CONSUMER BEHAVIOUREBM Model Asst. Prof. Sovan Mangaraj Innovation – The Business School [email protected]
.Engel-Blackwell-Miniard Model The Engel – Blackwell – Miniard (EBM) Model is a modified version of the earlier Engel – Kollat – Blackwell (EKB) Model. Therefore. the consumer decision making process will start if consumer has a need or a problem. This model assumes that the consumers take a problem solving approach. decision process stage. information input. The model consists of five parts. Blackwell and Kollat’s Model A comprehensive model. with attempts to elaborate upon the interrelationship between the various components and sub-components. Blackwell and Miniard Model (EBM). finally another model was proposed in the 1990s which came to be known as the Engel. viz. and external influences. information processing. The model went through many revisions and modifications. and. decision process variables. it shows the various components of consumer decision making and the relationships/interactions among them.Engel. . BLACKWELL AND KOLLAT’S MODEL .ENGEL. publicity. friends.Engel. . Stimuli may be • Marketing . demonstrations. • Non-marketing . Blackwell and Kollat’s Model INFORMATION INPUT The information input includes all kinds of stimuli that a consumer is exposed to and triggers a kind of behaviour. store display.Advertising.Family. peers. and retention of information. Attention determines which of the stimuli he will focus upon. Blackwell and Kollat’s Model INFORMATION PROCESSING The stage comprises consumer’s exposure.Engel. thereafter he would interpret and understand it. accepts it in his short term memory and retains it by transferring the input to long-term memory. The consumer is exposed to stimuli (and the accompanying information). acceptance. attention. perception/comprehension. . . Alternative evaluation. Search. Blackwell and Kollat’s Model DECISION PROCESS STAGE The model focuses on the five basic decision-process stages Problem recognition.Engel. Choice. and Outcomes (post-purchase evaluation and behavior). which in turn affect the purchase intention. Finally there is an outcome. This outcome acts as a feedback on the input and impacts the cycle again. The next stage is the choice and purchase. which gets impacted by individual differences. Blackwell and Kollat’s Model DECISION PROCESS STAGE There is problem recognition. while evaluation. belief lead to the formation of attitudes. in the form of satisfaction and dissatisfaction. Thereafter. which may be internal based on memory. the consumer evaluates the various alternatives. . this is followed by a search for information.Engel. The search of information is also impacted by environmental influences. lifestyle.Engel. Individual characteristics include constructs like motives. . Blackwell and Kollat’s Model DECISION PROCESS VARIABLES The model proposes individual influences that affect the various stages of the decision making process. attitude. etc. beliefs. personality. values. social class. Blackwell and Kollat’s Model EXTERNAL INFLUENCES The model also proposes certain environmental and situational influences that affect the decision making process. sub-culture. family. situational influences include consumer’s financial condition. reference groups. The environmental influences include culture. .Engel. The model consists of four sections viz. decision process and variables influencing the decision process. . information processing.. Blackwell and Miniard (EBM) model The EKB model went through a series of revisions and modifications and finally it was proposed as the Engel. Blackwell and Miniard Model. The variables and the working relationship is similar to the EKB but has been slightly modified. information input.Modification: Engel. Engel-Blackwell-Miniard Model . The information section of the model comprises various stages like exposure. Blackwell and Miniard (EBM) model Information received from marketing and non-marketing stimuli feeds into the information-processing section of the model. attention. The model focuses on the decision process stages: need recognition.Modification: Engel. Divestment relates to options of disposal. post-purchase alternative evaluation and divestment. search. After passing through these stages. The entire process is influenced by environmental influences and individual differences. If internal information is inadequate there is a search for external information. Then this information is stored in the memory. comprehension. consumption. purchase. “Divestment” as a construct was additionally added as a modification over the EKB model. recycling or remarketing. prepurchase alternative evaluation. it goes into the memory. . acceptance and retention.