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An outlook of several Yojanas & celestialdistances described in Indian texts Dr. Shyam deo Mishra* V arious types of measuring units like Renu, Trasrenu, Lav, Leekshaka, Angushtha, Balakhilya, Yojana etc are described and applied in Indian astronomical and mathematical texts. Some of them have variable measures in terms of their values according to various contexts. Unawareness of their different values according to several standards can disguise the reader and land him in a jungle of intriguing polemics. As a result, his wrong interpretation convolutes the text into an absurd. For an instance, a ‘Yojana’ has different values according to various standards. Bhaskarachrya II in his text Siddhanta-Shiromani cited the circumference of earth on Equator is 4967 Yojanas whereas in his mathematical text Leelavati he defined a Yojan as a length which is equivalent to 32000 hands. ^izksDrks ;kstula[;;k dqifjf/% lIrkÄõuUnkC/;%*AA1 ;oksnjSjÄ~xqye"Vla[;S% gLrks¿Ä~xqyS% "kM~xqf.krS'prqfHkZ%A gLrS'prqfHkHkZorhg n.M% Øks'k% lglzf}r;su rs"kke~AA L;k|kstua Øks'kprq"V;su --------------- AA2 If one compares both the values in terms of Kilometers (km) it gives the clear idea about the difference in values of a Yojana according to various standards that was used by Bhaskar. As per Siddhanta-Shiromani , 1 Yojana = 8 Kms & as per Leelavati, 32,000 hands = 1 Yojana = 16 Kms Here, in the first value, the standard is Earth whereas in the second value, Human is considered as a standard. Hence the first Yojana can be called as Bhu-Yojana or Parthiv-Yojana while the second one can be stated as Nar-Yojana. Thus our peers determined several values of a unit like Yojana according to the standard best suitable in a particular context. In other words, they tend to use several types of Yojanas accordingly. This paper, deals with such Yojanas mentioned in ancient astronomical treatises and other scriptures like Puranas & Vedas. 1 2 Sidhanta Shiromani, Ganitadhyaya Leelawati, Paribhasha prakaran, Verse 5-6 1|P a g e kstukfu fooLor% fo"dEHk% e. Verse . are none other than Bhu or Parthiv Yojanas. Moon is also measured in Yojanas in Surya-Siddhanta. 92.-----------------AA4 If we compare this to the modern value of the diameter of Sun. Verse . Here the measurement of each planet does differ from another. Verse .MyL.kZok%AA5 In modern astronomy it is almost 940 million Kilometers.86 4 2|P a g e . 1 Parthiva-Yojana = 12756. the diameter of Sun is 6500 Yojanas according to Surya-Siddhanta.kksZ f}xq. As seen that a Solar-Yojana is equivalent to approximately 215 Kilometers. Bhugoladhyaya.1538 Kms The circumference of Sun’s orbit is 43.28 Km we can find.kka [k[kkFkSZdlqjk.1 5 Suryasidhanta. as a unit.31. It is quite evident that Bhaskar’s Parthiv -Yojana is almost equal to Surya-Siddhantic value of Parthiv -Yojana."VkS Hkwd.kstukfu 'krkU. For an example. One of the most prominent and antique Indian astronomical text known as Surya-Siddhanta determines the value of diameter of Earth on equatorial plane which is equivalent to 1600 Yojanas.5000 Yojanas in Surya-Siddhanta.kkfu rq*A3 It is needless to say that the Yojanas mentioned here.59 Suryasidhant. If we compare this Sura-Siddhantic value to the modern value of Earth’s diameter which is 12756. ^.28/1600 = 7. rrks¿dZcq/'kqØk. 000/6500 = 214. Chandragrahanadhyaya. Planetary-Yojana or Graheeya-Yojana: The terrestrial objects like Sun. depends on the standard or scale. we get the exact value of Solar-Yojana: 1 Saura-Yojana = 13.k .Parthiv-Yojana or Bhu-Yojana: Since the value of a Yojana.9727 Kms. a Yojan which is measured on the Bhu-scale termed as Parthiv-Yojana or Bhu-Yojana. Madhyamadhyaya. the Sura-Siddhantic value in Yojanas is equal to. ^lk/kZfu "kV~ lglzkf. 43315000 × 215 = 9312725000 Kilometers or 931 million Kilometers 3 Suryasidhant. It can be termed Graheeya–Yojana or Planetary-Yojana. 8 Kms. Other Celstial-Distances: Apart from Astronomical treatises. There are various units like ‘Ahar’. Bhugoladhyaya. 1 Lunar-Yojana = 3474. Rishi says that the area of Patanga (Sun) is called as ‘Vak’ which is equivalent to 30 Dhams. the circumference of Zodiacal orbit said to be 60 times bigger than the solar orbit.239 = 2345436 Kilometers Thus the Planetary Yojanas seem to be depended upon the size and distance of a particular planet. Verse .Mye~AA8 Since the solar orbit is 43315000 Yojanas.1 Suryasidhanta. Therefore any value regarding these cannot be stated as a constant. which is 2392547.8/480 = 7. fo"dEHk% e. Verse . One must take the perturbed motion of any planet into consideration which causes the diversity in the diameter.It’s clearly evident that the Surya-Siddhantic value is almost close to the modern value.MyL. Brahmanas. Hkosn~ Hkd{kk rh{. ‘Dham’ mentioned in various hymns in Vedas. But if we consider this value for the diameter of Moon it nowhere stands near apparent value. Here. In a hymn. Bhugoladhyaya. it appears close to the modern value. circumference etc of a planetary orbit or motion. 324000 × 7.k prq''kre~AA6 The true value in modern astronomy is 3474.5 Kilometers.ksZifj"Vkn~Hkzefr . Surya-Siddhanta mentions that the circumference of lunar-orbit is 324000 Yojanas.ka "kf"VrkfMre~A lw.239 Kms. Verse . Further this mantra says that the field of ‘Dyu’ or sky which is termed as Vast is measured in Ahar: 6 Suryasidhanta. Chandragarahanadhyaya.83 8 Suryasidhanta. and Upanishads etc.kka'kksHkZze.kfC/ f}nguk% d{kk rq fgenhf/rs%A7 If one measures this value in Kilometers.80 7 3|P a g e . the circumference of zodiacal orbit is 2598900000 Yojanas. ‘Vats’. Since the diameter of Moon is 480 Yojanas according to Surya-Siddhanta. In Surya-Siddhanta. [k=k. Vedic literature also very profoundly explains the measurement of other celestial distances.sUnks% lgk'khR.kstuSLrSHkZe. 2. Motilal Shastri in his commentary of Shatpath-Brahman splendidly explicates that 33rd zone from the earth is termed as ‘Vashtkaar’ ‘Mandal’ or ‘Amritaagni’ which gives the ability to see any object in its ambit. As the name suggest. an ‘Amritaagni’ is an ambit of a specific zone11. ‘Vashtakaar-Mandal’ has 6 main zones called as ‘Mandala’ or ‘Stoma’15. The initial Stoma which is called as Trivritta-Stoma has 3 Aharganas started from the center of earth to the earth-surface. Vigyan Bhashya (Hindi commentary by . Panchdash-Stoma that classifieds into 6 Aharganas begins from the Earth to the 17th Ahargana and named as ‘Varaaha’ zone. Next Ekvimsha-Stoma exists till the 21st Ahargana. 70 16 Ibid. position. P. 43 14 Ibid 15 Ibid. It is Equivalent to earth radius × 212 = 2. In other words. Adhwarkand. Here Rathaantara means the interval or the field that covers by the ‘Rath’ or chariot of Sun. 10/189/3 Shatpath Brahman. Pt.Stoma TriNav.Stoma Vashtkaara. 10 In general. the limit of this Stoma is the circumference of Earth. Madhusudan Ojha and his able disciples like Pt.6125 × 107Km. P.Stoma Ekvimsha. 5. 3. P. It is known as ‘Rathaantar-Saam’17 or ‘Sahasraaksha’ in Vedic parlance. The range of Paarthivaagni is termed as ‘Rathaantar-Saam’13.f=ka'k¼ke fo jktfr okd~ irÄõk. First Stoma has 3 Aharganas and next 5 Stomas have 6 Aharganas each16. /hefgA izfr oLrksjg|qfHk%AA9 Brahman-Granthas very extensively describe the origin. The range of Saavitraagni is called as ‘BrihatSaam’ or ‘Samvatsar’14. Motilal Shastri). there is a set of 6 Aharganas that lie between Trivritta-Stoma and Panchadash-Stoma. Trivritta.Stoma Panchdash. 1.Stoma Every Stoma or Mandala is further divided into sub-divisions known as Ahargana. It begins from the earth and extends beyond the Moon’s surface. motion etc of universe and its object which is very magnificently elaborated by Pt. states. 4. ‘Saavitraagni’ and ‘Antarikshaagni’ 12 .Stoma Traystrimshat. Covering by ‘Rath’ means reaching of Sun-rays to that 9 Rigveda. P. There are mainly 3 kinds of Amritaagni known as ‘Paarthivaagni’ or ‘Gaayatraagni’. 6. 42 11 Ibid 12 Ibid 13 Ibid.Pt. 71 17 Ibid 10 4|P a g e . Motilal Shastri and others. 1392000 × 1000 = 1392000000 = 1392 × 108 Kilometers. In other words. New Delhi-110 058 18 19 Yajurveda 16/6 Shatpath Brahman.Lrkezks v#. Adhwarkand. Thus it refers the area that is covered or affected by the rays of ‘Aksha’ or Sun which is Sahasra or 1000 Yojans. Conclusion: Actually the erudite Vedic hymns or Pauranic verses are in explicit form which ensconces various meanings of same words in different perspectives. Only the diligent study can reveal the exact meaning of these Shastras. It times bigger than the earth’s radius. For an instance. it is the limit of Solar System. Rashtriya Sanskrit Sansthan. In Vishnu Purana it is termed as Maitreya Mandal whose limit is 105 Yojanas where 1 Yojana is equal to the diameter of Sun.k mr cHkzq% lqeÄõy%A 18 .s pSua #nzk vfHkrks fn{kq fJrk% lglzks¿oS"kka gsM bZegsAA Therefore it is also called as Sahasraaksha. Kalpa etc he has to go through the Vedas and Vedic literature painstakingly. It is known as Brihat Saam in Vedic literature19. P. vlkS . Jyotisha. Janakpuri. Next Stoma is Trinava-Stoma.Pt. Ahargan which means the sum of Ahar or days but in cosmological terminology it refers a peculiar division of celestial area. the orbital limit of Solar-system will be. As we know that the diameter of Sun is 1392000 Kilometer in modern Astronomy. Any word that has a general meaning can produce specific meanings depending upon the contexts and thus can be termed as a technical word or term. 43 5|P a g e . Motilal Shastri). is 230 The last Stoma exists till the end of 33rd Ahargana.limit. *Assistant Professor & Co-ordinator (Jyotish) MuktaSwadhyayaPeetham. Vigyan Bhashya (Hindi commentary by . Trinava means 3×9 = 27. This is the main reason behind the wrong interpretation of our ancient texts which leads the reader like Max Mullar to term them as an absurd! Hence if one wants to learn Vedangas like Vyakaran. So this Stoma finishes at the 27th Ahargana. Here 1 Yojana is equal to the diameter of Sun. It is called as Vashtakaar mandal. It is equivalent to earth radius × 224. 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