American Journal of Psychology and Behavioral Sciences 2018; 5(1): 17-22 http://www.openscienceonline.com/journal/ajpbs ISSN: 2381-5957 (Print); ISSN: 2381-5965 (Online)
Changing Sexual Phenotypes: A Phenomenological Study Mark N. Abadiano University of Cebu Maritime Education and Training Center, Cebu, Philippines
Email address To cite this article Mark N. Abadiano. Changing Sexual Phenotypes: A Phenomenological Study. American Journal of Psychology and Behavioral Sciences. Vol. 5, No. 1, 2018, pp. 17-22. Received: March 24, 2018; Accepted: April 9, 2018; Published: June 5, 2018
Abstract This action research paper will try to elucidate the gap of knowledge about the change of sexual phenotypes or preferences among maritime students who was able to go onboard and after on board. It will also give us a glimpse of the dynamism of sexual fluidity of the member of LGBT specially the discreet male, male bisexuals and gay. The researchers used a qualitative method with the phenomenological approach, In-depth interviews and comments were categorize to produced major themes. Based on the findings, there is indeed a phenomenon of changing of sexual phenotypes or preferences among maritime cadets.
Keywords Sexual Phenotypes, Sexual Fluidity, Phenomenology, Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual Transexual (LGBT), Discreet Male
1. Introduction 1.1. Rationale Sexual fluidity is one or more changes in sexuality or sexual identity (sometimes known as sexual orientation identity). There is significant debate over whether sexuality is stable throughout life or is fluid and malleable. Scientific consensus is that sexual orientation, unlike sexual orientation identity, is not a choice. (Llamana, Riedmann & Stewart, 2014). In the world of maritime which is predominantly male, some discreet gender that belongs to LGBT or (Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transexual) Group are already accepted in the university. Though the focus of the study was the changing of sexual preferences among straight, discreet or bisexual man when they go on board something just snap or impulsive occurrence among mates that change his sexual phenotypes. As observed by researchers among discreet bisexual male on the campus who are having their on-board ship apprenticeship wherein the crew is male dominated, this discreet bisexual male when they return on land they are slowly transforming to out and proud gay man. The researchers will look into the history or gap of
knowledge unto how this homosexuality or change of sexual preferences happen and will try to understand the underlying reasons from the perspective of participants. Thus, this prompted the researchers to conduct research on changing sexual phenotypes. 1.2. Literature Review Various literature revealed previous studies about Changing Sexual Phenotypes or Sexual Fluidity and one of these is from The American Psychological Association states that "sexual orientation is not a choice that can be changed at will, and that sexual orientation is most likely the result of a complex interaction of environmental, cognitive and biological factors... is shaped at an early age...[and evidence suggests] biological, including genetic or inborn hormonal factors, play a significant role in a person's sexuality. (Lamanna et al., 2014). According to Savin-Williams, Joyner & Rieger (2012) indicated that bisexuality is a transitional phase on the way to identifying as exclusively lesbian or gay has also been studied. In a large-scale, longitudinal study, participants who identified as bisexual at one point in time were especially likely to change sexual orientation identity throughout the six-year study. In Sexual Fluidity, which was awarded with the 2009
Mark N. Abadiano: Changing Sexual Phenotypes: A Phenomenological Study
Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Issues Distinguished Book Award by Division 44 of the American Psychological Association, Diamond speaks of female sexuality and trying to go beyond the language of "phases" and "denial", arguing that traditional labels for sexual desire are inadequate. For some of 100 non-heterosexual women she followed in her study over a period of ten years, the word bisexual did not truly express the versatile nature of their sexuality. Diamond calls "for an expanded understanding of same-sex sexuality." (Diamond, 2009). The sexology literature reports a huge number of examples of change of all degrees from homosexuality to or toward heterosexuality. These studies have been so numerous that West in 1977 took an entire chapter in his classic book, Homosexuality Re-examined, to review them, and commented: "Although some militant homosexuals find such claims improbable and unpalatable, authenticated accounts have been published of apparently exclusive and longstanding homosexuals unexpectedly changing their orientation." West mentions one man who was exclusively homosexual for eight years, then became heterosexual. Straight, a book written by a man with the pseudonym Aaron, in 1972, describes Aaron's thorough immersion in the gay scene, his decision to leave it, and his arousal of feelings for women and subsequent marriage. (Aaron, 1972). “Sexuality as the complex, multilayered force that produces encounters, resonances, and relations of all sorts cannot be contained in the power (potestas) structures of the dialectics of masculine/feminine. It is rather an active space of empowerment (potentia) and becoming that is capable of producing spaces of intimacy, experimentation, and relation to others” (Braidotti 2012: 148). One possibility is to ask them. In surveys people tend to report sexual behaviour change. For example, in a national survey in Tanzania 88.2 per cent of 1874 men said that they had changed their behaviour (Weinstein et al. 1994); and in the WHO/GPA survey for Tanzania, 62 per cent of the men reported having changed (Cleland 1995: 177-178). Of these, 81 per cent reported a reduction in the number of sexual partners (Cleland 1995: 186), that is, half of the Tanzanian men reported reducing the number of sexual partners. In the Mwatex factory, a large urban textile plant in Mwanza, Tanzania, sexual behaviour change also seems to be occurring: a longitudinal study of 752 male workers in the factory shows that many of the workers report having changed their behaviour (Ng’weshemi et al. forthcoming). In interviews with a subsample of 334 workers in 1994, 92.4 per cent said that they had changed their sexual behaviour since hearing about AIDS. This change has been mainly in the form of a reduction in the number of sexual partners. Since the 1990s, queer theory has emerged as a critical framework to debunk the binary assumptions surrounding sex, gender and sexuality. Green (2002, 2007) identiﬁes ‘radical deconstructionism’ and ‘radical subversion’ as two predominant strains in queer theory. The former rejects a priori sexual classiﬁcation such as gays and lesbians because it oversimpliﬁes the complexity of sexual subjectivities.
Instead, radical deconstructionism looks at how these categories are constituted within and limited by discursive regimes (Butler, 1990; Foucault, 1978; Fuss, 1991; Halperin, 1995; Jagose, 1997; Sedgwick, 1990). What they aim to demonstrate is that sexualities are not ﬁxed categories. They are ﬂuid. Hence the term queer represents an allencompassing title that reﬂects the commitment to a subject without a name, identity or essence (Butler, 1990; Jagose, 1997; Seidman, 1993). Epistemologically, the marginalized status of bisexuality displaces the naturalness of the hetero/homo divide because bisexuals are conventionally seen as individuals who are sexually attracted to, sexually intimate with, and/or capable of, establishing romantic relationships with members from both sexes. They represent an aﬀront to monosexuality – a consistent single-sex object-choice – in such a way that upsets the stability of hetero/homosexuality as mutually exclusive opposites (Garber, 2000; Hutchins and Kaahumanu, 1991; Klein, 1978). Bisexuals also eschew the identity politics that draw contours delineating who are in/out-siders and, instead, highlight the ﬂexibility that comes with the freedom of expressing sexual desires in myriad and complex ways (Rust, 2000; Zinik, 2000). This capacity to be erotically and romantically partnered with either sex is what I refer to as sexual ﬂuidity. Bisexuality, marked by sexual ﬂuidity, provides an epistemic centre to trouble sexual binaries and exposes how the hetero/homo distinction disciplines other sexual variants into normative sexual classiﬁcations (Gurevich et al., 2009; Young, 1997). The literature above impelled the researchers to conduct further the study that focuses on a discreet bisexual male in maritime field, hence only a little or no study conducted about the changing phenotypes or sexual fluidity on this turf. 1.3. Statement of Objectives The aim of this study was to know the reason why the sexual phenotypes or preferences of maritime straight, discreet or bisexual males on board change as they experience some sexual encounter on-board with the same sex or their relationships that occur on board and after the end of contract on land. The research will analyze themes based on the results in the emergent data gathered in the indepth interview among participants.
2. Methodology This qualitative research methodology will explore the real experiences on board among male cadets and their sexual changing preferences on board. This methodology is selected because the researcher has the interest to study prevailing trends on changing sexual phenotypes of seafarers while away from their loveones. 2.1. Research Design It is a process where data are collected and analyzed, and the theory will be developed. It employs constant comparison
American Journal of Psychology and Behavioral Sciences 2018; 5(1): 17-22
to the data that have already been gathered. Pertinent concepts were identified and assigned codes. This will provide a framework for designing a systematic study that will address the study’s goals, objectives, and questions. In this study, the researcher will use phenomenology using the Husserlian approach developed largely by the German philosopher Edmund Husserl and Martin Heidegger, which is based on the premise that reality consists of objects and events ("phenomena") as they are perceived or understood in the human consciousness, and not of anything independent of human consciousness. (goo.gl/o1ODGZ, 2017) The researcher will be conducting a pre- qualification or evaluation in identifying the number of participants to be included in the study. 2.2. Research Environment The study will be conducted in University of Cebu – Maritime Educationa and Training, Mambaling Campus which is located at Alumnos, Mambaling, Cebu City, Philippines. 2.3. Research Instrument The research utilized a semi-structure interview guide consisting of two parts – Part A, Demographic information and Part B, semi-structured open-ended questions for the qualitative-thematic part. 2.4. Research Participants The researcher will be using a purposive sampling. Purposive Sampling is a practice where subjects are intentionally selected to represent some explicit predefined traits or conditions. This is analogous to stratified samples in probability –based approaches. The goal here is to provide for relatively equal numbers of different elements or people to enable exploration and description of the conditions and meanings occurring within each of the study conditions. The researchers are Faculty at University of Cebu-METC. They will tapped (15) participants mostly identified as male maritime cadets. In doing so, the researcher will make a checklist on the following inclusion and exclusion criteria: a.) the participants must belong be biological male, discreet, bisexual, bi-curious or gay b.) Participants are range from ages 21 years old and above c.) Must be a College students and are willing to be interviewed with regards to the study. Descriptive or hermeneutical phenomenology It refers to the study of personal experience and requires a description or interpretation of the meanings of phenomena experienced by participants in an investigation.
3. Results The following comments and views are in narrative or thematic analysis from the participants. Comments and Views categorized and analyzed: Pokemon 1:
“Yes, why actually sir hypocrisy, if I would say no as discreet male, if given opportunity with a mutual understanding I would say yes to sex why not? By possibly falling in love with the same sex, you would prefer to be out on land but not on board because of fears of sex addiction." Pokemon 2: “In my opinion, I would not change my status because my sexual preference is important in my standing as an entity of the ship's crew. That would somehow lessen the respect of my fellow workmates, and somehow you will be a laughing stock onboard." “Mahadlok ko sa mahitabo after gud” Yes, Discreet gihapon ko inig naug” Pokemon 3: “Yes, why actually sir hypocrisy, if I would say no as discreet male, if given opportunity with a mutual understanding I will have sex with male crew. “Depende sa sitwasyon. Maka uyon og maganahan sa sex. Attraction, possibility after maka sex.” Pokemon 5: “Ma love sa sex. Feeling magbiga. Depende og magpangita sa mga bromance.” Pokemon 6: “Depende. Sugot nani. Nadala sa kalami sa pag blowjob. Naa koy tendency nga double blade.” Pokemon 7: “I will have sex kung unsay nahitabo.. Maya or ma double blade. I will do it. Isikreto kung unsay mahitabo sa barko.” Pokemon 8: “Mo give in ko ug ma inlove. If di mapugngan ang urge, willing nako makig sex, depende, naay tendency nga maibog nako og lalaki.” Pokemon 9: “Na close namu nga laki ka makigsex if he give the first move, why not if naka sex, from to specific to general, kay kung nadawat sa usa madawat sa tanan. Moladlad ko inig naog.” Pokemon 10: “yes sir ni grab ko sa opportunity, willing nako makigsex all the way, ganahan ko lights on, mo tan. aw ko sa lawas, sa bugan og sing-along dayun.” Pokemon 11: “Yes, kung lami siya… but kung mahubog me why not mo go ko. I will still be discreet. Mahadlok ko magladlad. Mahugawan sa akong apelyedo.” Pokemon 12 “I will be openly gay besh” Pokemon 13 I will not change my sexual preference oe. I will still be the male discreet. Kay daghan man jud ma shocked nga discreet ka sauna den karon kay yoyee na kaayo ka.. den mahadlok sad ko sa mga ipangsulti sa taw ba og sa emung pamilya. Pokemon 14 I will never change my preference from Male to discreet to openly as gay. It's because I am who I am, I was born as Male but my actions are not. My actions are uncontrollable. But despite of my actions, I will stand my principle not to
Mark N. Abadiano: Changing Sexual Phenotypes: A Phenomenological Study
involve to any immoral act towards my Co-Cadet/Officer in the Ship. Pokemon 15 I wouldn't mind. I really hate discrimination, and I know if I come out as an open gay onboard, I am just leaning myself nearer towards judgmental eyes and critiques. I also don't want our spirit of closeness and camaraderie to get affected with it. Pokemon 16: D " epende, why not coconut. Naa say time nga mahadlok, naa say time nga maahat og sex tungod sa kahadlok. Trust, love og uban pa. Heavy gorabells. Why not a dunkin donut. Moladlad nako sir nipilit na sa akong dughan. Gibati og kaanyag." Pokemon 17: “Ganahan ko makig sex. Depende sa akong moods. Usahay dili ko ganahan kay mahadlok ko mabulgar og mawagtangan og respeto sa barko.” Pokemon 18: “Sa akoa nga case, nakasakop ko sa akong kauban nga pinoy sa barko nga nay ka sex nga foreigner nga seafarer, unya kay na horny ko niapil ug ni join ko sa ilang sex… after ato nagsige nami ug threesome nami tulo…. Unya pag naug namu sa barko kauban atong pinoy kay nagkauyab mi sa pinoy nga seaman hangtod karon open na among relationship sa among family.”
4. Discussion Based on the in-depth interview the following four (4) themes were categorized by the researchers. Theme 1: Fears and Stigmas – common reply of the participants about not engaging in a relationship or out in public about their sexuality because of fear of rejections and subjected to be bully on-board or on a land. Pokemon 17: “Ganahan ko makig sex. Depende sa akong mudos. Usahay dili ko ganahan kay mahadlok ko mabulgar og mawagtangan og respeto sa barko.” Pokemon 11: “Yes, kung lami siya… but kung mahubog me why not mo go ko. I will still be discreet. Mahadlok ko magladlad. Mahugawan sa akong apelyedo.” Pokemon 13: “I will not change my sexual preference oe. I will still be the male discreet. Kay daghan man jud ma shocked nga discreet ka sauna den karon kay yoyee na kaayo ka.. den mahadlok sad ko sa mga ipangsulti sa taw ba og sa emung pamilya.” Theme 2: Sex as Physiological Needs – the participants were bluntly responding about their sexual needs and urges as they are engaged in same sex on-board. Pokemon 5: “Ma love sa sex. Feeling magbiga. Depende og magpangita sa mga bromance.” Pokemon 8:
“Mo give in ko ug ma in love. If di mapugngan ang urge, willing nako makig sex, depende, naay tendency nga maibog nako og lalaki.” Pokemon 1: “Yes, why actually sir hypocrisy, if I would say no as discreet male, if given opportunity with a mutual understanding I would say yes to sex why not? By possibly fall in love with the same sex, you would prefer to be out on land but not on board because fears of sex addiction." Theme 3: Fatal Attraction with same sex – most of the participants who engaged in same sex intercourse are physically attracted to their mates. Pokemon 10: “yes sir ni grab ko sa opportunity, willing nako makigsex all the way, ganahan ko lights on, mo tan. aw ko sa lawas, sa bugan og sing-along dayun.” Pokemon 11: “Yes, kung lami siya… but kung mahubog me why not mo go ko. I will still be discreet. Mahadlok ko magladlad. Mahugawan sa akong apelyedo.” Pokemon 4: “Depende sa sitwasyon. Maka uyon og maganahan sa sex. Attraction, possibility after maka sex.” Pokemon 18: “Sa akoa nga case, nakasakop ko sa akong kauban nga pinoy sa barko nga nay ka sex nga foreigner nga seafarer, unya kay na horny ko niapil ug ni join ko sa ilang sex… after ato nagsige nami ug threesome nami tulo…. Unya pag naug namu sa barko kauban atong pinoy kay nagkauyab mi sa pinoy nga seaman hangtod karon open na among relationship sa among family.” Theme 4: Changing Lanes-these are the commentaries that would suffice the change of sexual preferences after the participants engage in same sex or having a relationship with same sex on-board. Pokemon 6: “Depende. Sugot nani. Nadala sa kalami sa pag blowjob. Naa koy tendency nga ma double blade.” Pokemon 8: “Mo give in ko ug ma inlove. If di mapugngan ang urge, willing nako makig sex, depende, naay tendency nga maibog nako og lalaki.” Pokemon 9: “Na close namu nga laki ka makigsex if he give the first move, why not if naka sex, from to specific to general, kay kung nadawat sa usa madawat sa tanan. Moladlad ko inig naog.” Pokemon 16: “Depende, why not coconut. Naa say time nga mahadlok, naa say time nga maahat og sex tungod sa kahadlok. Trust, love og uban pa. heavy gorabells. Why not dunkin donut. Moladlad nako sir nipilit na sa akong dughan. Gibati og kaanyag.” Pokemon 18: “Sa akoa nga case, nakasakop ko sa akong kauban nga pinoy sa barko nga nay ka sex nga foreigner nga seafarer, unya kay na horny ko niapil ug ni join ko sa ilang sex… after
American Journal of Psychology and Behavioral Sciences 2018; 5(1): 17-22
ato nagsige nami ug threesome nami tulo…. Unya pag naug namu sa barko kauban atong pinoy kay nagkauyab mi sa pinoy nga seaman hangtod karon open na among relationship sa among family.”
The researcher concluded upon conducting the phenomenon on Changing Sexual Phenotypes that mostly these participants are having sex as part of physiological needs and curiosity. They also had a fatal attraction to the same sex and later on develop addiction and love relationship after sex. On the phenomenon of changing sexual preferences it can also be laid out that there was indeed a changing lane of sexual phenotypes as to the following pattern. After Contract Discreet Male Bisexual Male Gay/out
6. Recommendation Based on the conclusions the researchers would like to recommend this to the LGBT community and to the future researchers to conduct the same study on the biological women who will also turn to become lesbian. Furthermore to the maritime industry and academe to widen their perspective and study on the rise of LGBT cadets who are willing to join the force in the maritime world. Perhaps the research output of these could help the academic institutions to put up and strengthen the Gender and Development program of the university in pursuit of human development and equality regardless of gender and color spectrum.
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Mark N. Abadiano: Changing Sexual Phenotypes: A Phenomenological Study