Aircraft Communications Addressing and Reporting System - Wikipedia, The Free En

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Aircraft Communications Addressing and Reporting System - Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaAircraft Communications Addressing and Reporting System From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search This article has multiple issues . Please help improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page . This article needs attention from an expert in Aviation . The specific problem is: references and information on current technology. WikiProject Aviation (or its Portal) may be able to help recruit an expert. (January 2013) This article includes a list of references, but its sources remain unclear because it has insufficient inline citations . Please help to improve this article by introducing more precise citations. (April 2012) Aircraft Communications Addressing and Reporting System ( ACARS ) is a digital datalink system for transmission of short, relatively simple messages between aircraft and ground stations via radio or satellite. The protocol, which was designed by Aeronautical Radio, Incorporated (ARINC) to replace their very high frequency (VHF) voice service and deployed in 1978,[1] uses telex formats. The IT company SITA later augmented their worldwide ground data network by adding radio stations to provide ACARS service. Over the next 20 years, ACARS will be superseded by the Aeronautical Telecommunications Network (ATN) protocol for Air Traffic Control communications and by the Internet Protocol for airline communications. Contents  [hide]  1 History of ACARS 1.1 Introduction of ACARS systems 1.2 OOOI events 1.3 Flight management system interface 1.4 Maintenance data download 1.5 Interactive crew interface 2 How it works 2.1 VHF subnetwork 2.2 Satellite communication and HF subnetworks 2.3 Datalink message types 3 Example transmissions 3.1 Departure delay downlink 3.2 Weather report uplink 3.3 Flight data acquisition and management system message downlink 4 Aircraft equipment 5 Datalink service provider 6 Ground end system 7 ARINC specifications 8 Acronyms and glossary 9 GIS and data discovery 10 See also 11 References[7/6/2013 8:08:46 PM] The terrestrial central site. Addressing and Reporting System". The original ARINC development team was headed by Crawford Lane and included Betty Peck. This communication used either VHF or HF voice radios. The initial ACARS systems were designed to ARINC Characteristic 597. ARINC 724 is intended for aircraft installed with avionics supporting digital data bus interfaces. an engineer.wikipedia. The original expansion of the abbreviation was "Arinc Communications Addressing and Reporting System". At the start of each flight phase. Inc (ARINC). Introduction of ACARS systems[edit] In an effort to reduce crew workload and improve data integrity. which was further augmented with satellite communication in the early 1990s. the free encyclopedia 12 External links History of ACARS[edit] Prior to the introduction of datalink. the voice-relayed information involved dedicated radio operators and digital messages sent to an airline teletype system or successor systems. ARINC 724 was updated to the current standard ARINC Characteristic 724B. the time at which it occurres. it was changed to "Airline Communications. the engineering department at Aeronautical Radio. OOOI events[edit] One of the initial applications for ACARS was to automatically detect and report changes to the major flight phases ( O ut of the gate. parking brake and strut switch sensors) as inputs.[3] These OOOI events are determined by algorithms that use aircraft sensors (such as doors.[clarification needed ] With the introduction of ARINC 724B. a digital message is transmitted to the ground containing the flight phase. and other related information such http://en. although a few experimental ACARS systems had been introduced earlier. Eno Compton of ECOM. The ACARS management unit has expanded to serve broader needs using a communications management unit defined by ARINC Characteristic 758. but ACARS did not experience widespread use by the major airliners until the 1980s. [2] Later. a pair of Honeywell Level 6 minicomputers. the term actually refers to a complete air and ground system. On the aircraft. Today. the flight crew) and personnel on the ground was performed using voice communication. ARINC Standards are prepared by the Airlines Electronic Engineering Committee.. In many cases. which is the predominate standard for all digital[7/6/2013 8:08:46 PM] .Aircraft Communications Addressing and Reporting System . Inc. and Into the gate). all communication between the aircraft (i. the ACARS management units were also coupled with industry standard protocols for operation with flight management system MCDUs (ARINC 739).Wikipedia. the ACARS system was made up of a network of radio transceivers managed by a central site computer called AFEPS (Arinc Front End Processor System). and Ralf Emory. O n the ground.000 transactions. This was later upgraded in the late 1980s by the publication of ARINC Characteristic 724. which received (or transmitted) the datalink messages as well as routed them to various airlines on the network. Although the term ACARS is often understood as the data link avionics line-replaceable unit installed on aircraft. new aircraft designs integrate communications management unit functions in integrated modular avionics (IMA). and AFEPS (Arinc Front End Processor System) software were developed by a subcontractor. referred to in the industry as OOOI. a programmer. and printers (ARINC 740 and ARINC 744). The management unit was designed to send and receive digital messages from the ground using existing VHF radios. O ff the ground. Already the first day of operations saw about 4. introduced the ACARS system in July 1978.e. On the ground. the ACARS system was made up of an avionics computer called an ACARS Management Unit and a Control Display Unit. These systems are capable of identifying abnormal flight conditions and automatically sending real-time messages to an airline. the free encyclopedia as the amount of fuel on board or the flight origin and destination. initial systems were expanded to support new interfaces with other on-board avionics. Interactive crew interface[edit] All of the processing described above is performed automatically by the ACARS management unit and other associated avionics systems. the ACARS management units also interface directly with a control display unit located in the cockpit. This interface enables flight plans and weather information to be sent from the ground to the ACARS management unit. Maintenance data download[edit] The introduction of the interface in the early 1990s between the flight data acquisition and management system.Wikipedia. without flight crew intervention. the flight crew could pull up a multifunction control display unit screen that allowed them to send to the ground a request for various types of weather information. provides the flight crew with the ability to send and receive messages similar to today’s email. The flight data acquisition and management system and the aircraft condition monitoring system systems which analyze engine aircraft and operational performance conditions now provide performance data to the airlines on the ground in real time using the ACARS network. As part of the growth of ACARS functionality.wikipedia. a datalink interface was introduced between the ACARS management units and flight management systems. When coupled with the flight data acquisition and management system data. the airlines in partnership with their ACARS vendor defines multifunction control display unit screens that could be presented to the flight crew and enable them to perform specific functions. Detailed engine reports can also be transmitted to the ground via ACARS. This control display unit. Flight management system interface[edit] In addition to detecting events on the aircraft and sending messages automatically to the ground. This feature provides the flight crew flexibility as to the types of information requested from the ground and the types of reports sent to the ground. After the desired locations and type of weather information are entered. These messages are used to track the status of aircraft and[7/6/2013 8:08:46 PM] . Airlines began adding new messages to support new applications (weather. for forwarding to the flight management system. This resulted in each airline having its own unique ACARS application operating on http://en. ACARS transmits this information to the ground. connecting flights. often referred to as a multifunction control display unit or a multi-input interactive display unit. As an example. ground computers send the requested weather information back to the ACARS management unit for subsequent display and/or printing. This feature gives the airline the capability to update flight management systems while in flight. This capability enables airlines to monitor their engine performance more accurately and identify and plan their repair and maintenance activities more rapidly. In response to this request message. This reduces the need for airline personnel to go to the aircraft to off-load the data from these systems. airline maintenance personnel can start planning repair and maintenance activities while the aircraft is still in flight. etc. During the late 1980s and early 1990s.Aircraft Communications Addressing and Reporting System . the industry started to upgrade the on-board maintenance computers in the 1990s to support the transmission of maintenance-related information in real-time through ACARS. In addition to the interfaces for the flight management system and the flight data acquisition and management system. and allows the flight crew to evaluate new weather conditions or alternative flight plans. winds. The airlines use these reports to automate engine trending activities.) and ACARS systems were customized to support airline-unique applications and unique ground computer requirements. clearances. This enabled airline maintenance personnel to receive real-time data associated with maintenance faults on the aircraft. To facilitate this communication. the aircraft condition monitoring system and the ACARS management unit resulted in wider acceptance of datalinks on the part of airlines. coverage may be limited or absent at high latitudes (such as needed for flights over the poles). However. In addition. where other may have only a dozen different screens. VHF communication is Line-of-sight propagation and provides communication with ground-based transceivers (often referred to as remote ground stations). The typical range depends on altitude.Aircraft Communications Addressing and Reporting System . the cost would be excessive and there have in fact been very few incidents where the black boxes were not recoverable. the free encyclopedia its aircraft.wikipedia. Messages may be sent either automatically or manually.TI2/024KLAXA91A1 Satellite communication and HF subnetworks[edit] Satellite communication can provide worldwide coverage. the contents and formats of the messages sent by an ACARS management unit differ accordingly." [4] If such a system were in place. it would avoid the loss of data due to: (1) black-box destruction.025[7/6/2013 8:08:46 PM] . and vice versa. Datalink message types[edit] ACARS messages may be of three types: http://en. California on 15 August 2006 Problems playing this file? See media help. since ground computers differ for each airline. Sample ACARS VHF transmission 0:00 MENU The sound of an ACARS VHF transmission made on 130. Some airlines have more than 75 multifunction control display unit screens for their flight crews. HF datalink is a relatively new network whose installation began in 1995 and was completed in 2001. VHF subnetwork[edit] A network of VHF ground radio stations ensures that aircraft can communicate with ground end systems in real-time from practically anywhere in the world. recorded at Petaluma. Aircraft with HF or global satellite communication datalinks can fly polar routes and maintain communication with groundbased systems (ATC centers and airline operation centers). In the wake of the crash of Air France Flight 447. ARINC is the only service provider for HF datalink. Depending on the satellite system in use. Thus VHF communication is only applicable over land masses which have a VHF ground network installed. L05A Message /KLAX. there has been discussion about making ACARS an "online-black-box. with a 200-mile transmission range common at high altitudes. A typical ACARS VHF transmission. Mode A Aircraft B-18722 Ack NAK Block id 2 Flight CI5118 Label B9 Msg No. How it works[edit] An on board person or system can create a message and send it via ACARS to a system or user on the ground. and (2) inability to locate the black-box following loss of the aircraft.Wikipedia. due to high bandwidth requirements. relating to fuel consumption. These messages are defined in ARINC Standard 623. where they want the service provider to route the message. such as flight operations. for example. maintenance. and. the datalink service provider looks up the message in the table and forwards it to the airline’s computer system. satellite communication or VHF. which is contained in the header information of the message. Air traffic control messages are used by aircraft crew to request clearances and by ground controllers to provide those clearances.Aircraft Communications Addressing and Reporting System . The control display unit detects that the SEND key was pushed and generates a digital message containing the delay information. The pilot loads from the communications management unit a multifunction control display unit screen that allows him to enter the expected length of and reason for the delay. ACARS also contains protocols to support a retry of failed messages or retransmission of messages whenever the service provider changes. aircraft position. engine performance data. These messages are either standardized according to ARINC Standard 633 or defined by the users. Such messages are made up of a oneblock transmission from (or to) the aircraft. in addition to free text. The service provider then updates its routing tables based on this information. Aeronautical operational control and airline administrative control messages are used to communicate between the aircraft and its base. the ACARS unit splits the message into multiple blocks. http://en. it forwards the message to the datalink service provider's main computer system. for each message. Most ACARS messages are only 100 to 200 characters in length. Various types of messages are possible. The datalink service provider uses information contained in its routing table to forward the message to the airlines or other destinations. (Each airline must tell its service provider(s) what messages and message labels their ACARS systems will send. This message may include such information as aircraft registration number. This processing performed by an airline may include reformatting the message. After entering the information on the multifunction control display unit. Example transmissions[edit] Departure delay downlink[edit] A pilot wants to inform his flight operations department that departure has been delayed by air traffic control. One ACARS block is constrained to be no more than 220 characters within the body of the message. This table is maintained by the datalink service provider and identifies each aircraft (by tail number) and the types of messages that it can process. the free encyclopedia Air Traffic Control Aeronautical Operational Control Airline Administrative Control Air traffic control messages are used to communicate between the aircraft and air traffic control. the radio transmits the VHF signals containing the delay message. and the current expected duration of the delay. the current estimated time of arrival before the delay. For a message to be sent over the VHF[7/6/2013 8:08:46 PM] .) Each type of message sent by the communications management unit has a specific message label. The datalink service provider's ground network uses landlines to link the remote ground station to the datalink service provider. transmitting each block to the remote ground station (there is a constraint that no message may be made up of more than 16 blocks). The communications management unit then sends the message to an existing radio (HF. The remote ground station collects each block of such multi-block messages until the complete message is received before processing and routing the message. but in the latter case they must meet at least the guidelines of ARINC Standard 618. the origination and destination airport codes. he depresses on it a “SEND” key. which is then received by a VHF remote ground station. with the selection of the radio based on special logic contained within the communications management unit). or forwarding the message to other departments. which then processes the message. Using the label contained in the message.Wikipedia. populating databases for later analysis. Once the remote ground station receives the complete message.wikipedia. For downlink messages which are longer than 220 characters. the free encyclopedia engineering. with the body of the message containing the actual weather information. As an example. in response to an ACARS downlink message requesting weather information. The datalink service provider transmits the message over its ground network to a VHF remote ground station in the vicinity of the aircraft.wikipedia. In this[7/6/2013 8:08:46 PM] . notifying them of a potential late arrival. There are three major components to the ACARS datalink system: Aircraft equipment Service provider Ground processing system Aircraft equipment[edit] http://en. For messages destined for the communications management (such as a weather report uplink). finance. Flight data acquisition and management system message downlink[edit] Messages are sent to the ground from other on-board systems in a manner similar to the delay message example discussed above. The messages that are sent to the ground from the communications management unit are referred to as downlink messages. Upon detecting such an event. or other organizations within an airline. The elapsed transmission time from the moment the flight crew presses the send key to the moment it is processed by an airline’s computer system varies. a weather report is constructed by the airline’s computer system. such as an FMS or FDAMS. it may be routed via the airline’s network to both their operations department as well as to a facility at the aircraft’s destination. with applicable data contained within the body of the message. The communications management unit then transmits the message to the ground. Weather report uplink[edit] For a message to be transmitted to the aircraft (referred to as an uplink message). In general. The message contains the aircraft registration number in the header of the message. The flight crew then selects the weather message for viewing on the multifunction control display unit. On receiving the VHF signal. an uplink is either forwarded to another avionics computer.Wikipedia.Aircraft Communications Addressing and Reporting System . a flight data acquisition and management system message system may have a series of active algorithms monitoring engine exceedance conditions during flight (such as checking whether engine vibration or oil temperature exceeds normal operating conditions). The remote ground station broadcasts the message over the VHF. The message is forwarded to the communications management unit using what is referred to as ARINC 619 data protocols. The processing performed on the uplink message by the communications management depends on the specific airline requirements. The communications management validates the aircraft registration number and processes the message. the Flight data acquisition and management system's message system automatically creates an engine exceedance condition message. For example. but is generally on the order of 6 to 15 seconds. This enables airline maintenance personnel to be notified of a potential problem in real time. The ACARS unit may also print the message on the cockpit printer (either automatically upon receiving the message or in response to the flight crew's pressing a PRINT prompt on the MCDU screen). In the example of a delay message. the service provider's routing table for an engine exceedance message is typically defined to have the message routed directly to an airline’s maintenance department. This message is sent to the datalink service provider's main computer system. the onboard VHF radio passes the message to the communications management (with the internal modem transforming the signal into a digital message). the process is nearly a mirror image of how a downlink is sent from the aircraft. the flight crew refers to a specific multifunction control display unit screen that contains a list of all received uplink messages. or is processed by the communications management. and vice versa. but the model remains the same. VHF is the most commonly used and least expensive. can be addressed from the ground to automatically print an uplink message. Its function is to route a downlink by means of the most efficient air-ground subnetwork. The airline operator provides a routing table that the communications management unit uses to select the best subnetwork. SITA has operated the network in Europe. Receives clearances and controller instructions. There are currently two primary service providers of ground networks in the world (ARINC and SITA). the routing function is done by computer. They have also recently started a network in the USA to compete with ARINC. Before the days of computers. Aircraft equipment consists of airborne end systems and a router.Often used by flight attendants to communicate special passenger an end system. catering. in-flight troubleshooting can be conducted by technicians on the ground by using datalink messages to command diagnostic routines in the maintenance computer and analyzing downlinked results. the management unit/communications management unit also acts as an end system for aeronautical operational control messages.Wikipedia. The tape was then physically carried to the machine connected to the intended destination. etc.downlinks diagnostic messages. as well as Thailand and South America with the installation of VHF networks. etc. and cabin terminal. http://en. Its purpose is to provide coverage in the polar regions where Inmarsat coverage is unreliable. the free encyclopedia The heart of the datalink system on board the aircraft is the ACARS management unit. Datalink service provider[edit] The role of the datalink service provider is to deliver a message from the aircraft to the ground end system. HF is a more recently established subnetwork. gate changes due to[7/6/2013 8:08:46 PM] . Printer . Today. although specific countries have implemented their own network with the help of either ARINC or SITA. all messages come to a central processing location. The Inmarsat satellite network does not cover the polar regions. Newer versions are referred to as the communications management unit and are defined in ARINC Characteristic 758. ARINC operates a worldwide network and has also assisted the Civil Aviation Administration of China. The datalink service provider routes the message to the appropriate end system using its network of land lines and ground stations. Maintenance computer . However Iridium became usable for ACARS transport in 2007 and provides excellent coverage in the polar regions. ACARS messages are transmitted over one of three air-ground subnetworks. Cabin terminal . In many cases. End systems are the source of ACARS downlinks and the destination for uplinks. The older version of the management unit is defined in ARINC Characteristic 724B. Satellite communication is a fairly expensive service that provides (near) worldwide coverage. The management unit/communications management unit is the router. In advanced systems. messages came to the central processing location and were punched on paper tape. Middle East. position reports. such as the Amazon Basin. Typical datalink functions are: Flight management system . Transmission is line-of-sight so VHF is not available over the oceans or other vast expansions of uninhabited surface.sends flight plan change requests. South America and Asia for many years. Because the ACARS network is modeled after the point-to-point telex network. datalink printer.wikipedia. Typical airborne end systems are the flight management system.Aircraft Communications Addressing and Reporting System . The router function built into the management unit/communications management unit determines which subnetwork to use when routing a message from the aircraft to the ground. maintenance computer. an airline operations headquarters. In the early history of ACARS most airlines created their own host systems for managing their ACARS messages. This is changing. Civil Aeronautics Administration end systems provide air traffic services such as clearances. ARINC Describes the processing associated with sending air traffic control application messages over 622 today’s ACARS links (including ARINC 623 ATC messages).wikipedia. ground end systems are either government agencies such as the Civil Aeronautics Administration or the Federal Aviation Administration in the United States. The format of this message is called a Type A message. Includes definition of the aircraft personality module 607 required for ARINC 758 communications management unit installation. Also defines the format of the ACARS messages sent ARINC by the ACARS/communications management unit as well as received by the ACARS communications 618 management unit.Aircraft Communications Addressing and Reporting System . flight data acquisition and management system. and passenger needs. in the case of small airlines or general aviation consumers. This specification provides general and specific design 631 guidance for the development and installation of the protocols needed to exchange bit-oriented data across an air-ground VHF Digital Link in an open system interconnection environment. the free encyclopedia Until recently. This characteristic has been updated to define the future VDL Mode 2 ACARS over aviation VHF link control operation. a subscription based solution. ARINC 619 covers file protocols that are used to interface 619 with the flight management system. ARINC Specification for receiving and broadcasting ARINC 429 broadcast data (data transfer between 429 avionics line replaceable units). Defines ground-to-ground communication protocols. and both ARINC and SITA are competing and installing networks that cover the same regions. ARINC 429 is the one-way communication data bus (one data bus pair to transmit data and another data bus pair to receive data). maintenance computers. The specification was initially developed for use on Boeing 777 commercial airplanes. ARINC Specification for a bi-directional data bus for sending and receiving data between multiple avionics 629 line replacement units.Wikipedia. This includes the format of messages routed ARINC between a service provider and an airline or other ground system. such as gate assignments. each area of the world was supported by a single service provider. maintenance. the cabin terminal. ARINC Specification for VHF Data Link Mode 2. but was published as an ARINC industry standard in 1999. satellite communication systems and HF voice data[7/6/2013 8:08:46 PM] . Airline and general aviation operations provide information necessary for operating the airline or flight department efficiently. Generally. Defines the air/ground protocols for communicating between the ACARS/communications management unit and VHF ground systems. Ground end system[edit] The ground end system is the destination for downlinks and the source of uplinks. Commercial off-the-shelf products are now widely available to manage the ground hosting. ARINC This characteristic identifies air-traffic-control-related messages that can be generated or received 623 by an ACARS management unit/communications management unit system (does not include FANS1 or FANS-A messages that are processed by the flight management system). ARINC specifications[edit] Much of the processing performed by the communications management unit as well as basic requirements of the hardware are defined by ARINC specifications. ARINC http://en. This is referred to as a Type B 620 message (the air/ground Type A message is reformatted to a Type B message for ground transmissions). The following is a list of the major ARINC specifications that define standards that govern many aspects of ACARS systems: ARINC documents and their specifications ARINC Design Guidance for Avionics Equipment. or. Defines the protocols for the ACARS/communications management unit to transfer data file ARINC between other avionics in the aircraft. wikipedia. the industry is at the point where acronyms are now nested within acronyms. FDAMS  Flight Data Acquisition and Management System FMS  http://en. Security services include confidentiality. these in turn defining future growth phases 758 for the communications management unit. 724B ARINC Specification for interfacing with multi-purpose cockpit display units. Part 1. the ACARS protocols were modified to take advantage of the higher data rate made possible by Mode 2. the free encyclopedia Specification for an ACARS management unit for ARINC 724B wiring. Two-part specification that defines a security framework for protecting ACARS datalink messages exchanged between aircraft and ground systems. the CMU performs similar datalink routing functions. CMU standards are defined in ARINC Characteristic 758. as specified in ARINC 823 AOA  ACARS Over AVLC. where AVLC itself is an acronym for Aviation VHF L ink Control and VHF is also an acronym for Very High Frequency. With the introduction of VDL Mode 2. CMU  Communications Management Unit. but has additional capacity to support more functions. ATN   Aeronautical Telecommunications Network. AOA is an acronym for ACARS O ver AVLC. For example.Wikipedia. The software that runs in a CMU. specifies life-cycle management of the cryptographic keys necessary for secure and proper operation of the ACARS message security system. and a true internetworking architecture. ARINC 744 Specification for a communications management unit relative to ARINC 758 wiring. Successor to the MU. Whether this is true or not. Acronyms and glossary[edit] There has been rumour that the introduction of datalink into the airline industry originated as part of a contest to see how many acronyms could be developed around a specific technology. and sometimes as a software partition in an integrated avionics computer. ACARS will no longer have the capacity or flexibility to handle the large number of datalink communications. ATN is planned to replace ACARS in the future and will provide services such as authentication. 739 ARINC 740 Specification for interfacing to cockpit printers. security. AOA is an interim step in replacing the ACARS protocols with ATN protocols. AVLC  Aviation VHF Link Control. A particular protocol used for aeronautical datalink communications CDU  Control Display Unit CMF  Communications Management Function.Aircraft Communications Addressing and Reporting System . key management. ACARS  Aircraft Communications Addressing and Reporting System ACMS  Aircraft Condition Monitoring System AMS  ACARS Message Security. As air traffic increases. Initial communications management unit systems which perform today’s ACARS functions are classified as Level OA. and Part[7/6/2013 8:08:46 PM] . specifies the security 823 protocol. ACARS message security. data ARINC integrity and message authentication. This ARINC specification identifies various levels of functionality. Europe is leading the US in the implementation of ATN. wikipedia. MIDU  Multi-Input Interactive Display Unit (often used as a third cockpit CDU). the free encyclopedia Flight Management System.Aircraft Communications Addressing and Reporting System . retrieved 2007-01-24 3. this is an avionics LRU that routes datalink messages to and from the ground. A typical SATCOM installation can support a datalink channel as well as one or more voice channels. A portion of the RF spectrum. LRU  Line Replaceable Unit. ^ Carlsson. OOOI  Shorthand for the basic flight phases—Out of the gate. GIS and data discovery[edit] In 2002. Refers to the set of ACARS communications protocols in effect before the introduction of VDL Mode 2. ^ Online-Black-Box soll Crashs schneller http://en.Wikipedia. SATCOM  Satellite Communications. The Global Link: 4. POA  Plain Old ACARS. when it is selected as the system controlling the MCDU. The term is derived from POTS (Plain old telephone service) that refers to the wired analog telephone network.php/OOOI_Data 4. NOSA provides near real time WMS maps and an ID search from the NOSA homepage. and an antenna. Airborne SATCOM equipment includes a satellite data unit. MCDU standards are defined in ARINC Characteristic 739. An avionics "black box" that can be replaced on the flight line. Barbara (October 2002). ACARS was added to the NOAA Observing System Architecture. ^ http://aspmhelp. possibly with a steerable beam. MCDUs have seven input ports and can be used with seven different systems. A portion of the RF spectrum. defined as 30 MHz to 300 MHz. Controller Pilot Data Link Communication (CPDLC) messages and Automatic Dependent Surveillance (ADS) messages between aircraft end-systems and corresponding ground-based HFDL ground stations. A text-only device that displays messages to the aircrew and accepts crew input on an integrated keyboard. In the gate. Each system connected to an MCDU generates its own display pages and accepts keyboard input. HF  High Frequency. Often referred to as the ACARS MU. "GLOBALink/VHF: The Future Is Now". such as CMU or[7/6/2013 8:08:46 PM] .gov/index.faa. Off the ground. HFDL  High Frequency Data Link is an ACARS communications media used to exchange data such as Airline Operational Control (AOC) messages. VDL  VHF Data Link VHF  Very High Frequency. On the ground. MU  Management Unit. FMS standards are defined in ARINC Characteristic 702 and 702A. MCDU  Multifunction Control Display Unit. without downing the aircraft for maintenance. See also[edit] Aeronautical Telecommunication Network (ATN) Future Air Navigation System (FANS) Acronyms and abbreviations in avionics SELCAL References[edit] 1. medium to high power amplifier. June 6. the free encyclopedia 2. External links[edit] aufklären.wikipedia. ^ http://www.php? title=Aircraft_Communications_Addressing_and_Reporting_System&oldid=558323449" Categories: 1978 introductions Aircraft instruments Aviation communications Avionics Meteorological data and networks Hidden categories: Articles with German-language external links Articles needing expert attention from January 2013 All articles needing expert attention Aviation articles needing expert attention Miscellaneous articles needing expert attention Articles lacking in-text citations from April 2012 All articles lacking in-text citations Wikipedia articles needing clarification from February 2010 Articles with hAudio microformats Navigation menu http://en. Accessed on: June 6.wikipedia. (German) Spiegel-Online. 2009.Aircraft Communications Addressing and Reporting System . inventors of ACARS[7/6/2013 8:08:46 PM] . 2009.arinc.Wikipedia. free ACARS decoder software for Linux/Windows ACARS on NOSA ARINC Standards Document List. list and describe the ARINC standards [show] v t e Earth-based meteorological equipment and instrumentation [show] v t e Earth-based meteorological observation systems and weather stations [show] v t e Telecommunications Retrieved from "http://en. the free encyclopedia Personal tools Create account Log in Namespaces Article Talk Variants Views Read Edit View history Actions Search Main page Contents Featured content Current events Random article Donate to Wikipedia Interaction Help About Wikipedia Community portal Recent changes Contact Wikipedia Toolbox http://en.wikipedia.Wikipedia.Aircraft Communications Addressing and Reporting System .org/wiki/Aircraft_Communications_Addressing_and_Reporting_System[7/6/2013 8:08:46 PM] . additional terms may apply. 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