March 25, 2018 | Author: sasadassdd | Category: Steam, Heat Exchanger, Furnace, Instrumentation, Boiler



•1. Workshop on “Plant Commissioning and Start-Up Procedures” Dr. Himadri Banerji MD EcoUrja Ex Reliance and Tata Organized By : • • 2. Standard Implementation Path is show here 3. The Commissioning Process Key State Preparation and planning Mechanical Completion and Integrity checking Pre-commissioning & Operational Testing Start Up & Initial Operation Performance and Acceptance testing Post Commissioning • 4. The Commissioning Process Detail - 1 Preparation and • Appointment of Commissioning planning Manager or Lead Commissioning Engineer Mechanical • Appointment of Commissioning Team Completion Members and Support Staff and Integrity checking • Training Pre-commissioning & • Information Compilation Operational Testing • Safety and Risk Assessment Start Up & Initial • Commissioning Strategy Operation Development; • Procedures and Checklist Performance and Development Acceptance testing • Post Commissioning Post Commissioning • Detailed Plan and Budget Preparation; • 5. The Commissioning Process Details – 1Facility Commissioning Issues Time phasing construction and commissioning activities Time phasing the commissioning of the various parts of the plant relative to each other Relationships and timings determining when various systems need to be available: Electrical, Steam, Water, Instrumentation Sequencing of the overall plant startup and shutdown to ensure we do not create unsafe conditions Initial start up Process Control and Shutdown Performance testing • 6. Developing Startup Procedures Engineering and construction companies generally follow a systematic procedure where by their startup engineers review the process design several times as it is developed After the first review, a preliminary start-up and operations procedure is written Decide what must be added to the design to make the process capable of being started up and operated; By the time the final engineering flow-sheets have been released a complete startup and operating instructions manual should have been completed. • 7. Issues Considered Are various part of the process too depend on one another Is there enough surge capacity Are there provisions to prevent abnormal pressures, temperatures and rates of reaction Where are additional valves and bypass lines needed Special lines to allow equipment to be started up and rerun product/raw materials. • 8. System Level Activities Utilities systems - steam, instrument air, process water, fire water, drainage, condensate return Electrical systems Instrumentation and instrumentation systems; Cleaning and flushing Purging Initial start up and shutdowns Performance testing • 9. Equipment Level Activities Pressure testing & mechanical integrity testing of vessel, columns and pipe work. Heat Echanger, condensers, coolers etc. Mechanical equipment and machinery. Control Systems and Instrumentation. Operational testing. Proof testing and acceptance. • 10. What can be done before mechanicalcompletion Utilities commissioning Lube and Seal-Oil Systems Cleaned Instrumentation and Control Loops Proven Piping, Towers and Vessels Cleaned Boil-Out, Dry-Out and Acid Cleaning Turbine, Motor and Pump Run-Ins Nitrogen Purge and Tightness Testing • 11. Building Organisational Learning Best Practice Benchmarking Improvement Industry Processes Standards Corporate Procedures and Knowledge Base Check sheets Legislation Experience Process Design Specific Machinery &Equipment • 12. Procedures Procedures are written routines/instructions that describe the logical sequence of activities required to perform a work process and the specific actions required to perform each activity. If there are no written procedures, there is no basis for monitoring performance, focus for improvement or mechanism by which to capture learning. The establishment of procedures and routines allow more time and mental energy to deal with the unexpected, which always happen during commissioning. • 13. Commissioning / Startup Logic A Critical Path Network (Plan) with written procedures with related documents are required. These should define for the facility, each plant system: • The order in which the systems will be started up. • Individual activities at each stage. • Operation testing requirements. • Durations, waiting times, cooling times. • Total duration for starting up each system. • Resources required - labour, materials, equipment services • Temperatures, pressures, fluid flows used. • 14. BY DR.HIMADRI BANERJI MD ECOURJAEX. RELIANCE AND TATA Copyright 15 • 15. Commissioning / Startup and Shutdown Issues At the facility, system and equipment level, we want to avoid: • Creation/existence of explosive mixtures, usually because of the presence of air. • Water hammer and water based explosion effects, due to contact between water and hot substances (steam, oil, etc.) In particular, during commissioning hot fluids and gases will be coming into contact with cold surfaces in places that would be hot under normal operations. • • 16. Mechanical Completion and Integrity Checking 17. Mechanical Completion and Integrity Inspection Preparation and planning • Inspection Mechanical Completion • Pressure testing and Integrity checking • Cleaning and Flushing • Machinery checkout Pre-commissioning & Operational Testing Start Up & Initial Operation Performance and Acceptance testing Post Commissioning • 18. Categories of Process Equipment Distillation Towers / Fractionation Towers Reboilers & Other Shell & Tube Heat Exchangers Boilers and Fired Heaters Pressure Vessels and Pipe-work Fin-Fan Coolers Condensers Machinery/Rotating Equipment Valves Instrumentation Electrical Equipment • 19. Machinery / Rotating Equipment Pumps Steam Turbines Gas Turbines Compressors Gas Engines Electric Motors • 20. Mechanical Completion and IntegrityInspection Involves checking that everything has been built and it there as per specification. Refer: • Piping Plan Drawings • Layout and construction drawings • P & ID’s Electrical systems, Instrumentation and control systems checkout done by appropriately qualified personnel (Electricians and Instrumentation technicians). General commissioning engineers generally do not get involved in this in a handson manner. • 21. Mechanical Completion and IntegrityInspection Procedure Divide plant into manageable areas; In a large plant, assign individuals or teams to specific areas; Establish a master set of piping plan drawings and P&ID’s, mark up areas: Individual commissioning engineers or teams walk every line and mark up every item that can be confirmed as present on master set of drawings. Use different colored “highlighter” pens to indicate different services. without placing excessive stresses on equipment. • • 27. Pipe Stressing Piping should provide adequately for expansion and contraction due to temperature changes. • Check expansion joints. drains. • • 25. vessels and other process equipment.globe. Vents. are all in the right place. Punch list any non-conformances. steam traps etc. Mechanical Completion and Integrity InspectionEvery line must be walked! Physically see every • 23. • Check long straight runs of piping for bowing or support shoe that may have slipped. Misalignment between matching flanges on pipe work particular where there are changes indirection (elbows) can cause stressing. If they do not function correctly. bolts. nozzles heat exchangers etc. Misalignments where pipe-work connects to machinery. pipe work. Mechanical Completion and IntegrityInspection Procedure Hints / Tips Ensure pipes. vessels. Valves are correct type . • Establish that equipment can expand and contract as required. control. may be damaged. Piping and Equipment Supports Inspection after cool-down: • Check that sliding supports have returned to original positions. vessels. Piping and Equipment Supports Inspection prior to start up: • Check that installed according to specification and not jammed. valves etc. correct rating. Can often be seen visually. • 24.this needs to be corrected. Piping and Equipment Supports 26. • Check that there is no surface buckling or crimping . Piping and equipment support Mobile supports permit and guide the thermal growth of equipment undergoing temperature change.• 22.bowing is excessive if you can see it. • Rule of thumb . Flanges. Typical Piping Support Methods 28. • 29. Blind flanges and swing able blinds in place. types of bolts. Inspection during warm up: • Check thermal growth is occurring and supports are responding as per design. . gate. Check all tag numbers. equipment. or checked with gauges using the same procedures we use to align rotating equipment. the weight of water in pipe will deform the spring). If a vessel has been sealed up by construction. Verifying capability of containing the pressures it has been designed to hold. • 31. Trays . design. • 34. Vortex breakers in place. columns and reactors should be scheduled to be completed before construction has closed them up. Inspection of Vessels and Columns Check that distributors have been installed correctly. Commissioning team representatives should witness and certify the tests. insulation. • 37. Other inspections . local. international and industry standards. type. Pressure Testing low in chloride content for stainless steel lines. • 38. All .Objectives The objective of pressure testing is to confirm the mechanical integrity of the plant.packed or “bubble-cap” are correct: • Bubble caps not jammed or damaged. water should be drained completely from all lines that do not normally carry water. it is your duty to inspect it. After cool down: • check to establish piping can expand and • establish that springs can absorb loads. (If not.Procedures Water for testing and flushing should contain a rust inhibitor . After testing. for completeness or piping.g. safety etc. down comers clear. can be scheduled later. supports all OK. • • 35. Inspection of Spring Supports During and at end of heating: • Check pointer has not exceeded hot setting. Ensure there are no leaks and verify that the plant can be reliably made leak free. reactors and piping for mechanical strength and tightness of joints is usually done by the construction team. • • 32.e. After hydro-testing but before heating: • Check that stops are removed. Inspection of Spring Supports Before hydro-testing: • Check that spring stops are installed. even it construction resist. Meet the requirements of legislation. Identify any vulnerabilities well before the plant is placed into service. Pressure Testing – Responsibilities Pressure tests of tanks. Pressure Testing . Need to verify that all necessary safety precautions have been taken. Vessels and Columns 33. • Check that spring pointer is positioned to cold setting.• 30. Inspection of Vessels and Columns The inspection of vessels. steam or steam condensate. Pressure Testing . De-misters installed correctly and of correct materials. Where oil coatings must be removed. Flushing Can be handled by geographic plant area. condensate. • 44. 3. or • Pipes that should not be touched with water. • 40.75 m/sec). Water velocities should be at least 12 ft/sec (approx. • Blinds in front of equipment such as compressors and turbines. Sections too large for water flushing: • Pipes greater than 30 in diameter (0. Flushing Regardless of whether pipes are cleaned with water. Lines should be dried by blowing hot air. gloves. chemical cleaning is necessary.65 m/sec). . Need to ensure that the debris from one piece of equipment will not simply be flushed into another. dry inert gas or instrument air. packaging) should have been removed during mechanical integrity inspections. Cleaning and Flushing 42. Cleaning and Flushing Need to ensure no construction debris is left in pipes of vessels . Hydro testing of piping and equipment according to code requirements to confirm mechanical strength should be carried out on groups of equipment naturally suggested by design pressure and function. • 39. Large debris (lumber. Major equipment that has already been tested as part of manufacturing may be isolated by blanks. • 43. air or nitrogen.low points should be checked for presence of water. Cleaning and Flushing Before flushing is started. rags etc. steam.75 m). flow velocities should be high enough to ensure that pipes will be suitably scoured. Should all be blown out with air or inert gas. Excessive leaks can then be located by applying a mild positive pressure and testing each flange with bubble solution. • 45. All water. steam. nuts. bolts. gas and process steam piping should be hydro tested. check the process thoroughly to ensure: • Screens have been installed in front of pump suctions. Small debris (rags. • • 41. Pressure Testing – Procedures 2 Isometric drawings of all systems to be tested should be displayed on a board and marked up as each section is tested. Air velocities a minimum of 200 ft/sec (approx. cable. • “Jumper” spool pieces to allow for continuity of flow. Pressure Testing – Vacuum Systems Final checks of vacuum systems are best performed by pulling a vacuum and observing the rate of pressure rise in the blocked in system. oil.welding rods. dirt) must be flushed out of all pipe and vessels. Check that instrument air is clean and dry. fit a target with a “mirrored” surface (ie. Start Up & Initial Operation Performance and Acceptance testing Post Commissioning • • 48. When steam appears clean. • 51. Purge/blow out lines to each piece of equipment. Commissioning UtilitiesIntroducing Steam Steam usually represents the first “hazardous” fluid introduced into the “new” system. nitrogen etc.blow down at full pressure. Provides planning practice for planning the startup of the main plant. and Integrity checking • Dry running trials. Blow down the . cooling water. Commissioning Utilities Utilities commissioning usually represents the first phase of commissioning. before the rest of the plant can be commissioned. The Commissioning Process Detail .particularly where the steam is used to drive a steam turbine should be checked by use of a “target”. Small steel plate which has been polished. The steps for commissioning each utility should be planned in detail. High Pressure Steam SystemsSpecific Issues The cleanliness and purity of high pressure steam systems . instrument air. until clean. Pre-Commissioning and Operational Testing 47. For new boilers. • 52.• • 46. as these usually need to operational first. Flush waste water and drain systems to ensure no blockages. open drains. Drain condensate to waste water until is clean. Admit steam slowly into the distribution system with atmospheric bleeds open: • Cold pipes will condense steam in places where it would not under normal operation. or new sections added to steam system . At the most distant points. Circulate water to waste water system until water lines clear and clean. Commissioning Utilities 49.3 Preparation and planning Mechanical • Steam and other utilities Completion commissioned and introduced.can distort and rupture lines. • Hot running trials. Check operation of steam traps. • 50. Operational Testing • Solvent dynamic testing. and at correct pressure. so that it is in the steam blow down stream. • Process fluid tests. vent valves or pipe flanges and purge until fluids come out clean and rust free. Pre-commissioning & • Safe-fluid dynamic testing. Then place steam traps into service and check operation. Commissioning Utilities – Broad Guidelines Check supply pressures of all services steam. slowly raise pressure and blow down the system with traps bypassed. After system has been warmed. • Can lead to “water hammer”. repeat process. Commissioning Electrical Systems – 2The Following checks are typical of what is required Check all nameplates and panel directories to ensure that each circuit breaker and switch does control the proper circuit. Close first switch-gear circuit breaker. checking of tubing. Check grounding systems for continuity and resistance. all explosion proof. Check that all sealed fittings are filled with proper sealants. Check voltmeter at switch-gear for proper voltage. etc… • 55. then each motor starter circuit breaker. Check overload breakers and heaters to ensure that the correct capacity units have been installed. levelling correct. third etc. • Control systems functional check. Make sure all electrical equipment. Commissioning Electrical Systems – 3The following checks are typical of what is required Check that all lighting and power circuits are functioning correctly. Repeat for each MCC. transmitter calibration. • • 53. Check motor bearings . safety features checking.boiler or system so that the target is impinged upon for a few minutes. second. etc… • P&ID conformity. • 57. critical operating parameters checking. dust-tight and weather tight enclosures are properly closed and secured. Label all switches even though their application may seem obvious. • 56. Check that all bus-bars are free of dirt and foreign matter. protection systems. is the plant built according the P&ID. oil flushing satisfactory. Machinery and System Check-Out Check-out A crew of specialized individuals need to be mobilized to do the check-out and pre-commissioning in a plant: • All control loops. Close main transformer primary disconnect switch and switch-gear main circuit breaker. vessels. are they connected. Commissioning Electrical SystemsThe following checks are typical of what is required Open circuit breakers and switches. integrity check. switchgears. is all instrumentation correctly installed. Check motor control and power circuitry for correct hookup. vapour-tight. Check target . If pock marked . emergency stops check. Electrical Systems 54. functional checks. selectivity studies. structures are connected to the grounding system in accordance with drawings and specifications. are all valves correctly installed. Close first motor control centre main circuit breaker. etc… • Analyzer calibration. problem assessment and identification.ensure there are no small “pock marks” left on the target. stroking of valves. etc… • Mechanical installation of all (major) equipment. alignments done. communications check. etc… • Electrical check-out. check-out of MCC’s. settings of PID loops. Steam turbines. etc. before introducing “live” process fluid. • • • 58. interlock and sequencing devices. Critical exchangers whose steam or cooling water is at a high pressure than the process fluid. Shafts and impellers move freely. then automatic operation. These tests should be performed by the manufacturer’s representative but witnessed by members of the client’s operating/commissioning personnel. Check manual. Fixed-bed catalytic reactors that in normal conditions are heated by heat transfer fluids where leakage would contaminate the catalyst. Dry runs of individual items of equipment Hot testing of individual items of equipment and systems. • • 64. • 63. Hot Testing Procedures The thermal shock tolerance of equipment must be determined beforehand.for proper lubrication. Equipment that is to be operated at temperature. we progress through: • Safe-fluid dynamic testing. Hot Testing Equipment Applies to equipment whose leak-tightness must be tested at operating temperatures and after temperature reversals. • The whole new process plant installation. Time required for a hot test must be established in advance. • Dynamic testing . Operational Testing 60. Several stages of Dynamic Testing of: • Individual items of equipment. Establish a uniform temperature in all parts of equipment that are supposed to be uniformly hot during operation to avoid setting up stresses. replace fuses and check direction of rotation by momentarily pressing the start button. To avoid thermal shock. Dry Runs and Hot Tests Check that motors are connected correctly and turn in the right direction. • 61. During dynamic testing. Uncouple each motor. the temperature of the heating medium may have to be raised gradually. Operational Testing Progresses through several stages. Any equipment having complicated seals through which leakage could occur. Remove motor power fuses and check main contractor. check drive belts and make sure guards are installed. raise to temperature and check. Rotating machinery which must be able to rotate freely at temperature eg. Replace all couplings. Dynamic Testing Involves operating the equipment. Dynamic Testing 65. Electric Motor Driven Pumps 59. • Individual Systems/processes in isolation. then stop. • 62. Familiarizes operators with the operation of the equipment before hazardous materials are introduced.pressuring. Gets rid of a lot of dirt which would be more difficult to Clear once the process fluid has been introduced. Tests should continue for several days in order to give all shifts a chance to conduct the same tests. Compressors and blowers should be operated on air or inert gas. • 66. Safe-Fluid Dynamic Testing Closed loop dynamic testing with safe fluids consists of operating equipment systems with air. • 70. . • 68. temperature.flow. inert gases etc. will assist in alerting commissioning team for risks from over. Once process fluid is introduced. General Principles for Testing A rough flow-sheet should be developed for air and water tests. firewater. Air and water tests should be set up in a closed loop with fluids continuously recycled. Dynamic Testing – Simulated OperationsSafe Fluid Testing Auxiliary services must be brought into operation first: • water cooling. Care must be taken not to collapse or burst pressure vessels and tanks: • ensure there is always adequate venting. power etc. water. • Corrosion • Excessive weight of liquid into parts of the system. boiler feed water. Gives first indication of how control loops work. heat transfer. steam production. Establishes performance while there is still time to modify the plant. • 69. inert gas generators. a period of 2-3 weeks is usually sufficient for operational testing. over loading temperature-shocking and stressing equipment. General Principles for Testing For most plants. The loop should ideally be the same loop that will be subject to solvent testing.with solvent. with loops as large as possible. This permits flow testing of equipment. • avoid pulling a vacuum. after the mechanical dry running of individual pieces of equipment and hot testing complete. Cautions During Testing Dynamic testing may lead to: • Unusual or unforeseen differential expansions. pressure. • Closed loop testing with process fluid. normal plant safety procedures must come into effect as if it were a live operating plant. • 67. etc. All shifts should be given the opportunity to start up and shutdown each closed loop test. Water is pumped through the process (except where special conditions do not permit it) and boiled up in columns. predicting all information that normally appears on a process flow sheet . • • 72. Fill systems with the solvent. or near design conditions prior to the introduction of more hazardous process fluid. After operations with the first solvent have been brought completely under control. • 75. Equipment deficiencies can become apparent during dynamic testing. Failures and problems more easily corrected with safe fluids present Leaks should be found and tightened. Dynamic Testing with a Solvent After safe fluid testing and subsequent repairs and modifications. or the process fluid itself. Guidelines used for safe-testing apply. Stages of Dynamic Testing with a “Solvent” Drain safe fluid and purge air used in the previous test from the system. introduce only one at this stage). place pumps and compressors online to complete filling. Dynamic Testing with Process Solvent Introduce the process solvent. The dynamic testing procedure used for the safe fluid test is repeated for the process solvent dynamic testing. No reactions should be allowed to occur during these tests. Heat up the systems to simulate operating conditions by placing reflux. re-boiler and condensation systems into operation . Start closed loop circulation. The “solvent” is a relatively safe fluid whose properties are close to that of the process fluid. Dry out equipment where safe fluid was water. (if there is more than one. In order to allow for continuous re-circulation of the solvent and the use of different solvents in different parts of the plant. should the second solvent be introduced (if there is one). Ensure provisions made for venting and drains closed. Dynamic Testing – Simulated Operations 73. When adequate levels established. • 76. • 74. Check flow sheets for where water is likely to accumulate. Dynamic Testing with a Solvent The purpose of dynamic testing with a solvent is to check out equipment and instrument loops at. Instruments can be placed into service . before hazardous fluids are introduced.• 71. temporary lines will need to be installed. The Value of Dynamic Testing –Simulated Operations Value of simulated operations will be to allow operator to become familiar with the operation of the process.although selection of set-points will have to be deferred. so as to ensure that test fluids remain predictable in composition and properties. Need to plan how solvent will be fed into the system and later removed. we are ready for dynamic closed loop testing with a solvent. Inspect the plant for evidence of design and construction errors. rate of pressure loss of the “blocked in "system is monitored as a check for leaks and that no vents or drains have been left open. Reliability of emergency shutdown systems and alarms must be proven. place as many as possible on automatic control. we complete additional pressure testing and purging. process analysers and safety devices are kept work properly during these processes. Only positive method to water-free process equipment is oil circulation followed by repeated draining of low points. until at least <3% oxygen is reached. Closed Loop Dynamic Testing with Process Fluid Finally. Ease compressors into mild surges and plot surge curves. instruments should be calibrated to cover their full range of flow. Overload condensers. Dehydrating by Circulation It is usually not possible to water-free equipment simply by draining. Vacuum systems should be evacuated and then re-pressured with nitrogen. Need to check that the stresses and strains of dynamic testing has not caused any leaks – these must be found and fixed. • 81. During this step. Do not fear blowing a relief valve or two! After tests have been completed. Dynamic “solvent "testing offers the best opportunity for operator training before the “real thing”. • 80. Operate equipment as near as possible to design capacities. control valve loops. After instruments have checked out. Long runs of piping are swept with nitrogen.deliver oil to upper part (trays) of distillation towers (size for 20% of net distillate product rate). Ensure sufficient low point drains are provided on piping.• 77. Preparing to Introduce Process Fluid Before introducing hazardous liquids into the plant. Stages of Dynamic Testing with a “Solvent” Systematically check out instrumentation and control loops. temperature and pressure. Startup lines . After operations with process fluid are brought completely under control should the final stage of start-up be attempted. Critical instruments must be calibrated over their full range. Pressure Testing and Purging Consists of pressuring and de-pressuring with nitrogen several times. Ensure that instruments. heating and cooling closed loop systems. While under pressure. plant should be ready for initial operation. All shifts should go through starting and stopping equipment. • 78. • 82. vessels and process machinery. . Stages of Dynamic Testing with a “Solvent” Deliberately operate equipment near its limits: Flood columns. introduce process fluid. • 79. Usually done in steps with operating data evaluated and verified as OK at each step. E. Plant and laboratory data are now being collected and should be being evaluated promptly. Most plants in petrochemical/chemical industry have the following “general ”form. • Often.• • 83. Preparation and planningMechanical Completionand Integrity checking Precommissioning & Operational Testing • Introduction of process fluid • Start-up and initial operation • Trouble-shooting and Start Up & Initial Operation problem correction. many problem with equipment of the process itself may become apparent. • 88. get this working and in control. • 91. • 87. • Then possibly start up reaction and recovery. Cooperation between startup personnel and plant supervisory personnel is critical at this stage: • Need a daily meeting at least. As each section is started up. Start Up Logic It is common practice to buy in product and start up the last past of the process first and work backwards to the front.ground” are required at this stage. Coordination and SupervisionDuring Start Up Additional personnel. there should be no hesitation on going into an emergency shutdown. If potentially serious problems develop. The commissioning process goes through what is often an intense (and hopefully short) period of problem trouble shooting. • 90. Start Up and Initial Operation 84. • Start up refining. • Finally. a briefing each shift. both supervisory and “on the. problem solving. • 89. engineering correction and plant modification. • Plant taken to full operations. Feed Reaction Recovery Product Preparation refiningStart Up from the End of the Process and Work back • 86. Into the Initial Operation Once raw materials are fed into the plant – usually at reduced rate until reaction conditions have been established. Ramping up the Plant Plant is brought slowly to design feed-rates and operating conditions. Performance and Acceptance testingPost Commissioning • 85. establish as quickly as possible that process conditions are as expected.g. Performance and Acceptance Trails . Trouble Shooting At this stage. feed preparation. there is repeatability. Before the Trails of Performance RunNeed to Ensure that… Control of plant operating conditions has been achieved. temperature. pressure. capability and capacity of plant and equipment. • 96.the responsibility of operations and maintenance. • Re-inspection of critical process equipment . Energy and mass balance. • 94. Completion of the Capital Project and .• 92. • Commissioning team have full-filled their obligations.e. The plant is brought up to those conditions and the pre. etc. All to specification. That is: • Shutdown and Start Up the plant on several occasions and bring it up to test conditions to prove repeatability. level. Commercial Significant of Acceptance Formal Acceptance represents formal acknowledgment that the: • Contractor has full-filled their contractual obligations. Product specifications are being achieved consistently. The values or range of values for each independent variable .particularly columns to ensure they have not been damaged by the performance run. Acceptance testing • Formal Acceptance testPost Commissioning • 93. Daily material and energy balanced can be performed and that these agree with “official” production figures. levels and analyses are reasonably constant or in the case of a batch process. The Performance Trials Once the plant is fully operational.agreed trial period begins. • 95. The may still be outstanding punchlist items • 97. Process chemistry. temperature.flow. pressures. • 98. yields and quality. Efficiencies. Commissioning is officially over. Acceptance When the plant has met the Performance and Acceptance test requirements designed by the commissioning team there is usually a formal acceptance process involving signing of acceptance certificates. to which the plant must be operated to are determined. I. Preparation and planning Mechanical Completionand Integrity checkingPrecommissioning & Operational Testing Start Up & Initial Operation Performance and • Performance trails. Also ramp down and ramp up while online. concentrations. Once the plant is accepted it is officially part of the normal operations . the final “proving trial” or performance run is performed in order to prove the plant can do what it is supposed to do. Acceptance Testing It is common practice to prove performance repeatability and plant integrity as part of the performance test. Need to Verify … Physical operation. com 104 • 104. orderly operating sequence in the start-up and shutdown of fuel firing equipment and to reduce possible errors by following the operating procedure.ecourja.HIMADRI BANERJI MD ECOURJAEX. Expenses and costs from acceptance onwards are now operating expenses not capital project costs. Post Commissioning Covers the period immediately after Acceptance. findings evaluated and reported. it is important to be able to guarantee not only robust control during near steady state operation. • Completion of outstanding punch listPost Commissioning items • 101. Operating data is collected and evaluated to ensure consistent plant operations are maintained and sustainable. RELIANCE AND TATA Copyright www. Burner Management System in Power Plants General The Burner Management System must be designed to ensure a safe. HIMADRI BANERJI(EX RELIANCE AND TATA)www.HIMADRI BANERJI MD ECOURJA EX. The first routine maintenance checks are performed. • • 99. modifications and fault Acceptance testing correction. WORKSHOP ON PLANT START UP AND COMMISSIONINGSEQUENTIAL START UPAUTOMATION IN PLANT START UP AND COMISSIONINGBY DR. Outstanding punch-list items are completed. Sequential Start Up and Shutdown UsingAutomation in Plant…Burner Management 105 • 105. The system is intended to protect against malfunction of fuel firing equipment and associated systems. BY DR.ecouja. BY DR. Process equipment and items covered by warranty are scrutinized for signs of premature wear-out or problems.HIMADRI BANERJI MD ECOURJA BY DR.ecouja. but also to provide procedures for generating fast and reliable start-up sequences. The safety features of the system shall be designed to provide protection in . RELIANCE AND TATA Copyright www. Performance and • Adjustments. Automation for Controlled Start Up To advocate the usage of process integration in industrial practice. RELIANCE AND TATA Copyright www. Preparation and planning Mechanical Completionand Integrity checkingPrecommissioning & Operational Testing Start Up & Initial • From plant on-stream to settled down Operation and in regular 103 • 103. • 102.ecouja. All subject to agreed punch-list items.transfer to Operations. Post-Commissioning 100. All flame scanners reading "No Flame“ 6. Purge airflow capable of a minimum of 70% of the full load airflow established through the unit[ii].HIMADRI BANERJI MD ECOURJA EX. Drum level within operating range (not high. Monitor and control the correct component sequencing during start-up and shut. Prior to starting a furnace purge cycle. Instrument air header pressure within operating range 3.HIMADRI BANERJI MD ECOURJA EX. either initially or after a boiler trip. Once the equipment is in service. the system cannot replace an intelligent operators reasonable judgment in all situations. Fan is in service 4. Sequential Start Up…BMS FunctionsThe BMS shall be designed to perform the following functions:1.4. Provide automatic supervision when the equipment is in service and provide means to make a Master Fuel Trip (MFT) should certain unacceptable firing conditions occur. a satisfactory furnace purge cycle must be completed.ecouja. Furnace Purge…Permissives 5.down of the equipment. Provide component condition feedback to the operator and. if so equipped.Prevent firing unless a satisfactory furnace purge has first been completed. In some phases of operation. RELIANCE AND TATA Copyright www. Conditionally allow the continued operation of the equipment only while certain safety interlocks remaining satisfied. Air dampers are .ecouja.ecouja. Proper attention to the design of the interlocks and trip system to provide a safe light up of the boiler furnace is required.2. BY DR.HIMADRI BANERJI MD ECOURJA EX. Furnace Purge…Permissives Before any fuel firing is 109 • 108 • 108. Natural gas block valves are proven closed 106 • 106.6. BY DR. BY DR.ecouja. the operator must ensure that the following purge requirements are satisfied[i]: 1. Fuel oil block valves are proven closed 8. the BMS shall provide permissive interlocks only to insure safe start-up of equipment.5. not low) 2. to the plant control systems and/or data loggers. Prohibit start-up of the equipment unless certain permissive interlocks have first been completed. RELIANCE AND TATA Copyright www.7. RELIANCE AND TATA Copyright 107 • 107. BY DR. Execute a MFT upon certain adverse unit operating conditions. however. the operator must follow acceptable safe operating practices. RELIANCE AND TATA Copyright www.HIMADRI BANERJI MD ECOURJA EX.most common emergency situations. Furnace Explosions A common cause of furnace explosions is “Fuel leakage into an idle furnace and the ignition of the accumulation by a spark or other source of ignition”. the operator activates the “START BOILER” switch. No MFT condition after purge 2. RELIANCE AND TATA Copyright www. Main Flame Start-Up Sequence The main flame start-up sequence. Reducing airflow below these limits will lead to a MFT. Pilot Flame Light-Off For fuel oil: 1. Suggested color design: Purge Permissives indicating lights: white Purge Available indicating light: green Purge in progress indicating light: amber Purge complete indicating light: white MFT reset indicating light: red BY DR. cold starting using natural gas from operating manuals). This is accomplished when the following conditions are satisfied: For the pilot igniter: 1.ecouja.ecouja. Burner Control System is energized 12. Natural gas control valve is in light-off position BY DR. Oil gun is in place in the burner 3. MFT relay reset 2. All of the above mentioned for the pilot igniter 2. Once the start-up sequence has begun. is an automated 110 • 110. Purge air flow: The total furnace airflow shall not be reduced below the purge rate airflow (70% of the maximum continuous airflow capacity). To initiate the start-up sequence. from the lighting the of the pilot flame through main flame light-off.HIMADRI BANERJI MD ECOURJA EX.ecouja. Pilot gas header pressure normal For natural gas: 1. Oil control valve is in light-off position Other Conditions: the fully open position 9. Oil pressure is normal 4. Pre Purge Permissives Pre purge permissive condition checks and furnace purge are to be initiated by the operator from the local BMS panel (you may see detailed guidelines on cold starting using fuel oil. Natural 111 • 111. Natural gas pressure normal 3.HIMADRI BANERJI MD ECOURJA EX. only the “BOILER STOP” switch and the “EMERGENCY STOP” will interrupt the start-up sequence. or fuel oil. RELIANCE AND TATA Copyright www. RELIANCE AND TATA Copyright www. Any interruption of the start-up sequence requires a post-fire purge prior to attempting to start the boiler again. RELIANCE AND TATA Copyright www. A "No Master Fuel Trip condition" condition is established BY DR. header pressure upstream of block valve is satisfactory 10. satisfactory light-off conditions for the pilot and main burners must be met. and a new furnace purge will be required. Pilot gas header pressure is satisfactory 11.ecouja. BY 112 • 112. All flame scanners report no flame . Pilot Flame Light-Off Before the burner can be started. Fuel oil atomizing medium is provided to the burner 6.HIMADRI BANERJI MD ECOURJA EX.HIMADRI BANERJI MD ECOURJA 113 • 113. Fuel oil atomizing interlocks are satisfied 5. All of the above mentioned for the pilot igniter 2. Shutdown Shutdown Per NFPA 8501. (c) For oil: 1. RELIANCE AND TATA Copyright www. the natural gas vent valve shall be closed by the boiler control system. the boiler control system opens the header block valves for the selected 117 • 117. the main flame light-off sequence continues. For the typical dual flame scanner design.ecouja.HIMADRI BANERJI MD ECOURJA EX. a main flame failure shutdown is initiated if both flame scanners return a “no flame” signal to the burner control 116 • 116. and. Pilot Flame Light-Off Failure to meet any of these conditions shall prevent the burner light-off operation. RELIANCE AND TATA Copyright www.ecouja. the boiler control system initiates a pilot flame failure shutdown. At 5 seconds before time out. This will generate a boiler trip. When ignition timer cycle is completed. section 6-2. and another furnace purge will be required.ecouja.HIMADRI BANERJI MD ECOURJA EX.ecouja.HIMADRI BANERJI MD ECOURJA EX. All air dampers are in light-off position BY DR. (b) Interrupt spark and shut off fuel supply to igniters. the system is in the NORMAL RUN CONDITION and combustion controls should be released to modulation control BY DR. the pilot header vent valve. Then. Once the burner is lit. RELIANCE AND TATA Copyright www. All natural gas. if in operation. sequentially. BY DR. Note that if the pilot flame continues to fail after several attempts. Main Flame Light-Off Once the pilot flame is made. or 20 seconds for fuel oil. the boiler should be inspected to determine the fault and the condition corrected.3. “The normal shutdown cycle for the boiler shall accomplish the following in the order listed: (a) Shut off fuel supply to the main burner. Pilot Flame Light-Off If the pilot flame fails. the boiler control system closes the pilot block valves and opens the pilot vent valve. the igniter transformer is energized. the igniter transformer is deenergized and the pilot flame scanner is checked by the control system. the pilot gas block valves are open and a 10 second pilot ignition timer starts counting 115 • 115. If the pilot flame is present. to establish and stabilize the main flame. RELIANCE AND TATA Copyright www.5. To light the pilot flame. A main flame light-off timer begins a 15 second countdown for natural gas. Additional attempts of pilot light-off are permissible provided a successful pilot light-off is made within 10 minutes after the furnace purge. or all fuel oil.HIMADRI BANERJI MD ECOURJA EX. The remaining 5 seconds are used to detect the main flame. Where . for natural gas 114 • 114. block valves shown closed 4. BY DR. High or low gas pressure. the control system shall initiate the following: 1. Boiler Master Fuel Trip For natural gas: 1. 8. of signals should be sent to the Combustion Control System: 1. Loss of control system power 7. RELIANCE AND TATA Copyright www. (d) For gas. Low water level. 3. Main natural gas block valve open: permissive to place gas control valve in automatic. Excessive steam pressure. a manual reset is also required.ecouja. This will initiate the shut down sequence listed above. 5.HIMADRI BANERJI MD ECOURJA EX. 2. RELIANCE AND TATA Copyright 121 • 121. 2. Alarms The following is a list of recommended alarm conditions: 119 • 119. 3. at a minimum. High furnace pressure 120 • 120. Partial Loss of flame (For the typical two scanner 122 • 122. (e) Perform a post purge of the boiler furnace enclosure. BY DR. vent piping between safety shutoff valves to atmosphere. BY DR. BY DR.” For a safety shutdown. Controls to light-off position 3. if desired. 5. Loss of combustion air supply.ecouja. 7. High or low water level 3.ecouja. Loss of flame. Shut off atomizing medium. 6. 2. Low water level. BY DR. Execute a shut down as listed above.HIMADRI BANERJI MD ECOURJA EX. For fuel oil: 1.HIMADRI BANERJI MD ECOURJA EX.HIMADRI BANERJI MD ECOURJA EX. if used. 5. Any boiler or burner trip signal 2. Normal run condition: release controls to modulation 118 • 118. This results in the shutdown of all fuel and requires another furnace purge cycle before any attempt at re-lighting. Unsuccessful burner shutdown BY DR.HIMADRI BANERJI MD ECOURJA EX. one indicates “no flame”) 5. 4. Loss of control system power. 2. RELIANCE AND TATA Copyright www. if desired.ecouja. Main fuel shutoff valves closed 6. Boiler Master Fuel Trip In the event of an MFT.used. Low oil temperature. RELIANCE AND TATA Copyright www. Low fuel pressure. (f) Shut down fan. Loss of control system power. Return the system to the pre-purge state Boiler restart will be inhibited until all prepurge requirements are satisfied. open the recirculating valve. Master .ecouja. 4. RELIANCE AND TATA Copyright www. 6. Boiler Master Fuel Trip Any of the following conditions shall cause a boiler trip to occur. 3. Illuminate the appropriate indicator lights and alarms. Loss of flame. Loss of atomizing medium. Interface with the CombustionControl System (CCS) The following list. Loss of combustion air supply. Controls to purge position 2. Excessive steam pressure or water temperature. Normal Boiler Shutdown A normal shutdown is initiated by operating BOILER SHUTDOWN switch. the BMS and CCS may reside in the same processor. Burner Management Objective Sequence burner through safe start-up Insure a complete pre-purge of boiler Supervise safety limits during operation Supervise the flame presence during operation Sequence a safe shutdown at end of cycle Integrate with combustion . Ex Reliance and Tata www.HIMADRI BANERJI MD ECOURJA 123 • 123. Himadri Banerji MD EcoUrja. for a single burner boiler.3. This option can reduce the integration complexity and increase the BMS to CCS interface reliability. BY DR.ecouja. Oil recirculation signal Under the provisions of NFPA 8501. section • 128.fuel trip: run boiler load to zero and place combustion controls in manual. operator assistance in the sequential safe starting and stopping of fuel preparation and burning equipment. Design Principles of Sequential Start-Up…Case Study in Burner Management System Design Introduction Burner Management System Objectives BMS Design Standards and Definitions BMS Logic BMS Strategies and Hardware ◦ Types of Burner Management Systems BMS Interface to SCADA Systems Summary Workshop on Start Up and Commissioning Dr. IntroductionBurnerManagementSystems. Ex Reliance and Tata www. The control designer is encouraged to incorporate a graphical user interface or similar options in order to enhance the ease of use and readability of the boiler control system operator interface Workshop on Start Up and Commissioning Dr. Himadri Banerji MD EcoUrja. Workshop on Start Up and Commissioning Dr. Himadri Banerji MD EcoUrja..a starting • 126. and the prevention of mis-operation of and damage to fuel preparation and fuel burning equipment. Ex Reliance and Tata www. Ex Reliance and Tata www.ecourja.ecourja.ecourja. Ex Reliance and Tata www. From NFPA 8501 “Standard for Single Burner Boiler Operation” Workshop on Start Up and Commissioning Dr.. 6.ecourja. Introduction What is a BMS? A Burner Management System is defined as the following: ◦ A Control System that is dedicated to boiler safety. Himadri Banerji MD EcoUrja. Himadri Banerji MD • 127.ecourja. RELIANCE AND TATA Copyright • 124. SEQUENTIAL START UP AUTOMATION DESIGN PRINCIPLES OF BURNER MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Workshop on Start Up and Commissioning Dr.2. 1 1. Operator Interface The above describes a traditional operator interface using discrete switches and indicator • 125. 5 mBTU/Hr (Approx. 6 Oil) ◦ Simultaneous Firing Workshop on Start Up and Commissioning • 133.S. Workshop on Start Up and Commissioning Dr.5 mBTU/Hr ◦ Single Fuel or Combination of Fuels including Pulverized Coal ◦ Emphasis on implosion protection (larger boilers with induced draft systems) Workshop on Start Up and Commissioning Dr. ducts. NFPA 8501 NFPA 8501 Standard for Single Burner Boiler Operation ◦ Single Burner Boilers with fuel input greater than 12.ecourja. Himadri Banerji MD EcoUrja. BMS Design Standards U. and fans that convey gases of combustion to the stack”1 ◦ Magnitude and intensity of explosion depends on relative quantity of combustibles and the proportion of air at the time of ignition 1. Himadri Banerji MD EcoUrja. NFPA 8502 NFPA 8502 Standard for Prevention of Furnace Explosions / Implosions in Multiple Burner Boilers ◦ Multiple Burner Boilers with fuel input greater than • • 130.2 Oil / • 131. Ex Reliance and Tata www. Himadri Banerji MD EcoUrja. Ex Reliance and Tata www. (FAIL SAFE) Workshop on Start Up and Commissioning Dr. From NFPA 8502 . Himadri Banerji MD EcoUrja.ecourja. Ex Reliance and Tata www. 250 BHP) ◦ Single Fuel or Combination of Fuels (Common being Natural Gas / No.control system for proper fuel and air flows Workshop on Start Up and Commissioning Dr.ecourja. BMS Definitions Furnace Explosions ◦ “Ignition of accumulated combustible mixture within the confined space of a furnace or associated boiler passes. National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) ◦ Governs safety system design on virtually all boilers (regardless of the process to be used to combust the fuel) ◦ Requires the separation of the Burner Management System from any other control system ◦ Requires the use of a hardwired backup tripping scheme for microprocessor based systems ◦ Requires that a single failure NOT prevent an appropriate shutdown ◦ Factory Mutual loss prevention guidelines. Himadri Banerji MD EcoUrja. Ex Reliance and Tata • 132. BMS Design Standards Each Burner Management System should be designed in accordance with the below listed guidelines to control and monitor all sequences of the start-up and shutdown of the burner ◦ National Fire Protection Association (NFPA 8501 /8502 or others) ◦ Industrial Risk Insurers (IRI) ◦ Factory Mutual loss prevention guidelines o Each burner management system should be designed to accomplish a safety shutdown in the event of an unsafe condition. Ex Reliance and Tata www. Ex Reliance and Tata • • 136. Himadri Banerji MD EcoUrja. Ex Reliance and Tata www. Himadri Banerji MD EcoUrja. From NFPA 8502 “Prevention of Furnace Explosions / Implosions in Multiple Burner Boilers” Workshop on Start Up and Commissioning Dr. Types of Flame Scanners Infrared (IR) Detectors ◦ Single Burner Applications ◦ More Suitable with Oil Burning Flames Ultra-Violet (UV) Detectors ◦ Multiple Burner Applications ◦ More Suitable for Gas Burners and Combination Gas / Oil Burners Self Check Scanners ◦ Flame Signal is interrupted at set intervals to verify proper operation of scanner Workshop on Start Up and Commissioning Dr. BMS Definitions Furnace Explosions can occur with any or a combination of the following:1 ◦ Momentary loss of flame followed by delayed re-ignition ◦ Fuel leakage into an idle furnace ignited by source of ignition (such as a welding spark) ◦ Repeated Light-off attempts without proper purging ◦ Loss of Flame on one Burner while others are in operation ◦ Complete Furnace Flame-out followed by an attempt to light a burner • 138.ecourja. Ex Reliance and Tata www.“Prevention of Furnace Explosions / Implosions in Multiple Burner Boilers” Workshop on Start Up and Commissioning Dr. Workshop on Start Up and Commissioning Dr. Himadri Banerji MD EcoUrja. Ex Reliance and Tata www.ecourja.ecourja. Ex Reliance and Tata • 135. Drum pressure) ◦ Automatic Non Recycling (Single Burner Only) Automatic Burner Start and Stop based on Manual command to start. Himadri Banerji MD • 137..ecourja.ecourja. From NFPA 8502 “Prevention of Furnace Explosions / Implosions in Multiple Burner Boilers” Workshop on Start Up and Commissioning Dr. Single Burner BMS Inputs Low Low Drum Level (D) High Steam Pressure (D) (D) Purge Purge Air Flow Minimum Air Flow (D) (D) Limits Made Flame / No Flame Hold to Purge SCRL RESET MO DE BURNER FUEL SELECT FD FAN OFF ON GAS OIL HAND OFF AUTO (D) Fuel Oil Temp Low Fuel Oil Temp High (D) (D) Fuel Oil Press Low Fuel Oil Flow (A) (D) . BMS Definitions Furnace Implosions ◦ More common in large Utility Boilers ◦ Caused by any of the following: Malfunction of equipment regulating boiler gas flow resulting in furnace exposure to excessive induced draft fan head capability Rapid decay for furnace gas temperature and pressure due to furnace trip 1. Himadri Banerji MD EcoUrja. BMS Basic Definitions Common Terminology ◦ Supervised Manual Manual Burner Light-off with Interlocks ◦ Automatic Recycling (Single Burner Only) Automatic Burner Start and Stop based on preset operating range (ie. Atomizing Medium Flow > Min Atomizing AE TE (D) Medium Common Alarm Output Press Low (D) Remote Annunciator (By Others) FEEDWATER PSH PSL STEAM PT PSH FT IGNITER Safety Shut Off GAS LSLL & Vent Valves LSLL Fuel Fuel Gas Gas FT PSL TSH TSL FS Press Press Low High (D) (D) PSL PSL OIL Safety Shut Off Control Valves Valve ATOMIZING Control Valve & MEDIUM Shut Off Valve (D) .ecourja. Himadri Banerji MD • 141. Ex Reliance and Tata www. BMS Logic Burner Management Systems can be broken down into “Interlock Groups” Typical BMS Interlock Groups: ◦ Boiler Purge ◦ Igniter Header Valve Management ◦ Main Fuel Header Valve Management ◦ MFT (Master Fuel Trip) Logic Workshop on Start Up and Commissioning Dr.MINIMUM AIR FLOW SWITCH MADE . Ex Reliance and Tata www. Himadri Banerji MD EcoUrja.ecourja.FUEL SUPPLY PRESSURE NOT LOW ENERGIZE FUEL RELAY NOT AND PURGE SIGNAL TO CCS PURGE AIR FD DAMPER IN FLOW SWITCH AND FULL OPEN MADE POSITION PURGE TIMER SET PURGE COMPLETE NO YES REMOVE PURGE TO CCS SYSTEM TRIP Workshop on Start Up and Commissioning Dr. Ex Reliance and Tata www. Himadri Banerji MD EcoUrja. Ex Reliance and Tata www. Ex Reliance and Tata www. Purge Interlocks BOILER TRIPPED AND PURGE / RESET PB START-UP TIMER START FD FAN PERMISSIVES SATISFIED: .NO FLAME PRESENT . Igniter Interlocks PURGE COMPLETE AIR DAMPER IN LOW FIRE FUEL VALVE IN LOW FIRE AND POSITION POSITION ENERGIZE IGNITER AND IGNITER HEADER VALVES 10 SECOND DELAY 10 SEC PILOT TRIAL FOR IGNITION TIMER COMPLETE FLAME PROVEN NOT AND SYSTEM TRIP PERMIT FOR MAIN FLAME Workshop on Start Up and Commissioning Dr.Descrete Signal Used By Flame Safeguard System FT PSL PSH GAS Safety Shut Off & Control Vent Valves Valve Workshop on Start Up and Commissioning Dr.FD FAN RUNNING AND . Main Flame Interlocks IGNITER TIMER COMPLETE FLAME AND PROVEN ENERGIZE MAIN FUEL VALVES 10 SEC MAIN FLAME TRIAL TIMER COMPLETE NOT AND DE-ENERGIZE IGNITION COMPONENTS RELEASE TO MODULATE TO CCS SYSTEM TRIP Workshop on Start Up and Commissioning Dr.ATOMIZING MEDIUM ON . Himadri Banerji MD .ecourja.MAIN FUEL VALVES CLOSED .com • 142.WATER LEVEL SATISFACTORY .com • 139.ecourja. Himadri Banerji MD • 140. LOWWATER LEVEL (AUXLEVEL CONTACT) . Forney and Peabody) ◦ Spare Parts are extremely hard to find. MicroProcessor Based Systems Microprocessor Based System providing: ◦ Burner Sequencing ◦ Ignition ◦ Flame Monitoring Fixed Program with Limited Configuration Changes Components Selected Based on Requirements ◦ Programmers.. PLC Based Systems ◦ Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) Based ◦ Powerful.HIGH GAS PRESSURE . Message Displays Workshop on Start Up and Commissioning Dr. BMS System Types Early Burner Management Systems ◦ Hardwired Systems ◦ Solid State Systems Microprocessor Based Systems ◦ Honeywell 7800 series with fixed Logic.LOSS OF FLAM OR FAIL TO ESTABLISH E . Workshop on Start Up and Commissioning • 146.LOSS OF CONTROL SYSTEMENERGY . Flame • 147. Single Burner Main Fuel Trip FOR OIL: FOR GAS: .LOSS OF FLAM OR FAIL TO ESTABLISH E . Ex Reliance and Tata • 145.LOWTEM PERATURE (HEATED OILS) . Himadri Banerji MD EcoUrja.HIGH OIL TEMPERATURE (HEATED OILS) OR OR TRIP BOILER TRIP IGNITER. Early Burner Management Systems Hardwired Systems ◦ Relay and Timer Driven.ecourja. Ex Reliance and Tata www. VALVES.• 143.ecourja. Ex Reliance and Tata www.POWER FAILURE .EXCESSIVE STEAMDRUMPRESSURE EXCESSIVE STEAMDRUMPRESSURE . expandable.LOSS OF COM BUSTION AIR .ecourja.ecourja.LOSS OF ATOM IZING MEDIUM . more reliable. Himadri Banerji MD EcoUrja.LOWFUEL PRESSURE LOWFUEL GAS PRESSURE .LOSS OF COM BUSTION AIR .POWER FAILURE .ecourja. Ex Reliance and Tata www.LOWWATER LEVEL (AUXLEVEL CONTACT) . Himadri Banerji MD . TRIP MAIN FUEL FUEL CONTROL IGNITER VALVES. OPEN VALVE TO TRIP MFT RELAY OPEN IGNITER VENT VALVE CLOSED VENT (GAS ONLY) POSITION Workshop on Start Up and Commissioning Dr. versatile. Himadri Banerji MD EcoUrja. Found on older installations ◦ Typical of Late 50’ • 144. Ex Reliance and Tata www. Himadri Banerji MD EcoUrja. 60’s Solid State Systems ◦ Solid State Processors and Relays ◦ Found on Systems provided in the 70’s and 80’s ◦ Proprietary Hardware (ie.LOSS OF CONTROL SYSTEMENERGY . Workshop on Start Up and Commissioning Dr. Typical BMS Layout AMPLIFIER EP PROGRAMMER AUTOMATIC PRIMARY SAFETY CONTROL FIELD WIRING FIELD WIRING FLAME SCANNER Workshop on Start Up and Commissioning Dr. PLC Based Operator Interfaces Features ◦ Clear Written Messages to indicate • 149. Himadri Banerji MD EcoUrja. Himadri Banerji MD EcoUrja. required operator • 153. Himadri Banerji MD EcoUrja. Himadri Banerji MD EcoUrja. trip/alarm indication ◦ High Visibility through two lines of display ◦ Messages reduce time consuming troubleshooting ◦ Prioritizes Messages First Out Alarms Warning / Alarm Messages Status Messages / Prompts Operator Workshop on Start Up and Commissioning Dr.ecourja.ecourja. Micro Processor Capabilities Simple. change scanner with fuel Single or Multiple Burner Applications Integration of BMS with SCADA Workshop on Start Up and Commissioning Dr. Ex Reliance and Tata www. PLC Based System Capabilities Provision for Multiple Fuel Firing ◦ Capped gas input during curtailment ◦ Changeover from gas to oil at any load ◦ Simultaneous firing of waste and fossil fuels Redundant Scanners. Ex Reliance and Tata www. When These Systems are Used “Simple” Boiler Installations ◦ Packaged Fire tube / Water tube Boilers (Steam / Hot Water) ◦ Single Burner ◦ One Fuel at a Time ◦ No Flue Gas ReCirculation ◦ Upgrades from Previous MicroProcessor Based Systems Workshop on Start Up and Commissioning Dr. 8502 ◦ Watchdog timer ◦ UL 508 Certification Redundant Scanners Logic+ Message Center ◦ Shows program status ◦ Displays alarms ◦ Prompts operator Workshop on Start Up and Commissioning • 152. PLC System Basic Design Features Each PLC based burner management system should incorporate a number of design techniques which help detect and act upon unsafe failure modes which can occur in any microprocessor based system. Cost Effective Features ◦ Selectable Flame Amplifiers / Scanners ◦ Remote Display ◦ Remote Data Communications via Modbus Port ◦ Modernization kits are available to integrate with older systems ◦ Spare Parts Normally Readily Available Workshop on Start Up and Commissioning Dr. These design features include the following: ◦ Critical Input Checking ◦ Critical output channel monitoring ◦ Electro-mechanical Master Fuel Trip (MFT) Relay ◦ Redundant Watchdog Timers ◦ Low Water Cut-out Monitoring During Blow Down Workshop on Start Up and Commissioning Dr. Himadri Banerji MD • 150. Ex Reliance and Tata www. Himadri Banerji MD EcoUrja.ecourja. Ex Reliance and Tata www.ecourja.ecourja.• 148. Ex Reliance and Tata www. PLC Based Burner Management Systems PLC Based Features ◦ NFPA . Ex Reliance and Tata • 151.ecourja. Himadri Banerji MD EcoUrja.ecourja. Himadri Banerji MD EcoUrja.ecourja. Burner trip) can be routed to Historical Portion of SCADA for fault evaluation ◦ Burner Operation can be trended over time Workshop on Start Up and Commissioning Dr. PLC System Layout Door Mounted Lights / Pushbuttons Logic+ Message SWITCH SILENCE LIGHT Display PLC CPU I/O I/O I/O I/O COMBUSTION CONTROL SYSTEM FLAME AMPLIFIER (SINGLE / REDUNDANT) I/O EXPANSION I/O FIELD DEVICES Workshop on Start Up and Commissioning Dr. Benefits of PLC Based Systems Flexibility / Reliability ◦ Programming Software allows changes to system Choice of PLCs ◦ GE / Modicon / Allen Bradley / Koyo Choice of Flame Scanners ◦ PPC / Fireye / Honeywell / Iris / Coen Application Specific Quantity of Burners / Fuels is not restricted Workshop on Start Up and Commissioning Dr. Himadri Banerji MD • 156. Ex Reliance and Tata www. BMS SCADA Interface BMS Systems can be integrated into a SCADA System ◦ Allows Remote Monitoring of Flame Status ◦ Allows Remote Control of BMS ◦ Events (ie. On-line Fuel Changeovers ◦ Flue Gas Re-Circulation ◦ Replace Existing Relay Logic Systems ◦ Requirement to maintain consistent control platform (spare • 159. Himadri Banerji MD • 158. Ex Reliance and Tata www. When to Use PLC Based Systems “Complex” Boiler Installations ◦ Larger Packaged Units / Field Erected Units ◦ Multiple Burners ◦ Multiple • • 157.ecourja.ecourja. BMS SCADA Interface Interface Methods: SCADA PC MODBUS COMMUNICATION PROTOCOL MODBUS COMMUNICATION Communication PROTOCOL Interface (If Necessary) PLC CPU I/O I/O I/O I/O BMS LOGIC+ SYSTEM FIREYE E110 SYSTEM Workshop on Start Up and Commissioning Dr. Himadri Banerji MD EcoUrja. BMS SCADA Interface Workshop on Start Up and Commissioning Dr. Himadri Banerji MD EcoUrja..• 154. Ex Reliance and Tata www. SummaryBenefits Associated with Sequential Start Up Automationand Burner Management Systems ◦ Help Improve plant safety ◦ Help qualify for reduced insurance cost ◦ Reduce Startup and Down Time with comprehensive alarming and diagnostics Workshop on . Ex Reliance and Tata • 155. etc.) Workshop on Start Up and Commissioning Dr.ecourja.. Ex Reliance and Tata www. Ex Reliance and Tata www.ecourja. ecourja. and acknowledgement and thanks are hereby given to EIGA for permission granted for the use of their documentPresented by Dr Himadri Banerji EcoUrja www/ecourja. customers. This work permit: specifies the work to be accomplished and authorizes it to be started under the strict observance of consigned work and safety procedures After information and agreement of all other concerned parties (process. SAFETY ISSUES THE WORK PERMIT SYSTEM (Reference Document : <<AIGA 011/04 >>)Presented by Dr Himadri Banerji EcoUrja www. • 163. e.Start Up and Commissioning Dr. • 164. Summary Acknowledgement This document is adopted from the European Industrial Gases Association document TP 10/04 – The Work Permit • 162.g. When work is performed: by your employees and/or third parties • 166. What is it? A work permit system consists primarily of a standard procedure designed to ensure that potentially hazardous routine and non routine work on industrial installations can be carried out safely. safety. The Work Permit System. The procedure should define the need for the following essential steps: Details of the necessary preparatory work Clear definition of responsibilities Appropriate training of the work force Provision of adequate safety equipment A formal work permit with or without attached specific checklists.ecourja.: tanks. Summary Review of Topics Discussed ◦ Sequential Start Up Automation. Ex Reliance and Tata www. normally closed vessels Bypassing or .: toxic substances Confined space entry. e. For hazardous routine works not covered by procedures. cold box. Ex Reliance and Tata www.…) • 165. Himadri Banerji MD EcoUrja.ecourja. ◦ Objectives of Burner Management Systems ◦ BMS Design Considerations ◦ Basic BMS Logic ◦ Types of Burner Management Systems ◦ How BMS Systems can be integrated with Plant Wide SCADA Systems Workshop on Start Up and Commissioning Dr. Himadri Banerji MD EcoUrja. The Work Permit System :When? For all non-routine • 161. The Work Permit System (1/2):For what kind of work? A work permit is required in case of: Potential oxygen deficiency or enrichment Potential flammable/explosive atmosphere Potential high temperature/pressure Potential hazardous chemicals. who will release the process before the work starts The other work bodies The person in charge of HSE measures • 170. The Work Permit System : Why?1. Specialist advice.: open flame. Electrical troubleshooting or repair on live circuits Maintenance or repairs in areas or to equipment or lines.removing/altering safety devices or equipment Elevated works Introduction of ignited sources where not permanently allowed (fire permit). The Work Permit System : How? Before issuing the Work Permit. welding. e.. Exposure to traffic. The Work Permit System : Why? In order to define the scope of work for everyone concerned/involved by and during the work. The Work Permit System :Review of Flowsheets. Because: In charge of the work. The Work Permit System (2/2):For what kind of work? Or also in case of: Manual or powered excavations Use of mobile cranes Insulation or catalysts handling Use of adapters Product conversion of stationary or mobile or portable vessels and containers Temporary or permanent changes. The re-start of the process must take place after the work is finished. containing or supposed to contain hazardous materials or conditions. Power supply isolation. grinding.g. It shouldinclude: Process fluids and materials involved. Degree of isolation. liquid of gas On process lines with gas release Etc. Effect of other processes. • 167. Exposure to moving/rotating machinery In proximity of vents. • 168. you don’t know everything about the site and the process around about the work Safety measures have to be prepared You cannot start the work without the OK of the production personnel or the customer or the supplier The production needs your OK in order to re-start the plant after your work is achieved2. The start of the work must be authorized by production and/or user. • 171. Location of elevated . Drawings andSpecification Purpose of the review is to ensure all key persons involved in jobplanning have a thorough understanding of the job. alterations. To obtain a safe as well as a quick and cost effective work • 169. the Work Permit must be prepared with: The person responsible for the work The person(s) in charge of the production. you must: Describe the work to be done List all the specifications and drawings which are required Issue detailed planning with all involved entities Determine the logging and tagging procedures Fill-in together the work permit and sign. the customer or supplier. Location of elevated power cables. Location of underground services and pipes. modification of equipment or processes. Draining. ………………... falls/trips/slips. Maintenance or repairs in areas. Equipment specification.. WORK ACTIVITY Plant / Unit :………………. The procedure should include: Logging and tagging procedures: Electricity. ………………………………………………. site rules. process fluids Instrumentation..…) Depressurising. The Work Permit System :Development of Work ProceduresPreparation of a detailed work procedure is essential to ensure the work willproceed safely in a planned and logical manner: Following requirements to be considered: Reference drawings.. etc.. Flushing. confined spaces. Potential . Materials of construction and compatibilities • 172. Disassembly of equipment.… Permit valid from : ………………………………………………………… Hours/date To : ……………………………………………………………………. or to equipment or lines. ..………………………. Jobs performed by contractors or temporary workers . ………. Potential oxygen deficiency or enrichment containing or supposed to contain hazardous materials or conditions .pipelines and walkways. Emergency procedures. •To identify potential hazards Flammable. Reinstatement of equipment. toxic substances.. access. List of attached documents ………………. Timing of various operations.……………. The Work Permit System :Work site inspection Anyone involved and signing the Safe Work Permit must visit the work place in order: •To inspect the work area Neighbouring activities. snow…).……………..……. Hours/date Have all relevant departments/personnel been consulted ? YES NOT APPLICABLE 2. underground. air.. moving objects. POTENTIAL HAZARDS & HAZARDOUS JOBS YES NO YES NO . safety precautions and equipment. Pressure and leak testing. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. • 173.. Quality control.. etc.. • 174.… Description of work to be done……………….…………. traffic.... Method of repair. ………………………………………………………………………. Purging. Venting. oil. Details of any special equipment.. pressure. Valve identification. Atmosphere checking.. etc.... Isolating. Any attached document or log sheet ? YES NO HOW MANY ………. Pressure. Reassembly and installation. rain.…………. Needs to inform local authorities.…... Operating and maintenance instructions. The Work Permit System : Example form Appendix 1 EIGA/IGC WORK PERMIT n° …….. etc. electricity. natural hazards (flood. overhead. temperature. Purging and lock-out requirements. Temperature... oxygen. 1.. utilities (water. Hand-back procedure. caustic…. Temporary or permanent changes. Contractors trained . Elevated work . ………………………………………………………………………… 3. Electrical Isolation . Exposure to moving / rotating machinery Others (state) …………………….flammable / explosive atmosphere . Manual or powered excavations . Insulation or catalyst handling acid. reactive. Confined space entry . The Work Permit System :Permit Acceptor’s Responsibilities UNDERSTANDING OF WORK PROCEDURES UNDERSTANDING POTENTIAL HAZARDS AND SAFETY PRECAUTIONS ACCEPTING THE SAFE WORK PERMIT OBSERVING PERMIT CONDITIONS COMPLYING WITH HANDBACK PROCEDURE . SAFETY PRECAUTIONS YES NO YES NO YES NO . Use of mobile cranes . Exposure to traffic (road. modifications of . mail) . Use of adapters . Draining .. The Work Permit System :Permit Issuer’s Responsibilities INSPECTING WORK AREA IDENTIFYING HAZARDS DEFINING SAFETY PRECAUTIONS OBSERVING PRINCIPLES OF SAFE WORKING PRACTICES CREATING WORK PERMIT CONDITIONS REVIEWING WORK WITH PERMIT ACCEPTOR ISSUING WORK PERMIT IMPLEMENTING HANDBACK PROCEDURE • 178. Potential high temperature / pressure . Bypassing or removing/altering safety devices and equipment and containers . Remove hazardous materials . Oxygen .. Atmosphere analysis : . Potential exposure to hazardous chemicals (toxic. Eliminate ignition sources • 175. alterations. Standby man .) .……. Electrical troubleshooting or repair on live circuits . The Work Permit System :Work Planning WORK SCOPE REVIEW DRAWINGS / FLOWSHEETS INSPECT WORKSITE IDENTIFY SAFETY PRECAUTIONS COMPLIANCE WITH REGULATIONS DEVELOP WORK PROCEDURE ASSIGN RESPONSIBILITIES COMMUNICATION PROCEDURES WORK EXECUTION • 176. Physical Isolation . .. Depressurising . Product conversion of stationary or mobile or portable vessels . Fresh air ventilation . Introduction of ignition sources where not permanently equipment or processes allowed (fire permit) . Elevated work . The Work Permit System :Work Execution PREPARATORY WORK ISSUE WORK PERMITS SUPERVISION MONITORING WORK COMPLETED TESTING RE-INSTATE EQUIPMENT RETURN WORK PERMIT HANDBACK PLANT / EQUIPMENT • 177. because…. It could save your life! . The Safe Work Permit is useful for: The safety of persons in charge of the work The safety of persons in charge of the process The risk management of the process and equipment It is not one more administrative paper! Fill in and follow correctly the work permit. The Work Permit System :In Brief Many accidents have occurred due to lack of Work Permit or non observance of its consigned safety measures.• 179.
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