blobfish

March 26, 2018 | Author: api-346040205 | Category: Habitat, Heart, Food Web, Egg, Digestion


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Description

BlobfishBy: Ji Min Lee Classification Domain: Eukarya Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Class: Actinopterygii Order: Scorpaeniformes Family: Psycholutidae Genus: Psychrolutes Species: P. Marcidus Circulatory System One main circuit: from heart to gills-for oxygen and to release carbon dioxide-to cells; closed system (vessels and loop- blood flow returns to heart to continue) 2 chamber heart: 1 atrium (receiving) and 1 ventricle (pumping) Temperature: is cold blooded=low body temperature, polikilotherm=body temperature varies (may fluctuate based on environmental temperature change), & ectothermic=gets heat through environment *Simple diagram of fish digestive syste Digestive System Very small digestive system compared to other fish-few digestive organs because small amount of food eaten doesn’t require a complex digestive system Process similar to other fish (simplified): mouth captures food and food usually swallowed whole- the food goes down the esophagus to the stomach where the food is digested, then digested food sent into the blobfish’s intestine-nutrients and water from food absorbed and sent to cells in body, left over waste is excreted through the anus Reproductive System External Fertilization: both sperm and eggs released into an external environment, sperm will fertilize the egg outside of the organism Sexual Reproduction: female gamete and male gamete fuse to form zygote (which develops to an organism genetically different from parents) Oviparous: eggs deposited outside of female, which develops and hatch (outside the female body) Female lays 9,000~108,000 small pink eggs, male or female blobfish float above or sit on their eggs to protect them Integumentary System No scales-exterior is all fatty tissue Jelly like skin (gelatinous)-to live in high pressure and float around more easily No hair Skin has toxic slime Adaptations No Muscle-to float around for food and conserve energy Less dense than water-to easily float around for food No gas bladder (organ to keep fish afloat in water)-to stay in twilight zone and wait around for food Have backbone (so bilateral symmetry) but not other bones-to weigh less Ancestors Come from the psychrolutes genus in the psychrolutidae family (fatheads) Little info but thought to have broken away from larger fish who lived close to water surface and had bones Common Behaviors Remain stationary throughout it’s life: float in same spot waiting for meal Female blobfish stay in groups and remain immobile until the eggs hatch (females nest near each other for protection and easy access to mates for their children) Female (or male if female isn’t around) blobfish float above or sit on their eggs to protect them Habitat Waters of New Zealand, Australia, and Tasmania In twilight zones (Mesopelagic): depth of 200 to 1000 meters (660 to 3300 feet) below the ocean surface, high pressure (up to 1470 psi), poorly lit-dark blue or black color, cold (39 to 41 degrees F) Eat Eats sea urchins, mollusks, crab, lobster, slow moving bottom feeders, crustaceans, and anything smaller than them that is close to their mouth (like zooplankton) Is an omnivore-eats anything near it’s mouth Natural Predators No known natural predators-human disturbance the greatest threat Blobfish-trophic level 4 (omnivore- Food Web tertiary consumer) Crab- trophic level 3 (omnivore - secondary consumer ) Mollusk- trophic level 2 (herbivore- primary consumer) Sea Urchin- trophic level 2 Algae-trophic (herbivore- level 1 primary (producer) consumer) Niche Like garbage disposal- eat anything smaller than it floating around it’s mouth Maintains population of small deep sea creatures-make sure they don’t overpopulate Disturbance Deep ocean trawling: nets by humans catch blob fish (bycatch), inedible because of toxic slime around them Listed as endangered species-humans are the only known threat (no known natural predators), may possibly be extinct Species Native: stay in habitat (twilight zone of Australia, New Zealand, and Tasmania) because they die once they are removed- removal from twilight zone pressure makes it’s body blob like, removal from water causes it’s body to dry out and shrivel Not an invasive species-aren’t alien species and don’t disrupt biodiversity (do not kill off native species-even if they could be placed in another habitat, they eat by floating and couldn’t threaten the native species there) 5 Interesting Facts Considered ugliest animal in the world The flap of skin that hangs over the lips of the blobfish (looks like nose) is not a nose, it’s just skin Head is 1/3 of total body weight Thought to live to an average of 130 years because of extremely slow growth and reproduction rates-caused by the cold temperature, little food supply, low oxygen and low light levels of the twilight zone Can move mouth without muscles
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