a four engine aircraft departing Honolulu for Vancouver. Ailerons are used for low speed roll control as well as lift devices on takeoff with flaps 5.html 90.pdf 88.Tell me about GPS GPS is defined as the constellation of satellites.What features make the B 777 unique from other aircraft ? The triple bogie landing steer able landing gear. shroud less.uscg. Some of the incoming air passes through the fan and continues on into the core compressor and then the burner. Explain the B 777 anti / de-ice system ? The system contains: • Automatic ice detection • Engine anti ice • Wing anti ice • Flight deck window heat • Windshield wipers • Probe heat 97. By extending or retarding the spoiler slow and gently. 98. centrifuges runway debris and dust into the by-pass duct reducing engine removals due to FOD ( foreign object damage ) by a factor of four when measured against conventional narrow blades. rain ) or a tailwind affect your V1 ( distance or speed ) ? Distance to reach V1 for tailwind / contaminated runway is shorter. In addition. 99.How does a contaminated runway ( ice. or when the flap lever is in landing position. So the main advantages are best FOD & strongest fan ever built. permissible takeoff weight is the lowest of the corrected performance • Climb limited weight • Improved climb limited weight • Runway limited weight 96. This lightweight blade is then extremely strong with a leading edge that is robust and can resist damage due to foreign object impact. 95. What are differential / non-differential spoilers ? . Wide-chord fan protects the engine against foreign object damage while latest-generation single crystal high-pressure turbine blades help to ensure that engines have the best on-wing life in the airline industry.single piece. 100. the wide-chord nature of the blade.Outline takeoff performance planning on B 777 ? The max. Fuel efficiency is another great characteristic.How do you maintain obstacle clearance on B 777. what is the profile you fly ? Improved climb takeoff ( Flaps 5 ) gives the highest takeoff weight to clear obstacles. Engines incorporating the wide chord blade have fan modules that are approximately 24% lighter and an engine which is 7% lighter ( typically the Trent 800 engine as used in the Boeing 777 ). V1 Speed is lower than the normal V1 speed. hollow structure.What are the limitations of spoilers ? How do you correct spoiler blowback ? Speed brake is extended when radio altitude is between 15’ and 800’. or when thrust lever is not closed. What are the inputs of “ Q “ feel ? The ‘Q feel’ (“Q” for dynamic air pressure) systems provide artificial feel forces to the pilot control yokes. and controllers can alert pilots in the ¢ vent wind shear is detected. Why do engines have auto-ignition ? How does it work ? To prevent engine flameout during rain /hail. airborne detection will still be needed because wind shear is a global phenomena and most airports will not have predictive. http://www.html http://www.ou.htm 101. When engine flameout is detected.edu/~jfisher/NSF_96/windshear.htm 102.it/andreatheone/dfcs.Differential spoilers are slightly more sophisticated and will extend on one side in response to a roll demand and will retract on the other side. Mach data from the air data computer is used to generate a servo position command signal. What is wind shear ? How is it detected ? Where do you find wind shear ? Where do you find microburst ? Wind shear is any rapid change in wind direction or velocity. This is because hydraulic powered controls mask high demands that may be applied by pilots inadvertently.. Wind speed and directional sensors report to a central computer. When EEC detects an engine flameout. and the other is the extremely wet environment. EEC energizes both igniters. However. an automatic control sub-system which provides pitch trim of an aircraft as a function of mach number. The basic information comes from a pitot tube.com. airports. temperature inversions.br/artigo36. http://www. which can produce microburst embedded in very heavy rain. These wind variations can result from a large variety of meteorological conditions. You can compare it to a modern car’s power steering that changes it’s feeling as speed increases. The mach trim system provides automatic elevator quadrant displacement as a function of Mach number in the mach tuck (nose down) region. the respective engine igniters are activated. A Low-Level Wind-Shear Alert System has been installed on the ground at more than 100 U.najaco. What is a mach trimmer ? What is it used for ? In a flight control system. But the systems cannot predict when wind shears are approaching. This signal is applied to the mach trim actuator.gaveasky.libero. and Denver Stapleton airports and is scheduled to be stationed at more than 40 other airports by mid-1994. ground-based systems installed. One is the extremely dry environment in which moist convection is just barely possible.edu/~doswell/microbursts/Figure_08. 103. The actuator provides elevator pitch-up position to maintain the correct attitude when airplane mach tuck speed is attained.unl. strong surface winds and thunderstorms.at/Books/indestructible_pilot/book/knowledge/knowledge_2.math. The mach trim actuator changes the position of the column neutral point without altering feel/force characteristics.JPG 104. Two extreme types of microburst exists.htm .S. http://www.cimms. frontal systems. sea breezes. a ground-based radar ( Terminal Doppler Weather Radar ) system has been tested at Orlando. http://digilander. however. Fla. Non-differential spoilers will extend on one side in response to a roll demand but will not retract on the other side. Even with such systems installed. work on the same principle. long runway.htm 107. at the back of the engine. The density altitude where VY and VX meet is the absolute ceiling. maximum gross weight. light aircraft.fergworld. Immediate action items : • Push / Push the autopilot off and push yoke to unload any G’s.wordreference. and maximum continuous power.asp?en=absolute%20ceiling 109. step on the sky. As an aircraft climbs. 108. high / low speeds.org. What is MCRIT ? Consider the flow past a standard aerofoil section. http://inventors.htm http://www. decrease if nose is low. This higher temperature is called the assumed temperature. The burning gases expand and blast out through the nozzle.g. Max.105. • Rudder / If nose is low. Absolute ceiling: the maximum density altitude which the aircraft can maintain or attain with two engines operating.com/english/definition.aviation-industry. the engine and the aircraft are thrust forward. As the jets of gas shoot backward. The RR Trend engines 884/892 are flat rated at ISA +30˚C.com/english/definition. we can choose a thrust setting below full thrust by telling the engines (via the FMC) that the OAT is much higher than it actually is.com/cfi/pdf/Multi-engine_Instructor_Quick_Reference. The compressor is made up of fans with many blades and attached to a shaft.com/library/inventors/blhowajetengineworks.wordreference. Above this temperature. ( FAA ) http://www. http://www. they will give less thrust because the air is less dense. What causes a jet-upset ? How do you correct it ? Extreme attitudes.pdf 106.about. What is a “ assumed temperature “ ? This is a way of reducing the take-off thrust to the minimum required for a safe take-off. thereby conserving engine life and hence reducing your chances of an engine failure. The engine sucks air in at the front with a fan. gear up. The blades compress the air. which are also called gas turbines. flaps up. • Roll / Roll wings level before pitching up to horizon.asp?en=service%20ceiling http://www. On occasions when full thrust would be more than is safely required e. A compressor raises the pressure of the air.doc http://www. local Mach numbers at different points on the wing's surface will range from zero at the . The compressed air is then sprayed with fuel and an electric spark lights the mixture. takeoff thrust. allowed reduction is 25% from max. What is a service ceiling ? An absolute ceiling ? Service ceiling: the maximum density altitude at which the best rate of climb will produce a 100 fpm rate of climb at maximum gross weight.com/atem/EngineYB/Acrobat/eybdirturbos. For a given flight Mach number (M). What is the combustion cycle of a jet engine ? All jet engines.uk/assumedtemp.b737. This means that they are guaranteed to give (at least) the rated thrust at the full throttle position when the OAT is below this temperature. headwind etc. gear up. and maximum continuous power. VY decreases and VX increases. flaps up. • Power / Increase if nose is high. At any higher value of M there will be a region of supersonic flow produced on the upper surface. ) Use QRH Unreliable Airspeed table to determine Pitch and Thrust settings. Highest weight of aircraft needs highest lift. both move back to the 50% chord point.html 115.leading edge stagnation point to a maximum value somewhere on the upper surface. Outline the change in the Center of Pressure as an aircraft increases speed past MCRIT ? An aerodynamic center is at approximately the 25% chord point.ac. as the aircraft moves into supersonic flight the up wash ahead of the wing disappears (since no pressure waves move out ahead of the wing. If you were loading an airplane to obtain max.131/aerodynamics1/High-Speed/Page6.htm 110. However.rmcs.edu/at/courses/at403/Aircraft_electrical_systems.uk/aeroxtra/hsfapp.ppt 111.26.lerc. altitude. 114. the maximum local M on the upper surface will also increase until it eventually reaches M = 1 at the flight Mcrit. etc. Use the standby horizon.html 116. Range. mechanically compensating for this varying speed to give a constant output speed to the Generator.gov/WWW/K-12/airplane/smotion.nasa.tarel. What are your actions for a pitot / static blockage ? An artificial horizon failure ? Pitot / static blockage causes unreliable data ( speed. An IDG integrates the Generator into the same unit as the CSD. . would you load it with a forward or aft C of G ? Aft C of G. http://www. http://142. http://www.194. During what phase of flight is lift the greatest ? Lift is greatest during takeoff. What are the basic parameters of an aircraft electrical system ? Aircraft electrical components operate on many different voltages both AC and DC However. most of the systems use: 115 V AC @ 400 Hz 28 V DC 26 V AC is also used in some aircraft for lighting http://www.htm 113. terminated by a terminal shock wave.tech. leading to increased drag http://www.cranfield. As M increases. giving a single. 112.purdue. What is a safety cell battery ? A safety cell battery is a battery which doesn’t leak. Describe the construction of an engine generator ? The generator or IDG is fitted to the aircraft engine and takes a varying input speed from the engine.com/constant_speed_drives. more compact unit.) As a result it is not surprising that the aerodynamic center and center of pressure. fly-imaa. 120. The difference between the two values reveals the measurement error. If you were flying 076˚ heading to track 088˚. carriers must have operational experience in the next lowest step. up to 240 minutes and beyond 240 minutes. http://www. The reference receiver then transmits a corrected signal to any number of receivers at unknown positions within the area covered by the DGPS. what is ∆T ( deviation from ISA ) ? ISA+6˚ 33 x (-2˚) = -66˚+15˚= -51˚ 119.html . The ARAC proposal would add two more steps to this limit. what is the heading required to maintain the reciprocal track ? HDG 280˚ WCA = 12˚ reciprocal track is 268˚ + 12˚= HDG 280˚ 118.jsp?view=story&id=news/cetop1217. calculates its theoretical position and compares it to the measurements provided by the navigation satellite signals. creating multipath signals. taking similar measurements that produce similar errors when positioned closely together.com/commercial/aeromagazine/aero_22/etops_story.xml http://www.html 122.org/imaa/hfarticles/safety/v9-4-64. The screen height of normally 35’ is reduced for a wet V1 to 15’. Two or more receivers observe the same set of satellites. qualifying twin-engine aircraft must be within 180 minutes flying time of an alternate airport in case a diversion is required.aviationnow.com/en/products/aboutgps/dgps. http://www.boeing. What are the various ETOPS categories ? Right now. This technique compensates for errors in the satellite navigation system itself but may not always correct errors caused by the local environment when satellite navigation signals are reflected off of tall buildings or nearby mountains. If you are at 33.117. http://products. 123. How does differential GPS work ? A Differential Global Positioning System (DGPS) is a system designed to improve the accuracy of Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) by measuring infinitesimal changes in variables to provide satellite positioning corrections. Tell me about IRS.000 ft. OAT is -45˚. How does cross-wind affect the critical engine ? The most hazardous crosswind takeoff situation regarding pilots and flight line safety is with the wind from behind the pilots and takeoff from right to left. although an exemption of up to 207 minutes is allowed on some Northern Pacific routes. A reference receiver. To use the new categories. Accuracy of global satellite positioning is thereby increased from 15 meters to within a few meters. What is the difference between a dry V1 and a wet V1 ? What does it change with respect to the screen height ? The wet V1 is lower than the dry V1. placed at a known location.thalesnavigation. Platform with laser gyros not updated System is self-contained.asp 121.com/avnow/news/channel_comm. engine stall. what does it mean ? That the min. If you fly in a region of volcanic dust discuss the procedures you would adopt. climb gradient • of 2.124.4% for a 2 engine aircraft • of 2. . cargo fire indication. If TOW is limited by an obstacle in the 2nd segment.0% for a 4 engine aircraft is not reached. engine flameout. windscreen damage 125.7% for a 3 engine aircraft • of 3. smoke in the cabin. Engine over temperature. what is the hazards ? Avoid the area! If entered an area turn back by 180˚.