Journal of Tourism: A Contemporary Perspective, Vol 1(1), 1–6, January 2014Human Resource Development in Tourism Industry in India: a Case Study of Jet Airways India Ltd. Anushree Banerjee* Faculty Manyawar Kanshiram Institute of Tourism Management, A-905/4, Indira Nagar, Lucknow-226016; [email protected]
Abstract Human Resource Development (HRD) is that section of management which deals with the main factor of any organisation. The main purpose of it is to improve the efficiency of the personnel. When a well applied HRD approach is undertaken, it helps an employee to increase his knowledge and skills. This helps him to deliver quality performance. There are many issues which can have serious impacts if not rectified. The major issues that are restraining the industry from achieving high economic value are shortage of qualified personnel, shortage of tourism training institutes, shortage of well qualified trainers, working conditions for the employees. Policies which can help the employees to work in supportive environment are also a point of concern. The paper is an attempt to judge the work done by the HRD team of the tourism industry with special reference to Jet Airways India Ltd. This in turn can enhance the capabilities and motivate them to work more efficiently. Keywords: Human Resource Development, Jet Airways India Ltd., Capabilities, Productivity, Training and Development. 1. Significance of the Study HRD has been recently given importance in tourism industry. For building our nation and organizational development, there is a need to mobilize the human resource. Mobilization would include the need to develop the human resource, their skills, knowledge, attitudes, so that they can achieve competently the predetermined goals. For developing tourism industry the primary requirement is efficient and professional managers the second most important point that is neglected very often is the training of the existing staff to get a professional outlook. As tourism is a growing industry, there is huge requirement of efficient and trained personnel to fill various jobs. Tourism industry is basically a service industry where assets of an organisation can be their human resource. There are varieties of jobs available for managing various tourist services. Special attention has to be given on training of existing staff. It has to be ensured that there should not be any loophole *Corresponding author: Anushree Banerjee ([email protected]
) in the facilities and services provided to the customer. In case of a developing country, it will also be appropriate to study at this stage the volume of manpower required for activities complementary to accommodation industry in general and service sector in particular (Rao, 2004). India’s share of global international tourism is very low in spite of having a lot of tourism potentials. Our country can have human resource which can help the tourism industry to flourish and make a mark on the world map as a favourite tourist destination. We would have skilled persons to handle this industry right from the level of waiters to executive level and in case of Jet Airways (I) Ltd. ground duty staff to flying staff (Report, 2004–05). Training programmes should be organised for the employees to-be so that they could be trained as per the requirements of the industry. The characteristics of attitude which include flexibility and adaptability contribute to an employee’s success in promotion. Technical skills required for equipment operation and maintenance, personnel management etc. A staff planning exercise can be All in all HRD appeared to be becoming a significant aspect of work life in many organizations. The present study is an endeavour of the author to present the varied dimensions and facets of developing the human resources in Tourism Industry with special reference to Jet Airways (I) Ltd. to judge HRD climate in Indian organisations.V. Author has made an endeavour to bring in account a comprehensive study with regard to HRD in Tourism Industry. who are utilizing the services of educated and trained human resources. Agarwal. In 1982. Distance and online training is considered as an investment and people which helps in meeting pre-determined objectives. and Joshi. shortage of qualified manpower. T. Another survey was carried out by Rao. in his book entitled “Human 2 Vol 1 (1) | January 2014 | www. the manpower is the blood of any tourism organisation. They are the ones who can decide the fortune of any company. 3. 2. 2004). The survey reveals that only 17 out of 53 companies had formal policy focusing on HRD.com Resource Development” (2004) has made an attempt at making good this vital deficiency of workable case studies in management. working conditions in the tourism sector are the matter of concern in the tourism sector. would successfully represent the concept and applicability of HRD in Tourism Industry in India. T. Journal of Tourism: A Contemporary Perspective | Print ISSN: xxxx-xxxx | Online ISSN: xxxx-xxxx . each of the components of tourism industry requires trained/skilled manpower. and qualified trainers. This will also help in determining whether there is a need for trained personnel from other countries and also whether local people are to be sent for training elsewhere (Rudrabhasavaraj. Rao. Rosy in their book entitled “Human Resource Management” (2004) have laid emphasis only to the effectiveness of Management of Human Resources.Human Resource Development in Tourism Industry in India: a Case Study of Jet Airways India Ltd. In order to achieve this.M. Punna and Reddy M. Reddy. Prasad. It presents the most recent developments in the field and tries to relate how these developments are relevant to Indian Companies but it has failed to focus on HRD and tourism. Sudarshan in their compiled and edited book entitled “Human Resources Development: Mechanisms for Extension Organisations” (2001) have mentioned the importance of HRD for Agriculture Extension. They realised that there is a need for fresh look at efforts to build the capacity and capability for HRD in the emerging areas. Gupta. Rao. Thus the need to develop the required human resources in various segments of the tourism industry in general and Jet Airways in particular has become imperative. Statement of the Problem and Emerging Issues • The primary concern of tourism industry is the quality and efficiency of services. Through this. P. The top management in most organizations were not making sufficient efforts to improve the quality of work life. • The organisations. There is a dearth of research studies on the development of human resources in Tourism Industry particularly in post liberalization era. Being a service industry. done in order to determine the needs for the required human resource. in his book entitled “Human Resource Management” (2003) has tried to place proper emphasis on the human resources of the organization. • Shortage of tourism training infrastructure. L. The environment was not very good to HRD due to the indifference of employees as per the survey. with what qualifications or skills will be required.mkitm. we can forecast easily for exactly what types of personnel. conducted a survey of HRD practices in Indian industries. Sumati in her edited book entitled “E-Learning and Technology: New Opportunities in Training and Development” (2003) has highlighted how distance training and education helps organizations to meet the challenge of organizational change reach competitive standards and achieve organizational goals. Kaushal. Shishi K. This can help in determining the finalisation of required training programmes for the local residents. Nair Banerjee in his book entitled “Human Resource Management” (2004) has mentioned that the purpose of this book is to assimilate new insights from human resource management and behavioural sciences into established concepts. Literature Review The successive paragraphs present a comprehensive review of literature on the subject matter. will be definitely more successful than the ones who are not utilising the services of trained personnel. • There is need to employ well-educated and well trained tourism personnel for achieving higher productivity. The case study of Jet Airways (I) Ltd. H.R. 160 lakhs in Fiscal 2012 increased by 26% from `1. the results can be seen (Annual Report. The banks were adamant on giving any assistance. The inflow of foreign currency is not higher than the outflow of foreign currency. As ATF cost represent 50% of the total cost. counselling. In addition. having their bearing upon planning. 5. Jet Airways is having a moderate fleet which is operating in the difficult environment. In the year 2013. • A high quality of tourist services highly depends on the availability of sufficient human resources (quantitatively and qualitatively). investment. which can be made through the individuals who can provide their services to fulfil the requirement through which we can be known as a successful destination as a whole. • To acknowledge the issues and problems faced by the employees of tourism industry.650. The Company has is able to improve its financial status at the need of the financial year of 2012. This can help the company to attract the low fare category of consumers which can yield more returns to the company. control. The present study is related to planning for human resource.mkitm. Vol 1 (1) | January 2014 | www. training and development. This rebranding has seen improved customer satisfaction. This may imply that the Indian aviation industry may see growth rates of over 12%. The company believes that JetKonnect re-branding will help it to increase credibility and revenues. The reason behind the same is the improved perception of the consumers which in turn will help in improving the yields.com The Company has introduced its low fare service products under the ‘JetKonnect’ brand to provide its services to the low-fare category also. Airlines tried to hike fare towards the end of the year. Europe has put the airline in difficulty due to their financial instability. 2012).1 Financial Position of Jet Airways (I) Ltd. there are few challenges which can put strain on the profitability of the company like the increase in foreign exchange.Anushree Banerjee • Numerous decision-making activities. the Rate of Exchange of the Indian Rupee to the US Dollar continued to be negative. etc. The main reason for the same is the high costs of operations and a number of pliers in the industry. recruitment and selection. necessitates the involvement of well-educated and well-trained personnel in the Tourism Industry. USA. This has put significant pressure on the financials of airlines. The announcement of union budget on service tax will have an impact on the fares.. The Indian economy is growing at a good pace in comparison with other markets across the world. The total expenses amounting to `1. The two main reasons for this decline were: Price of ATF and high rate of exchange. The year 2012 has seen very difficult years in terms of operation and consequently has shown losses. • To rectify the issues and plan according to the needs of the personnel to enhance the productivity. Thereby to utilize their potentialities for enhancing productivity to help improve job conditions and quality of their work life. because of some demand – supply imbalance being reduced. Crude oil prices continued to be very high especially in the latter half of the year. performance appraisal. it has a major impact on the cost factor and the financial condition of the airline. The company has re-branded JetLite into JetKonnect. reward system and organizational culture and effectiveness. It is expected to post growth rates of 6 to 7% per annum for the upcoming decade. Journal of Tourism: A Contemporary Perspective | Print ISSN: xxxx-xxxx | Online ISSN: xxxx-xxxx 3 . The aviation industry all over the world is facing the financial crisis and so as Jet Airways. lest the same becomes unaffordable in the hands of the customer. It is with the above-mentioned imperatives that this study has been undertaken. But. A Case Study of Jet Airways (I) Ltd. A major step to recover from losses is marking the routes which are constantly making losses and removing operations from those routes. career development. The company is earmarking the loss making routes and discontinuing them and add new capacity in markets which can improve the network and increase the revenues. All of these cost increases are being passed through to the customer and this will preclude airlines from taking further fare increases.307. Objectives of the Study • To assess the contribution. 4. The weak status of the Indian Rupee with the US Dollar is posing a cost challenge. Airport changes are also posing a threat for the company. productmix. 5.492 lakhs in Fiscal 2011. Figure 4. 5. The employees also feel that they are also eligible for incentives as per their performance appraisals. Majority of the employees feel that there is an urgent need to re-design their organizations. There should be timely meetings of the employees with the HR managers with whom the employees can share their issues. Incentives. we can conclude that as a whole the majority of employees of the organisation are not satisfied in terms of promotions and incentives. Policies related to HR. Figure 5. 1–6). Employee satisfaction. Required trainings attended.mkitm. Vol 1 (1) | January 2014 | www. The majority of them feel that the HR department of the company must be more supportive towards the employees as they are not getting their promotions on time. Figure 3. Promotion.Human Resource Development in Tourism Industry in India: a Case Study of Jet Airways India Ltd. Working conditions. It is evident from the survey that the employees feel that personnel of any organisation is to be considered an extremely important factor for productivity.2 Findings 4 Following observations were made based on the survey conducted on the employees of Jet Airways: From (Fig. Figure 2. The most required Figure 1. They feel that they should be treated more politely by the management as they are the ones who are actually operating their business.com Journal of Tourism: A Contemporary Perspective | Print ISSN: xxxx-xxxx | Online ISSN: xxxx-xxxx . Figure 6. ready to change at all levels as per the requirement. The government has realized the importance of the skilled personnel at different levels. Many technological advancement can also be done through the trained personnel. travel agents. human resource planning is considered as the way management comes to solve the ill defined and tough-to-solve human resource problems faced by an organization. Journal of Tourism: A Contemporary Perspective | Print ISSN: xxxx-xxxx | Online ISSN: xxxx-xxxx 5 . taxi and coach drivers and other ground level workers need to be trained so as to make them skilled and presentable. is helping the company but the overall performance with regard to higher productivity has not been so encouraging. It is observed that the Department of tourism is not being able to convince the Ministry of Finance and the Planning Commission to grant adequate funds. The rewards must meet his Vol 1 (1) | January 2014 | www. The industry is in dire need of qualified quality personnel. For this. If the work allotted to an employee is competent enough in which opportunities are provided and the work draws enough recognition. Security guards. Suggestions and Recommendations Tourism is an important economic activity as the tourist visiting a particular country is also bringing along with them the foreign currency to utilise in the country visited. Quality of manpower is the major challenge faced by the tourism industry. The industry today is recognized as a major economic contributor.3 Conclusions. The industry has major economic consequences. For this. The HRD team of Jet Airways (I) Ltd. Further. Collaboration of all the countries is the need for the next century. however. The government should look after the needs of the human resource by setting up a committee consisting of HRD professionals and professionals from the tourism industry. The industry requires trained professionals at each and every trade like hotels. The role of a HR manager is very crucial as it involves selection and recruitment of the right person who can prove to be an asset for the industry. This requires each and every personnel of the organization to be professional. In tourism industry. Inadequate infrastructure is another factor of much concern for Indian tourism. skilful and knowledgeable. The rewards given to an employee may be monetary or non-monetary. They feel that their potentialities are not being fully utilized. The training and development plans are to be effectively implied so that the personnel can develop talents and hence perform effectively in more challenging work situations. It should be supportive which helps to build team spirit and shows that employees are wanted.. restaurants.mkitm. HRD system has to be groomed to its fullest to achieve competitiveness on international platform. economic development can be done only when the environment is good enough. government of India has shown some interest. The importance of ensuring high standards of quality and efficiency in tourism services to develop international tourism is well-recognised. organizational culture created within the organizations is not conducive for sustainable development. The organisation should determine the training requirements. be achieved only by initiating specific measures for HRD in various segments of the tourism industry. two levels of supervision can be implemented and both levels of supervision should be addressed by the managers having the competencies required for that level. An organisation is considered to be successful if it is continuously trying to improve its product and provide quality services to its consumers. These funds can be utilised in developing infrastructure. This calls for educated and literate people. One of the major issues in this regard is the quality of human resource. It can. The industry has the potential of employment generation and it has been well recognized by the world over. The country which has trained human resource can develop the tourism institutional structure. the employee will achieve a high level of satisfaction. we need to educate the personnel regarding career planning. The main reason is the conflict between employees and the management. To promote tourism industry. but unfortunately the steps taken are not enough. 5. It is particularly important in the case of developing countries intending to promote tourism as an instrument for economic development. To upgrade the human resources. The main goal is to make the required changes in the policies and strategies so as to develop human resource in tourism industry.Anushree Banerjee feature is to provide training to the employees and develop the human resource. able. initiatives are being undertaken to train and develop human resources. Today. The environment in which the employee is working is very important.com basic needs. tour operators and other providers of tourist services. The tourism industry is facing with many challenges in the field of human resource. which should encourage the researches upon increasing potentiality of human resources. Are you satisfied with the policies of your company related to the employees? Yes No Can’t say 9. Rudrabhasavaraj MN. Are you aware of employees policies of your company? Yes No Annexure 1 Questionnaire 11. 2004. Does your company have HR meetings with you attended by HR managers where you can discuss your issues? Yes No 14. how much satisfied are you with your company? Satisfied Dissatisfied Can’t say 6. Mumbai. Are you satisfied with the promotions given to you by your company? Satisfied Dissatisfied Can’t say 5. Are the working hours in compliance with the labor laws? Yes No 3. career development and career counselling so that they may become aware of the general phases of their growth and development. 2012.com 8. How do you explain the number of trainings attended so far? Many Sometimes Never Name: Age: 18–25 26–35 36–45 46–55 above 55 Income (P. The need of the hour is to tackle grassroots realities of HRD and then take some harsh measures to infuse a new blood in Jet Airways (I) Ltd. If there is an HR issue. Rao VSP. It is recommended that the Government of India should form an ‘HRD Board’. Are you due for your next promotion? Yes No 4. Are you satisfied with the working conditions provided to you by your organization? Satisfied Dissatisfied Can’t say 6 Vol 1 (1) | January 2014 | www. 2004. Human resource management. Ministry of Tourism. 3. Annual Report. Overall. 4. As per the years of your experience. in what duration does it takes place? Yearly Half-yearly Quarterly 15 Are you satisfied with the incentives you have received till date from your company? Satisfied Dissatisfied Can’t say 16. does the management take serious steps? Yes No 6.. Human resource management manual. It should take many productive and aggressive steps for the promotion of HRD. Jet Airways (I) Ltd.Human Resource Development in Tourism Industry in India: a Case Study of Jet Airways India Ltd.mkitm. Do you think trainings play an important role in the overall development of an employee? Yes No 13. how do you rate your company in comparison to other airline companies? 1 2 3 4 5 2. Report 2004–05. New Delhi. References 1. Journal of Tourism: A Contemporary Perspective | Print ISSN: xxxx-xxxx | Online ISSN: xxxx-xxxx .A. 7. Government of India. New Delhi: Excell Books. 2. We need to realise the importance of the industry as soon as possible so as to help it in flourishing. Mumbai: Himalaya Publishing House.): below 2 lac 2–5 5–8 8–11 above 11 Designation: Years of experience: 1. Do you feel the management should be more serious towards their employees? Yes No 10. If yes. How many trainings have you attended? <2 3–5 6–8 8–10 >10 12.