Conservation of Flaura and FaunaIndia has a rich biodiversity and is home to around 1.6 million or nearly 8% of all the species of flora and fauna found in the world. India is also home to over 86,000 species of fauna including birds, insects, and land and water animals. Besides being the only country to have both lions and tigers in its forests, India is one of the few countries that have a habitat to support large land animals like the elephant. The Himalayas harbour some large land animals like the yak and the shaggy-horned wild ox found in the freezing high altitudes of Ladakh. Some rare species of wild animals include the snow leopard, the red panda, the ibex and the Himalayan brown bear. The wildlife in the Indian rivers, lakes and coastal areas is equally rich with various species of reptiles like crocodiles and gharials, water snakes and turtles. There are over 940 different species of fish in India. In order to preserve world biodiversity, and our natural heritage, fourteen biosphere reserves have been set up in the country. Four have been included in the world network of biosphere reserves. They are the Sunderban in West Bengal, the Nanda Devi in Uttaranchal, the Gulf of Mannar in Tamil Nadu, and the Nilgiris spanning across Kerala, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu. The government also provides financial and technical support for many of the Botanical Gardens, since 1992. To protect wildlife, the Government of India has introduced Project Tiger, Project Rhino and Project Great Indian Bustard. In addition, there are 89 national parks, and 490 wildlife sanctuaries and zoological gardens in India to take care of our flora and fauna. As per IUCN specifications, the species of flora and fauna can be classified as normal, extinct, endangered, vulnerable, rare or endemic. WHY CONSERVATION OF FLORA & FAUNA IS NEEDED Flora is basically the plant life that is present in a particular region or habitat or at a particular time and fauna is the animal life that is present in a particular region or habitat or at a particular time. Biodiversity is a very large topic and somewhat difficult to define adequately in only a sentence or two. In the very simplest terms, "biodiversity" means the diversity of life on our planet, which includes genetic diversity, species diversity, and habitat diversity. Diversity can be defined as the number of different items and their relative frequency. For biological diversity, these items are organized at many levels, ranging from complete ecosystems to the chemical structures that are the molecular basis of heredity. Thus, the term encompasses different ecosystems, species, genes, and their relative abundance." The area of flora, fauna and biodiversity is quite interrelated. Flora and fauna forms a major part of biodiversity. India is a land of varied flora, fauna and biodiversity. India is one of the twelve mega-diverse nations of the World. Two of India's great mountain ranges, the Eastern Himalayas and the Western Ghats have been designated among the world's eighteen 'hotspots' of biodiversity. But In the last few decades we have seen a steady increase in the extinction rate of flora, fauna etc. all over world including India and so now, conservation of biological diversity is of paramount importance to the survival of man. Conservation of biological diversity leads to conservation of essential ecological diversity to preserve the continuity of food chains. The genetic diversity of plants and animals is preserved. It ensures the sustainable utilization of life support systems on earth. It provides a vast knowledge of potential use to the scientific community. A reservoir of wild animals and plants is preserved, thus enabling them to be introduced, if need be, in the surrounding areas. Biological diversity provides immediate benefits to the society such as recreation and tourism. Biodiversity conservation serves as an insurance policy for the future. Nature’s Facts 1. rainforest are home to 50% of the earth’s plants & animals. Tarantulas can survive 2 & and a half years without food. The winter of 1932 was so cold that the Niagara Falls froze. region or other political or economic grievances by peaceful constitutional means. 5. gone… The figures are astounding. Although Polar Bears have white fur. 50% of tropical forests gone. Over 50% of mangroves lost. It takes 100 years for a caves stalactite to grow 1inch. There are a million ants for every person on Earth. About 400 billions gallons of water is used everyday. Few of the world’s natural habitats remain untouched by mankind’s progress. so we also destroy the futures for innumerable species. language. going. the world’s 2. Goats have rectangular pupils. Recorded extinction rates have risen over the last . 3. Going. their skin is black. 7. Covering less than 2% of the earth’s total surface. 10.500 different types of grass in the world. As we destroy wild places. 15. 4. 13. 11. 12. There are about 9. 14. A giant Sequoia named General Sherman is the largest tree in the world. We further affirm that I shall never resort to violence & that I will continue to endeavor towards settlement of all differences & disputes relating to religion. 8. 9. Bamboo can grow up to 3feet in one day. 20% of coral reefs destroyed. Everyday 50 to 100 species of plants & animals become extinct. Sharks are immune to all known diseases.Pledge “We solemnly pledge to work with dedication to preserve & strengthen the freedom & integrity of the nation”. 6. 94% of life on Earth is Aquatic. Broccoli is a vegetable with a nervous system. It can feel pain. the destruction that mankind has caused is less immediately visible. At this rate we risk undermining the very processes that underpin our planet’s productivity and resilience. or to coastal destruction when the protective barrier of mangroves has been cleared. Less is known about the lower organisms where species loss is likely to be much higher – some experts estimate that we are already losing some 27. In our oceans. Biting the hand that feeds We already see examples of how loss of natural habitats leaves local human populations vulnerable – be it to landslides following the removal of hillside trees. widespread coupled pollution with and coastal ocean acidification (linked to global warming) now risk undermining the functioning of ocean systems. growing expectations of consumers in developed and emerging economies place additional strain on an overtaxed natural world. However evidence now shows that over-fishing has caused declining stocks and has pushed species to the brink of extinction. A third of all amphibians are considered to be either threatened or already extinct.000 species a year! Squeezing the planet Our growing human population needs space to live and feed itself. 22% of mammals and 12% of birds are now at risk of extinction. over-fishing. The development. For all these groups the primary cause of extinction risk is loss of natural habitats. .century. impacts bottom of trawling. be they government agencies.Clearing rainforests for timber and agriculture only releases more greenhouse gases back into the atmosphere. Across the world’s seas and oceans only a pitiful 0. Globally 12% of land has been set aside as protected areas. to adapt to climate change. but also human populations. communities or . Key to success is finding the right people who will be able to manage the site into the long term. Globally. contributing to climate change.6 per cent has been declared as protected – and again effective protection needs more than a line on the map. Securing the future One of FFI’s key goals is to increase the area of land and sea under effective conservation management. Join us in helping to secure a future for the world’s most threatened natural sites. it is now recognised that maintaining natural habitats could be a key factor in enabling not only wildlife. over 1 billion people rely on fisheries as their primary source of protein – and are at risk from the ongoing decline in fish catches. Without effective on-the-ground management the biodiversity and habitats of these sites will continue to be lost. declaration of such areas is not enough. However. In future habitats and species will both face risks from a changing climate. Indeed. There are many different ways to ensure the survival of natural habitats. The need for protection Maintaining natural habitats in the face of ongoing threats is essential. However appropriate solutions will depend on the unique situation at each site. tenure and long-term sustainability of the environment on which these communities rely. Policy changes (such as in coastal and fisheries management) may promote the creation of no-take protected zones within marine habitats. In other cases formal protection is not appropriate.NGOs. Increasingly. Some of these are Convention . communities. Biodiversity Protection: Steps Taken By Indian Government India is signatory to several major international conventions relating to conservation and management of wildlife. individuals or even businesses. opportunities to support communities to develop their own forms of “community protected areas” are emerging – linked to land rights. some big businesses are also taking measures to better manage their own land holdings – taking active measures to protect natural habitats and species for the future. However. protected areas may also be established by local NGOs. In parallel. Traditional approaches include supporting the establishment and/or effective management of state protected areas. and conservation agreements with landowners may be a more pragmatic solution to protecting natural habitats. The opportunities of carbon finance through Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation (REDD) schemes provide new ways to promote the protection of key forest areas. 2. To protect the critically endangered and other threatened animal and plant species. The Act. Important measures include : 1. Biodiversity of India and need for protection India is one among the 17 mega diverse countries of the world. But many plants and animals are facing threat of extinction. Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals etc. Government of India has adopted many steps. Financial and Technical assistance is provided to State/Union Territory Governments for protection and Management of Protected Areas as well as other forests under various Centrally Sponsored Schemes. inter alia.on Biological Diversity. 3. The Central Government has enacted the Wild Life (Protection) Act. Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES). provides for creation of Protected Areas for protection of wild life and also provides for punishment for hunting of specified fauna specified in the schedules I to IV thereof. in the States. Steps Taken By Government for Biodiversity Protection Indian Government has taken various biodiversity protection steps. laws and policy initiatives. The Centrally Sponsored Scheme of National Plan for Conservation of Aquatic Eco-System also provides assistance . Wetland (Conservation and Management) Rules 2010 have been framed for protection of wetlands. 1972. Nicobar Megapode. Bombay Natural History society and Salim Ali Centre for Ornithology and Natural History are some of the research organizations undertaking research on conservation of wildlife. Vulture in Punjab. Bustard (including Floricans). 8. Swiftlet in . 6. Asiatic Lion. Asian Wild Buffalo. 4. Snow Leopard. Nilgiri Tahr. Edible Nest Swiftlet. Manipur Brow-antlered Deer. Vultures. Hangul.to the States for management of wet lands including Ramsar sites in the country. Indian Rhinoceros. Snow Leopard in Jammu and Kashmir. 5. Marine Turtles. Swamp Deer and Jerdon’s Courser. Hangul in Jammu and Kashmir. Uttarakhand and Arunachal Pradesh. including endangered species. 7. Wildlife Institute of India. Guwahati (Assam) by the Bombay Natural History Society. Under the ‘Recovery of Endangered Species’ component of the Centrally Sponsored Scheme ‘Integrated Development of Wildlife Habitats’ for the recovery of endangered species viz. Conservation Breeding Programmes to conserve these vulture species have been initiated at Pinjore (Haryana). Buxa (West Bengal) and Rani. Wildlife Crime Control Bureau has been established for control of illegal trade in wildlife. The Indian Government has banned the veterinary use of diclofenac drug that has caused rapid population decline of Gyps vulture across the Indian Subcontinent. Dolphin. The Centrally Sponsored Scheme ‘Integrated Development of Wildlife Habitats‘ has been modified by including a new component namely ‘Recovery of Endangered Species‘ and 16 species have been identified for recovery viz. Haryana and Gujarat. Himachal Pradesh. Malabar Civet. Dugong. Sanghai Deer in Manipur governement has spend lakhs of rupees. Conservation Reserves and Community Reserves all over the country covering the important habitats have been created as per the provisions of the Wild Life (Protection) Act. Financial and technical assistance is extended to the State Governments under various Centrally Sponsored Schemes. 6. Nilgiri Tahr in Taml Nadu. 11. including threatened species and their habitat. The State Governments have been requested to strengthen the field formations and intensify patrolling in and around the Protected Areas.Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Important Indian Acts passed related to Environment and Bio Diversity 1. Water (prevention and control of pollution) act 1974. 12. Mining and Mineral Development Regulation Act 1957. 10. 2. 9. ‘Project Tiger’ and ‘Project Elephant’ for providing better protection and conservation to wildlife. Sanctuaries. . National Parks. Protected Areas. 5. 1972 to apprehend and prosecute wildlife offenders. 4. 1972 to provide better protection to wildlife. Indian Forests Act 1927. Wildlife protection act 1972. Fisheries Act 1897. The Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI) has been empowered under the Wild Life (Protection) Act. viz. 3. Prevention of cruelty to animals 1960. ‘Integrated Development of Wildlife Habitats’. viz. Biological Diversity Act 2002. Air(prevention and control of pollution) act 1981. on . 7. National Conservation Strategy and Policy statement Environment and Development.7. National Policy and macro-level action strategy on Biodiversity. 11. National Environment Policy (2006). 10. National Biodiversity Action Plan (2009). Forest Conservation Act 1980. Policies related to Environment and Bio Diversity 1. National Agriculture Policy. 6. 5. 8. 3. National Forest Policy. 9. Environment Protection Act 1986. National Water Policy. Scheduled Tribes and other traditional forest dwellers (recognition of rights) act 2006. 2. 4. it would have been difficult to miss the new kids on the block. which makes one even more proud of Gujarat and its efforts to conserve the Asiatic Lion. which is a rise of 20% as compared to last year. The female-male ratio stands significantly improved. Every season 75 cubs are born but this time the higher number is attributed to the increase in the lioness population.from 76 lions and 100 lionesses. This season has been marked by the birth of 90 cubs. . But the good news does not end here. There is a story within this story. “It was the young Simbas who hogged the limelight” is how the Times of India described the euphoria as the forest reopened. the number now stands at 97 lions and 162 lionesses.Conserving Gujarat's Flora & Fauna! If you have visited Gir since the forest opened for tourists after the monsoon. Shri Narendra Modi had called it Gujarat’s gift to the world on the state’s golden jubilee. Cherishing wildlife our nature. That time. Usually the growth rate stands between 5 to 7% but the latest figures indicated a sharp surge. taking the total to 411. conserving our The success at Gir is just one of the countless examples of the Gujarat Government to preserve the flora and fauna of the state. the number of African lions that live beyond two years is 20%! The census of lions in 2010 stated that the population of Asiatic lions in Gir has grown by 13% over a period of 5 years. the age when the cub moves out of its pride. This is an issue about which Shri Modi is . In contrast.A recent study revealed that Asiatic lion cubs survive much better in Gujarat’s Gir forests as compared to Africa. The study revealed that 56% of cubs in Asia survive beyond three years. which has been hailed as a unique model of wildlife conservation. Authorities say they have not heard of a single case of poaching in the last ten years! This again shows. He has always called for living in harmony with Mother Nature without causing any harm to our surroundings. Another example of an effort to preserve our fauna is the Blackbuck National Park. which is in Velavadar is one of the few sites where Blackbucks are found in such large numbers and the number of Blackbucks have constantly risen due to favourable conditions in the park. The National Park. which is made possible due to combined efforts of the park authorities and the local people. The Park is home to rich biodiversity. with .extremely passionate. He has correctly written that conserving our environment and nature has been a part of our culture for ages. Mangroves are regarded as productive wetlands and are home to many flora and faunal species. Home to a quarter of the nation’s mangroves covering 1046 sqkm.34 sqkm increase in its mangrove cover between 2009 and 2011 thanks to the efforts of none other than Gujarat! A report by the Forest Survey of India commended Gujarat’s role in planting mangroves. Having the nation’s longest coastline. a lot is possible. many of which are critically endangered.determined efforts and participation. Gujarat is home to the second highest mangrove cover after West Bengal. Significant Cover Rise in Gujarat’s people’s Mangrove In February this year. it came out that India witnessed a 23. Gujarat is an ideal atmosphere for mangroves to flourish. To restore this precious ecosystem the Gujarat Ecology Commission launched a restoration project with Community . which was recently hailed as the Tree Capital of India.Latest figures show that 54% of the city is under green cover. The total forest area has gone up from 1291 (thousand hectares) in 2001 to 1833 (thousand hectares) in 2011. the state Government has taken initiatives to increase tree cover in cities. In this regard special mention must be made about Gandhinagar. Under Shri Modi’s guidance. Gandhinagar is a perfect point of inspiration. In 2003 there were 25.21 crore in the 2011-2012 budget for enhancing the mangrove cover. making it 416 trees for every 100 people in the city. At a time when urbanization puts the growth of trees under threat.Based Management. In an extremely commendable move. 15. This not only included mangrove plantation but also spreading awareness.1 crore trees outside the forest cover and in 2009 the number went up to . the Gujarat Government allotted Rs. a beautiful village in Panchmahal. The 2012 Van Mahotsav commenced from Mangadh. Preserving Aquatic Life . Since 2005. Shri Modi enhanced public participation in the planting of trees. creating a mass movement for a greener Gujarat. Van Mahotsavs This is the brainchild of Shri Modi and examples his dynamism and determination towards preserving our forests.9 crore.26. Van Mahotsavs has spread into various parts of Gujarat. Shri Modi intends to take this number further up to 35 crore over the next decade. which is home to Tribal heroes of Gujarat who waged a war against Colonial rulers in 1913 and lost their lives at the hands of colonial brutality! Shri Modi inaugurated Smriti Van as a tribute to these martyrs. 286 whale sharks have been successfully rescued. Shri Modi has penned a book. Till June 2012. During his historic Google+ Hangout he shared his vision for the protection of the environment and laid great stress on the same. into the seas. Gujarat has scaled new heights of development in every sphere and one of the proudest successes has come in the protection of Gujarat’s flora and fauna. The state Forest Department along with other organizations launched a campaign to protect the whale sharks in our waters. The efforts here are a part of a larger vision to make Gujarat a land that . Under Shri Narendra Modi leadership. The campaign generated awareness and the fishing community’s emotional appeal too made a great difference.Gujarat’s commitment to protect the flora and fauna extend beyond our lands. ‘Convenient Action’ in which he has listed out ways in which Gujarat has mitigated the menace of climate change. . and think. Wait! Give a pause. Nature – a physical setting where emerald and verdant greenery of flora and variety of beautiful fauna are dwelling peacefully in the wilderness making it pleasant and blissful. because generosity of nature knows no limit. people’s inclination towards nature is always treated beautifully. lacerating the trees and making the environment polluted? The list of carelessness towards nature can be made to look huge. What we are giving in return? Are we not violating the nature’s rule by attacking the animals. for the benefit of its people and the countless trees and animals who share our great land with us.further lives in harmony with Mother Nature. Sometimes aesthetically and more often for satiating the basic necessities. not to forget the extreme weather conditions. nature. One and all can . human beings are heavily tapping the natural resources that have brought many wild animals on the verge of extinction. The time has actually come to ‘ACT’. But now. It is true that people carry out anything to get their wish nurtured and they do not mind abandoning the god’s gift i. trees. there is no substitute of Mother Earth. while the diverse kingdom of wild animals is keeping the environment alive with their unique presence. Anyone can lend a hand by paying a serious attention to it. here are some steps that will act as a savior in current alarming situation.e. which are also repercussions of human activity. and also no other way to dwell in peacefully in the nature. Since.but cannot be shortened with mere remorse and sorrow. one should not lose the opportunity to come forward and speak about the issues on the wildlife as they can speak. Our Mother Earth is adorning a thick layer of plants. make hoarding or become a part of the march with a motto of conservation of wildlife. Shout from the terrace. Apart from the biosphere budding on the Earth. etc. Develop consciousness for protecting wildlife It would be a big lie to deny that a bunch of harm has been caused to wildlife in India due to unawareness of the people. And. Raise Awareness by spreading DVD among friends and colleagues Whether it is about Tiger parts’ trading. Stern punishment for poachers .be the voice of thousands of naïve wildlife species that can’t say a word or share emotions with anybody. Tons of nature lovers and wildlife enthusiasts have started showing up themselves to save the endangered wild creatures. dissuading is the need of the hour. they are raising voice. Kaziranga National Park Assam. Bandhavgarh tiger reserve can be a tool for making the unaware aware about the facts of poaching. or poaching of other animals. Documentary films made on some famous wildlife destinations such as Corbett National Park. writing letters to the TV channels and sending emails to the government departments. but now everyone is uniting to uphold the kingdom of wildlife species. Heave a united voice for the continued existence of wildlife in India Every second day people come across news of poaching or killing of animals on TV. Moreover. There were times when people would wait for the fallout. This work of art could pique many conscious leading to take action for concern. Few most important steps that one must take into deliberation when in Wildlife Sanctuaries or Bird Sanctuaries in India o One must follow the conventions written by forest department.Poachers should be given severe punishment for assassinating or illegal capturing any wildlife species in national parks. o One should dispose of garbage in the dustbin or carry with him/her to keep the environment clean and green. Indiscriminate killing must lead to punishments. it reflects the demureness of a human being while visiting a forest. a person must not perturb the serenity of jungle with the sound of the horn. o While passing through the woods one must avoid getting down the vehicle as it could be dodgy. . Safeguarding the wild species has to be a prime objective in today’s most demanding times because animals and other creatures really need our help. o While entering a forest.