Proposed Scheme and Syllabus from academic year 2010-11Aeronautical Engineering VII Semester Sl No Subject Code Title Teaching Dept. Teaching Hours / week Examination 1 10AE71 Control Engineering AE/ME 04 -- Duration 03 2 10AE72 Aircraft Structures-II AE 04 -- 03 25 100 125 3 10AE73 Aircraft Stability and Control AE 04 -- 03 25 100 125 4 10AE74 Gas Turbine Technology AE 04 -- 03 25 100 125 5 10AE75* *Electives II – (Group B) AE 04 -- 03 25 100 125 6 10AE76* *Electives III –(Group C) AE 04 -- 03 25 100 125 7 10AEL77 AE -- 03 03 25 50 75 8 10AEL78 AE -- 03 03 25 50 75 24 06 24 200 700 900 Design, Modeling and Analysis Laboratory Simulation Laboratory Total Th. Pr. I.A Marks 25 Theory/ Practical 100 Total Marks 125 Note: One question has to be set for every 6 to 8 hours of teaching. Subject Code * Elective II (Group B ) Subject Code * Elective III (Group C ) 10AE751 10AE752 10AE753 10AE754 10AE755 10AE756 Optimisation Techniques Computational Fluid Dynamics Aircraft Maintenance, Repair and Overhaul Statistical Quality Control Theory of plates and shells Nondestructive Testing 10AE761 10AE762 10AE763 10AE764 10AE765 10AE766 10AE757 Mechatronics and Microprocessor 10AE767 Experimental Stress analysis Helicopter Dynamics Space Mechanics and Launch Vehicles Smart Materials Agile Manufacturing Robotics Industrial and Experimental Aerodynamics 10AE758 Total Quality Management 10AE768 Micro and Smart Systems Technology * Students shall register for one subject from each Group B and C Electives Control Engineering Sub Code: 10AE71 IA Marks: 25 Hrs/ Week: 04 Exam Hours: 03 Total Hours: 52 Exam Marks: 100 Syllabus is same as existing Sub code 10ME82 Aircraft Structures - II Sub Code: 10AE72 IA Marks: 25 Hrs/ Week: 04 Exam Hours: 03 Total Hours: 52 Exam Marks: 100 PART A Unit 1. 06 Hrs Introduction to Aircraft Structural Design: Structural layout of the Airplane and components, Structural design V-n diagram,loads acting on major components such as wing, fuselage, tails, landing gear etc.,Concept of allowable stress and margin of safety. Unit 2. 06 Hrs Unsymmetrical Bending: Bending stresses in beams of unsymmetrical sections – Bending of symmetric sections with skew loads Unit 3. 06 Hrs Shear Flow in Open Sections: Thin walled beams, Concept of shear flow, shear centre, Elastic axis. With one axis of symmetry, with wall effective and ineffective in bending, unsymmetrical beam sections. Unit 4. 08 Hrs Shear Flow in Closed Sections: Bredt – Batho formula, Single and multi – cell structures, Approximate methods, Shear flow in single & multi-cell structures under torsion. Shear flow in single and multi-cell under bending with walls effective and ineffective. PART B Unit 5. 06 Hrs Buckling of Plates: Rectangular sheets under compression, Local buckling stress of thin walled sections, Crippling stresses by Needham’s and Gerard’s methods, Thin walled column strength. Sheet – stiffener panels. Effective width, inter rivet and sheet wrinkling failures. Unit 6. 08 Hrs Stress Analysis in Wing And Fuselage: Procedure – Shear and bending moment distribution for semi cantilever and other types of wings and fuselage, thin webbed beam. With parallel and non parallel flanges, Shear resistant web beams, Tension field web beams (Wagner’s). 06 Hrs Joints and Fittings And Introduction to Post Buckling: General theory for the design of fittings..M. T. 3. Bruhn. R.Unit 7.J.. Megson. An Introduction to the Theory of Aircraft Structures Scheme of Examination: Four questions from Part A and Four questions from Part B to be set.. Reference: 1. 1985. 2. bolted and welding joints. “Theory and Analysis of Flight Structures”.G. Tri – state off set company. 06 Hrs Design of Aircraft Structure: Design criteria – Safety Factor – Design life criteria – Analysis method – Life Assessment procedures – Design Principle – Future Airworthiness Requirements– Two bay crack criteria – Widespread Fatigue damage.J. design of riveted.1995. Unit 8. 2nd edition. D Williams & Edward Arnold. Edward Arnold. 1993. J.M.H. D. 2. Peery. concept of effective width. Text Books: 1. Students have to answer any FIVE full questions out of EIGHT questions. “Aircraft Structures for Engineering Students”. post buckling of structures. “Aircraft Structures”. “Analysis and Design of Flight vehicles Structures”. Estimation of fitting design loads. and Azar.Y. McGraw–Hill. N. choosing at least 2 questions from part A and 2 questions from part B . USA. Rivello.. E. 1993. McGraw-Hill.. 06 Hrs Static Directional Stability and Control Introduction. Static margin. 07 Hrs Static Longitudinal Stability and Control-Stick Free Introduction. Tail contribution. Definition of directional stability. Estimation of hinge moment parameters.Aircraft Stability and Control Sub Code: 10AE73 IA Marks: 25 Hrs/ Week: 04 Exam Hours: 03 Total Hours: 52 Exam Marks: 100 PART A Unit 1. Unit 3. Stick-free Neutral point. Dorsal fin. Hinge moment parameters. flaps. PART B Unit 5..G. The trim tabs. Lateral control. 07 Hrs Static Longitudinal Stability and Control-Stick Fixed Introduction. and power. Control surface floating characteristics and aerodynamic balance. stability criteria. Effect of wing sweep. range. stick fixed neutral points. Contribution of airframe components. Adverse yaw effects. Balancing the aileron. One engine inoperative condition.. Restriction on aft C. Trim condition. Weather cocking effect. Coupling between rolling and yawing moments. Aileron reversal. Restriction on forward C. Stick-free directional stability. 06 Hrs Static Longitudinal Stability: Historical perspective. Fuselage contribution. Directional control. Stick force gradient in unaccelerated flight. Power effectsPropeller airplane and Jet airplane Unit 2. Elevator angle versus equilibrium lift coefficient. Unit 4. Elevator required for landing.G. Elevator power. Contribution of airframe components: Wing contribution. Aerodynamic Nomenclature. Rudder power. Static directional stability rudder fixed. 06 Hrs Static Lateral Stability And Control Introduction. definition of Roll stability. Equilibrium conditions. Estimation of dihedral effect. Aileron control forces. Requirements for directional control. Longitudinal control. Estimation of lateral control power. Definition of static stability. . Rudder lock. Definition of longitudinal static stability. McCormick.Unit 6. ` Performance. AIAA 2 nd Edition Series. New York.. and Flight Mechanics`. Pamadi. John Wiley & Sons. Inc.E. Dutch roll and Spiral instability. John Wiley & Sons. ` Aerodynamics. 1995. Derivation of rigid body equations of motion. 2004. 07 Hrs Estimation of Dynamic Derivatives: Aerodynamic force and moment representation. Stability derivatives for lateral and directional dynamics. Aeronautics.. choosing at least 2 questions from part A and 2 questions from part B . “ Dynamics of Flight Stability and Control”. 2007. Roll-Pitch-Yaw Inertial coupling. Effect of wind shear. Response to aileron step-function. C. R.rotation and spin. 1988. Students have to answer any FIVE full questions out of EIGHT questions. Scheme of Examination: Four questions from Part A and Four questions from Part B to be set. Orientation and position of the airplane. Factors affecting period and damping of oscillations. Derivatives due to rolling rate. R. Unit 7. “Flight Stability and Automatic Control”. Barnes W. gravitational and thrust forces. and Hage. John Wiley Son Inc. Second Edition.D. Flying qualities in pitch. McGraw-Hill Book Co. Stability. Derivatives due to the time rate of change of angle of attack. Text Books: 1. Bandu N. side-slip excursion. Derivatives due to the pitching velocity. Small disturbance theory. Cooper-Harper Scale. 06 Hrs Dynamic Lateral and Directional Stability Routh’s criteria. 07 Hrs Dynamic Longitudinal Stability Definition of Dynamic longitudinal stability: types of modes of motion: long or phugoid motion. Bernard Etkin. 2. 2. Dynamics and Control of Airplanes`. 1982.C.. Derivatives due to yawing rate Unit 8. Airplane Equations of longitudinal motion. References 1. short period motion. 3. “Airplane Performance stability and Control”. Derivatives due to change in forward speed. Nelson. Auto. Perkins. Operating parameters. Combustor: Combustor MAP. Typical oil system. Use of composites and Ceramics. 06 Hrs Engine Performance Design & off-design Performance. Thrust. types of burners: advantages and disadvantages. Influence of design factors on burner performance. Methods of thrust augmentation. Surge margin requirements. high temperature strength. 07 Hrs Component Level Testing Compressor: Compressor MAP. Inlet distortions.Gas Turbine Technology Sub Code: 10AE74 IA Marks: 25 Hrs/ Week: 04 Exam Hours: 03 Total Hours: 52 Exam Marks: 100 PART-A Unit 1. Thrust engine start envelope. Typical starting characteristics. 07 Hrs Systems Fuel systems and components. pressure and velocity diagrams. Variation & Applications Types of engines showing arrangement of parts. Starting systems. Performance requirements of combustion chambers. Unit 4. Thrust reversal: types. Transient performance. Superalloys for Turbines. Energy distribution of turbojet. Impulse turbine and reaction turbine. Engine performance monitoring. PART – B Unit 5. Various gas turbine starters. Testing and . afterburner system. sound suppression. Pressure loss. Comparison of thrust and specific fuel consumption. surface finishing. Typical fuel system. surge margin stack up. Construction of nozzles. Unit 2. Unit 6. Surge margin. Starting torque and speed requirements Calculations for design and off-design performance from given test data – (case study for a single shaft Jet Engine). Starting process & Wind milling of Engines. Exhaust system. 06 Hrs Types. Unit 3. Powder metallurgy. Transient working lines. Effect of operating variables on burner performance. 06 Hrs Materials and Manufacturing Criteria for selection of materials. turboprop and turbofan engines. Oil system components. Sensors and Controls. Qualitative characteristics quantities. design & systems. combustion light up test. FADEC interface with engine. Heat ranges of metals. 07 Hrs Engine Parts Compressor assembly. Testing and Performance Evaluation. Performance Evaluation. Turbines: Turbine MAP. Turbine Testing and Performance Evaluation. Inlet duct & nozzles: Ram pressure recovery of inlet duct. Propelling nozzles, after burner, maximum mass flow conditions. Testing and Performance Evaluation. Unit 7. 07 Hrs Engine Testing Proof of Concepts: Design Evaluation tests. Structural Integrity. Environmental Ingestion Capability. Preliminary Flight Rating Test, Qualification Test, Acceptance Test. Reliability figure of merit. Durability and Life Assessment Tests, Reliability Tests. Engine testing with simulated inlet distortions and, surge test. Estimating engine-operating limits. Methods of displacing equilibrium lines. Types of engine testings: Normally Aspirated Testing, Open Air Test Bed ,Ram Air Testing, Altitude Testing, Altitude test facility, Flying Test Bed, Ground Testing of Engine Installed in Aircraft, Flight testing. Jet thrust measurements in flight. Test procedure: Test Schedule Preparation, Test Log Sheets, Test Documents. Type approval. Unit 8. 06 Hrs Test Cells Factors for design of engine test beds. Test bed calibration. Steps in test bed cross calibration.Measurements and Instrumentation. Data Acquisition system, Measurement of Shaft speed, Torque, Thrust, Pressure, Temperature, Vibration, Stress, Temperature of turbine blading etc. Engine performance trends: Mass and CUSUM plots. Accuracy and Uncertainty in Measurements. Uncertainty analysis. Performance Reduction Methodology. Text Books: 1. 2 Irwin E. Treager, `Gas Turbine Engine Technology` , GLENCOE Aviation Technology Series, 7th Edition, Tata McGraw Hill Publishing Co.Ltd. Print 2003. P.P Walsh and P. Peletcher, ‘Gas Turbine Performance’ Blackwell Science, 1998, ISBN 0632047843. 3. Michael J. Kores , and Thomas W. Wild,` Aircraft Power Plant`, GLENCOE Aviation Technology Series, 7th Edition, Tata McGraw Hill Publishing Co.Ltd. 2002. Reference Books: 1. Advance Aero-Engine Testing, AGARD-59 Publication 2. MIL –5007 E , `Military Specifications: Engine , Aircraft, Turbo Jet & Turbofan ; General Specification for Advance Aero Engine testing`, 15th Oct 1973. J P Holman,` Experimental methods for Engineers`, Tata McGraw –Hill Publishing Co. Ltd . ,2007. A S Rangawala-Turbomachinery dynamics-Design and operations, McGraw –Hill Publishing Co. Ltd . ,2007. 3. 4. Scheme of Examination: Four questions from Part A and Four questions from Part B to be set. Students have to answer any FIVE full questions out of EIGHT questions, choosing at least 2 questions from part A and 2 questions from part B Optimisation Techniques Sub Code: 10AE751 IA Marks: 25 Hrs/ Week: 04 Exam Hours: 03 Total Hours: 52 Exam Marks: 100 PART A Unit 1. 06 Hrs Introduction Non-linear programming. Mathematical fundamentals. Numerical evaluation of gradient. Unit 2. 06 Hrs Unconstrianed Optimisation One dimensional, single variable optimization. Maximum of a function. Unimodal-Fibonacci method. Polynomial based methods. Unit 3. 07 Hrs Unconstrained Minimisation Multivariable functions. Necessary and sufficient conditions for optimality. Convexity. Steepest Descent Method -Convergence Characteristics. Conjugate Gradient Method. Linear programming -Simplex Method. Unit 4. 07 Hrs Constrained Minimisation Non-linear programming. Gradient based methods. Rosens`s gradient, Zoutendijk`s method, Generalised reduced gradient, Sequential quadratic programming. Sufficient condition for optimality. PART B Unit 5. 06 Hrs Direct Search Methods Direct search methods for nonlinear optimization. Cyclic coordinate search. Hooke and Jeeves Pattern search method. Generic algorithm. Unit 6. 06 Hrs Discrete And Dynamic Programming Integer and discrete programming. Branch and bound algorithm for mixed integers. General definition of dynamic programming problem. Problem modeling and computer implementation. Shortest path problem. Unit 7. 07 Hrs Optimisation Application Transportation problem. Transportation simplex method. Network problems. Maximum flow in net works. General definition of dynamic programming. Problem modeling and computer implementation. Unit 8. 07 Hrs Finite Element Based Optimisation Parameter optimization using gradient methods -Derivative calculation. Shape optimisation. Topology optimisation of continuum structures. Text Books: 1. Ashok D Belegundu and Tirupathi R . Chandrupatla, `Optimisation Concepts and Applications in Engineering`, Pearson Education, In C.,1991. Reference Books: 1. Fletcher, R., `Practical Methods of Optimisation`, Wiley, New York ,2nd Edition, 1987. 2. Dennis J.E. and Schnabel, R. B., `Numerical Methods for Unconstrained Optimisation and Nonlinear Equations`, Prentice Hall, Engle Wood Cliffs, New Jersey, 1983. 3. S.S. Rao, ` Optimisation -Theory and Application`, Wiley Eastern Ltd., 5th Edition.1990. Scheme of Examination: Four questions from Part A and Four questions from Part B to be set. Students have to answer any FIVE full questions out of EIGHT questions, choosing at least 2 questions from part A and 2 questions from part B Explicit and Implicit approach: definition and contrasts. Impact on physical and computational fluid dynamics. and unsteady thermal conduction. Comments on governing equations. Reflection boundary condition. Stability properties of Explicit and Implicit methods. Up-wind differencing.Algebraic. Models of flows. Midpoint leap frog method. Hyperbolic. CFD application. Forms of the governing equations particularly suited for CFD work: Shock fitting and Shock capturing methods. Taylor series approach for the construction of finite-difference quotients. Need for grid generation. Generic form of equations. case studies: steady inviscid supersonic flow. steady boundary layer flow. PART B Unit 5. . Need for parallel computers for CFD algorithms. Essential properties of grids. parabolic and elliptic forms of equations. unsteady invisid flow. Errors and analysis of stability. and Numerical grid generation. C-type and H. Substantial derivative. Physical boundary conditions. 07 Hrs Discretization Essence of discretization. 06 Hrs Introduction Insight into power and philosophy of CFD. Error propagation. CFD ideas to understand. Divergence of velocity. Unit 2. Difference equations. 06 Hrs Mathematical Behavior of Partial Differential Equations: Classification of partial differential equations. 07 Hrs Governing Equations Continuity. Un-structured grids. Momentum and Energy equations. Multi-Grid methods .type). Unit 4. Integral versus Differential form of equations. Elliptic grid generation. Unit 3. Various grid generation techniques . Structured. derivation in various forms. Higher order difference quotients. Cramer rule and Eigen value method.Computational Fluid Dynamics Sub Code: 10AE752 IA Marks: 25 Hrs/ Week: 04 Exam Hours: 03 Total Hours: 52 Exam Marks: 100 PART A Unit 1. Adaptive grids. Grid collapse.Grid accuracies. 07 Hrs Grid Generation Body –fitted coordinate system. Types of grids (O-type. 3. Multi . “Computational Fluid Dynamics .Time –Step Integration scheme. Computational Fluid Dynamics. F. and Chaoqun Liu.`The Basics with Applications`. choosing at least 2 questions from part A and 2 questions from part B. Text Books: 1.Cell Centered Formulation. High resolution finite volume upwind Scheme. Elsevier Inc. LAX-WENDROFF Technique . Upwind schemes. 1988. Jiyuan Tu. 1995 . John Wiley & Sons. 06 Hrs Appropriate Transformation General transformation of equations. 2. Universities Press (India) Private Limited.(ADI ) Implicit Technique. Cell Vertex Formulation. Runge . The Alternating-Direction. 2008. Berlin. artificial viscosity. Charles Hirsch. Springer – Verlag. Scheme of Examination: Four questions from Part A and Four questions from Part B to be set. McGraw Hill International Edn. Transformation of continuity equation from physical plane into computational plane. Unit 8. Tapan K. New York. `Fundamentals of Computational Fluid Dynamics`. John D Anderson Jr. I and II. Metrics and Jacobians. 06 Hrs Finite Volume Techniques Finite Volume Discretization . Flux vector splitting. “Numerical Computation of Internal and External Flows”. 2005.` Computational Fluid Dynamics- A Practical Approach`. Approximate factorization scheme.Kutta Time Stepping . Generic form of the governing flow equations with strong conservative form in the transformed space. Point iterative mehod. Relaxation technique. . Guan Heng Yeoh.An Introduction”. Sengupta. Unit 7.Unit 6. Aspects of numerical dissipation and dispersion. application of Grids stretching . Numerical dispersion. Vols. Wendt (Editor). 1992. 07 Hrs CFD Application to Some Problems Time and space marching. Students have to answer any FIVE full questions out of EIGHT questions. References: 1. 2. Successive over-relaxation/under relaxation. Damage investigation – reverse technology. 06 Hrs Inspection And Repair Of Composite Components: Inspection and Repair of composite components – Special precautions – Autoclaves. Unit 4. various repair schemes – Scopes. 07 Hrs Review of Hydraulic and Pneumatic System Trouble shooting and maintenance practices – Service and inspection. Unit 6.G.. Installation and maintenance of Instruments – handling – Testing – Inspection. 07 Hrs Plastics and Composites in Aircraft Review of types of plastics used in airplanes – Maintenance and repair of plastic components – Repair of cracks. Balancing of control surfaces – Inspection maintenance. Tracking and balancing of main rotor. Assembly And Rigging Airplane jacking and weighing and C. . Unit 2. Location.D. 06 Hrs Sheet Metal Repair And Maintenance Inspection of damage – Classification – Repair or replacement – Sheet metal inspection – N. 07 Hrs Welding In Aircraft Structural Components Equipments used in welding shop and their maintenance – Ensuring quality welds – Welding jigs and fixtures – Soldering and brazing. water and waste system.T. 07 Hrs Aircraft Jacking.Aircraft Maintenance. Testing – Riveted repair design. Helicopter flight controls. – Inspection and maintenance of landing gear systems. PART B Unit 5. Repair and Overhaul Sub Code: 10AE753 IA Marks: 25 Hrs/ Week: 04 Exam Hours: 03 Total Hours: 52 Exam Marks: 100 PART A Unit 1. Unit 3. holes etc. – Inspection and maintenance of air-conditioning and pressurisation system. 1992.E. References 1. 06 Hrs Safety Practices Hazardous materials storage and handling. “Aircraft Maintenance”. Aircraft furnishing practices – Equipments. Marquette. “Aircraft Repair Manual”. BRIMM D. Text Book 1. DELP.J. Pitman Publishing corp. McGraw-Hill.Theory and practices. Palamar Books.. New York. New York. BOGGES H. 1992 2. Scheme of Examination: Four questions from Part A and Four questions from Part B to be set. choosing at least 2 questions from part A and 2 questions from part B. LARRY REITHMEIR. . WATKINS. Troubshooting . KROES. “Aircraft Maintenance and Repair”. 1940.Unit 7. Students have to answer any FIVE full questions out of EIGHT questions. 06 Hrs Inspection And Maintenance Of Auxilary Systems: Inspection and maintenance of auxiliary systems – Fire protection systems – Ice protection system – Rain removal system – Position and warning system – Auxiliary Power Units (APUs) Unit 8. Statistical Quality Control Sub Code: 10AE754 IA Marks: 25 Hrs/ Week: 04 Exam Hours: 03 Total Hours: 52 Exam Marks: 100 Syllabus same as existing Subject code 10ME668 . Flexural rigidity of plate. Different edge conditions: . Eccentrically compressed shells. PART B Unit 5. Strain energy by: – bending of plates.Theory of Plates and Shells Sub Code: 10AE755 IA Marks: 25 Hrs/ Week: 04 Exam Hours: 03 Total Hours: 52 Exam Marks: 100 PART A Unit 1. 06 Hrs Bending Of Thin Plates . Unit 3. Flexural rigidity of plates.Strain Energy Slopes of deflection of surface. Unit 2. simply supported edge and. 07 Hrs Buckling Of Thin Plates Method of calculation of critical loads. Flexural rigidity of shells. Buckling of simply supported rectangular plates uniformly compressed in one direction. . Buckling of uniformly compressed rectangular plates simply supported along two opposite sides perpendicular to the direction of compression and having various edge conditions along the other two sides. Critical values of compressive stress.built in edge. bending by lateral loads. Isotropic and orthotropic flat plates. Critical compressive stress for a plate stiffened by one rib. 07 Hrs Buckling of Reinforced Plates Stability of plates reinforced by ribs. 06 Hrs Introduction Plate and Shell Structures in Aerospace Vehicles. 07 Hrs Bending of Thin Plates -Stresses Pure bending of plates. combined bending and tension or compression of plates. Study of the experimental value of buckling of plates. General equation for critical compressive stress. Combined bending and tension or compression. Unit 4. Shear stress. Bending and twisting moments. free edge. Simply supported rectangular plates with longitudinal ribs. Reinforced plates. Introduction to bending and buckling of plates and shells. Combined bending and tension or compression of plates. Bending of plates by distributed lateral load. Symmetrical buckling of cylindrical shell under the action of uniform axial pressure. Flexural rigidity of shell. and Kreger. 07 Hrs Bending of Thin Shells Deformation of an element of a shell.Unit 6. S. Springer – Verlag. “Theory of Elastic Stability”. Unit 7. Scheme of Examination: Four questions from Part A and Four questions from Part B to be set. McGraw-Hill Book 2. 1986.M. . Symmetrical deformation of a circular cylindrical shell. Flugge.P. Text Books: 1.. Co. Unit 8. 06 Hrs Strain Energy Of Deformation Of Shells: Strain energy of deformation of shell:-bending and stretching of middle surface. Differential equation for bending of strip. choosing at least 2 questions from part A and 2 questions from part B. and Gere. Timoshenko.P. Students have to answer any FIVE full questions out of EIGHT questions. Study of the experimental values of cylindrical shells in axial compression. Expression for components of normal stresses. Case of deformation with presence of shearing stresses. Timoshenko. S. Bent or eccentrically compressed shells. McGraw-Hill Book Co. 1985. “Stresses in Shells”. S. W. 1990 References: 1. critical stress. Winowsky. J. “Theory of Plates and Shells”.. 06 Hrs Buckling of Shells Symmetrical buckling of cylindrical shell under the action of uniform axial compression :differential equation . Unit 3 06 Hrs Ultrasonics Principle of wave propagation. industrial radiographic practice. scattering. absorption. Production of X -rays. examples. equipment. Unit 2 07 Hrs Radiographic Inspection X – Ray radiography: Principles of X – ray radiography. tube inspection. Variables affecting an ultrasound test. gamma ray sources. 07 Hrs Magnetic Particle Test Methods of generating magnetic field. . 06 Hrs Liquid Penetrant Test Basic concept. Welding inspection. types of indication. Test Equipment and Procedure. 06 Hrs Ultrasonic Inspection Ultrasonic application for thickness measurement. Types of scanning. film radiography. microradiography Gamma ray radiography: Radioactivity. Ultrasonic equipment. test standards. Reading and Interpretation of Radiographs. Unit 4. Interpretation and evaluation. Basic methods and general considerations. PART -B Unit 5. Safety precautions. Factors influencing the Reliability of NDE. Unit 6. Testing of products. General radiographic procedures. Test equipment. X-ray film processing. Defects in composites. Test Parameters & Procedure. Demagnetization of materials. application. Ultrasonic testing of composites.Nondestructive Testing Sub Code: 10AE756 IA Marks: 25 Hrs/ Week: 04 Exam Hours: 03 Total Hours: 52 Exam Marks: 100 PART A Unit 1 07 Hrs Introduction An Overview. Defects in welding. NDT methods used for evaluation of materials and composites. Defects in materials. Magnetic particle test: Principles . determination of elastic constants. Ltd. Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Co. 9th Edition. Baldev Raj. choosing at least 2 questions from part A and 2 questions from part B.. Scheme of Examination: Four questions from Part A and Four questions from Part B to be set. acoustic emission waves and propagation. M. Instrumentation principles. American society of metals. . `Nondestructive Testing`. Standardization and calibration. 07 Hrs Some Other Methods ` Thermal Inspection: Principles. Vol-17. applications. Non destructive evaluation & quality control. Metals Hand Book. Jayakumar. Students have to answer any FIVE full questions out of EIGHT questions. Narosa Publishing House. equipment. Optical Holography: Principles.Unit 7. 2008. applications. T. inspection methods. Text Book: 1. Thavasimuthu. 1997. ` Non-Destructive Test and Evaluation of Materials`. Application and effectiveness. J Prasad and C G Krishnadas Nair. Factors affecting eddy currents. Test system and test arrangement. holographic recording interferometer techniques of inspection Acoustic Emission Inspection: Principle. applicability. Reference Books: 1. Unit 8. comparison with other NDT methods. 06 Hrs Eddy Current Test Principles of eddy current. 2001 2. .Mechatronics and Microprocessor Sub Code: 10AE757 IA Marks: 25 Hrs/ Week: 04 Exam Hours: 03 Total Hours: 52 Exam Marks: 100 Syllabus same as existing Subject code 10ME65. Total Quality Management Sub Code: 10AE758 IA Marks: 25 Hrs/ Week: 04 Exam Hours: 03 Total Hours: 52 Exam Marks: 100 Syllabus same as existing Subject code 10ME758 . Elective III (Group C) Experimental Stress Analysis Sub Code: 10AE761 IA Marks: 25 Hrs/ Week: 04 Exam Hours: 03 Total Hours: 52 Exam Marks: 100 Syllabus same as existing Subject code 10ME761 . Factors affecting the maximum attainable forward speed. and their functions. Cockpit control for vertical flight. Drag hinges. Types of rotors . Forward flight performance .with and without conning. Schematics showing flapping. Lateral tilt . Method of achieving translatory flight. Hovering flight and ground effects. the hinge less design and bearing less design. Unit 4. High speed rotorcraft. lead/lag and feathering motion of rotor blade. Cockpit control of rotor system (collective and cyclic pitch). Controlling cyclic pitch: Swash-plate system. transition and near ground.A Unit 1. Disc loading and power loading. Comparison between fixed wing aircraft and helicopter. Civil and Military applications of helicopters. Unit 2. 06 Hrs Introduction to Helicopter Definitions. lift – drag ratios.autorotation in forward flight. Blade flapping. Vertical climb and descend . Ground effects in hover. effect of density altitude. effect of gross weight. speed for minimum power. . at low speed and high speed flights. Unit 3.total power required. turning flights. Some helicopter configurations. Thrust and power coefficients. speed for maximum range. Forces acting during hovering flight. autorotation index. Torque balance and directional control. 07 Hrs Hover And Vertical Flight Momentum theory and its application.Helicopter Dynamics Sub Code: 10AE762 IA Marks: 25 Hrs/ Week: 04 Exam Hours: 03 Total Hours: 52 Exam Marks: 100 PART. Autorotation.. major parts. feathering. articulated design. Genealogical tree of aircraft.variation in induced velocities. Lateral and longitudinal asymmetry of lift in forward flight. 06 Hrs Basic Helicopter Performance Hovering and axial climb and descent performance. Forces acting during vertical flight. Figure of merit for hover thrust efficiency. 07 Hrs Forward Flight Forces acting on helicopter in forward flight.teetering design. Rotor solidity and blade loading coefficient. Vol. blade twist and aerofoil selection. Design of main rotor .hover trim and forward flight trim. Saunders. Military derivatives of civil rotorcraft. Rotorcraft vibration classification. NY. Def Stan 00970. Text Books: 1. Unit 7. Flight Testing . flow topology. 06 Hrs Conceptual Design Of Helicopters Design requirements. . side forces. Empennage design. Effect of aerofoil shape on dynamic stall. Effect of sweep angle on dynamic stall. History. rotor solidity. tip speed. `Principles of Helicopter Aerodynamics`.PART B Unit 5. Specifications And Testing Aspects Scope of requirements. control and trim. Levels of handling qualities. Unit 8. Unit 6. lateral – directional and. Inc. Bramwell. `Dynamics of Helicopter Flight`. Static stability of helicopters: longitudinal. Flight and Ground Handling Qualities – General requirements and definitions. Airfoil shape criteria.rotor dia. choosing at least 2 questions from part A and 2 questions from part B. Fuselage design . Gordon Leisshman J. Structural strength and design for operations on specified surfaces.`Helicopter Dynamics`. 07 Hrs Standards . 07 Hrs Helicopter Stabilty And Control Introductory concepts of stability. Dynamic stability aspects. `The Helicopter.fuselage drag. Main rotor control and tail rotor control. Piloting & How it Flies`. John Fay.General handling fight test requirements and. Cambridge University Press. John Wiley & Sons. vertical drag and down loads. General and operational requirements. Flight controls and stability augmentation. the basis of limitations. Sterling Book House 2007 2. 2 Rotorcraft 3. Dynamic stall in rotor environment. G H. 2. 2002 Reference Books: 1. breakout forces. 06 Hrs Rotor Airfoil Aerodynamics And Dynamic Stall Rotor airfoil requirements .Reynolds number and Mach number influence. directional. 1975 Scheme of Examination: Four questions from Part A and Four questions from Part B to be set. Control characteristics. Students have to answer any FIVE full questions out of EIGHT questions. Description of vertical. Central Force Motion Two body problem and one body problem. 06 Hrs Rocket Performance and Staging Launch vehicle trajectories.satellite perturbations . Unit 2. single impulse and two impulse orbital transfers. Introduction to Solid. Inertial and Earth fixed coordinate reference frames. Sun synchronous and Geosynchronous orbits. Staging of rockets .Hohmann orbits calculation of orbit parameters . Coordinate transformations. Liquid and Cryogenic rocket engines. Unit 4. two body problem and orbital elements. orbital perturbations – general and special perturbation methods. 06 Hrs Satellite Dynamics Geosynchronous and geostationary satellites life time . ballistic trajectory. Simple approximations to burnout velocity Unit 7. 07 Hrs Orbital Mechanics Establishment of orbits. Comparison of liquid propellant. 06 Hrs Unit 3. solid Propellant and hybrid rockets.SPACE MECHANICS AND LAUNCH VEHICALS Sub Code: 10AE763 IA Marks: 25 Hrs/ Week: 04 Exam Hours: 03 Total Hours: 52 Exam Marks: 100 PART A Unit 1. 06 Hrs Introduction to Launch Vehicles Introduction to launch vehicles. Performance parameters.Determination of satellite rectangular coordinates from orbital elements PART B Unit 5. 07 Hrs Intoduction to Space Mechanics Space vehicles/ platforms.. 07 Hrs Principles of Operation and Types of Rocket Engines One dimensional and two dimensional rocket motions in free space and homogeneous gravitational fields. Kepler's laws of motion. Representation of vector (position. Unit 6. Euler transformations. inclined and gravity turn trajectories. velocity and acceleration) in fixed and moving reference frames. Life support system for manned space missions. . John Wiley & Sons. Rocket Propulsion Elements John Wiley and Sons. Students have to answer any FIVE full questions out of EIGHT questions. Materials for spacecraft:Selections of materials for spacecraft . Text Books: 1. 1969. Siefert (Ed. G P Sutton. H. Dover Publications.).special requirements of materials to perform under adverse conditions .S. 1993 Reference Books: 1. Kaplan: Modern Spacecraft Dynamics and Control.Unit 8. M. Spacecraft power generation. Introduction to manned and unmanned space missions. W. Scheme of Examination: Four questions from Part A and Four questions from Part B to be set. Life time estimation for a satellite. choosing at least 2 questions from part A and 2 questions from part B. . T. Thomson: Introduction to Space Dynamics. 1986 3.ablative materials. Spacecraft 07 Hrs Preliminary concepts of space. H. "Space Mechanics". 1976. 2. spacecraft. John Wiley and Sons. Smart Materials Sub Code: 10AE764 IA Marks: 25 Hrs/ Week: 04 Exam Hours: 03 Total Hours: 52 Exam Marks: 100 Syllabus same as existing subject code 10ME764 . Agile Manufacturing Sub Code: 10AE765 IA Marks: 25 Hrs/ Week: 04 Exam Hours: 03 Total Hours: 52 Exam Marks: 100 Syllabus same as existing subject code 10ME765 . Robotics Sub Code: 10AE766 IA Marks: 25 Hrs/ Week: 04 Exam Hours: 03 Total Hours: 52 Exam Marks: 100 Syllabus same as existing subject code 10ME766 . Scale effects on aerodynamic characteristics and stability derivatives. Testing for local loads. Unit 2. Lift and drag measurements through various techniques. 06 Hrs Building Aerodynamics Pressure distribution on low rise buildings. building codes. Testing engines. rigidity. Wake Blocking. Power coefficient. Effects of Buoyancy. Unit 3. Environmental winds in city blocks. 07 Hrs Vehicle Aerodynamics Power requirements and drag coefficients of automobiles. Data reduction. Galloping and stall flutter. calibration. Jettison tests. Corrections for reflection plane models. power effects. Effects of cut back angle. Betz coefficient by momentum theory. Testing procedures. building ventilation and architectural aerodynamics. Mounting of models. Testing of rotor. Flow Induced Vibrations Effects of Reynolds number on wake formation of bluff shapes.3-D wings. wind forces on buildings. Special problems of tall buildings. aero elasticity. Measurement of interference. . Vortex induced vibrations. Solid Blocking. 07 Hrs PART B Unit 5. Unit 6. Unit 4. Method of images. Aerodynamics of Trains and Hovercraft. controls. 06 Hrs Wind Energy Collectors Horizontal axis and vertical axis machines. Internal balances.Industrial and Experimental Aerodynamics Sub Code: 10AE767 IA Marks: 25 Hrs/ Week: 04 Exam Hours: 03 Total Hours: 52 Exam Marks: 100 PART A Unit 1. installation and. dynamic stability. testing wind mill generator. Wall corrections. complete model. Testing with ground plane. 06 Hrs Wind Tunnel Boundary Corrections and Scale Effects Effects of lateral boundaries. 07 Hrs Model Measurements Balances :. Data correction. General downwash correction. Lift interference correction. Testing:.design. Plenum press. intermittent (indraft .D. Students have to answer any FIVE full questions out of EIGHT questions. Optical systemsSchlieren set-up.1979 Scheme of Examination: Four questions from Part A and Four questions from Part B to be set. ` Low speed Wind Tunnel Testing`.Blevins. Charles Griffin & Co. New york. “Winds forces in engineering”. Barlow. 06 Hrs Supersonic Wind Tunnel Testing Types of supersonic tunnels: . Unit 8.1990. 2.Unit 7. Pergamon Press.London. and Alan Pope.Calvent. 1978.continuous.General introduction. M. choosing at least 2 questions from part A and 2 questions from part B. Pressurevacuum tunnels.Hypersonic wind tunnels . 1999. 07 Hrs Near sonic And Transonic Testing Near sonic tunnel design. Near transonic testing. Calibration of test section. 2 N.Sovran (Ed). Calibration of test section. Jr. Text Books: 1.. William H RAE.and blowdown). 1978. Model support system. Jewel B.Van Nostrand. 3. Tare and interference evaluation. P. REFERENCE BOOKS: 1 R. Supersonic tunnel design features. “Wind Power Principles”.G. Starting loads. John Wiley & Sons. .Sachs. “ Flow induced vibrations”. “Aerodynamics and drag mechanisms of bluff bodies and road Vehicles”. Micro and Smart Systems Technology Sub Code: 10AE768 IA Marks: 25 Hrs/ Week: 04 Exam Hours: 03 Total Hours: 52 Exam Marks: 100 Syllabus same as existing subject code 10ME768 . Structural Modeling and Stress Analysis of a Fuselage Bulk Head. Modeling and Analysis Laboratory Sub Code: 10AEL77 Hrs / Week: 03 Total Hours: 42 IA Marks: 25 Exam Hours: 03 Exam Marks: 50 List of Experiments Part-A 21 Hrs 1. 7. Part-B 21 Hrs 6. 8. 10.Design. 2. Computations and Analysis for Velocity Vectors and Pressures Distributions. Modeling of Cambered Aerofoil Geometry. Modeling of 2-D Incompressible and Viscous Flow over an Aerofoil. 4. 9. 5. Modeling of Symmetric Aerofoil Geometry. 3. Structural Modeling and Stress Analysis of a Simply Supported Rectangular Plate Uniformly Compressed In one Direction with a Cut-Out in Center. And Generation of Body Fitting Mesh. Structural Modeling and Stress Analysis of a Simply Supported Rectangular Plate Uniformly Compressed In one Direction. Computations and Analysis for Velocity Vectors and Pressures Distributions. Geometric Modeling and Mesh Generation of 2-D Convergent-Divergent Nozzle and Analyses of Flow for Adiabatic Conditions. And Generation of Body Fitting Mesh. Scheme of Examination ONE question From Part-A ONE question From Part-B VIVA Voce Total 20 Marks 20 Marks 10 Marks 50 Marks . Modeling of 2-D Incompressible and Inviscid Flow over an Aerofoil. Structural Modeling of Sandwich Beam of Rectangular Cross-Section and Analyses for Stresses. Structural Modeling of a Three Dimensional Wing. Simulation of simple servo-mechanism feedback system in `s` domain. Simulate with transfer functions the experiments (3) and (4) above. 10. 7. 8. 9. 5. 4.Simulation Laboratory Sub Code: 10AEL78 Hrs / Week: 03 Total Hours: 42 IA Marks: 25 Exam Hours: 03 Exam Marks: 50 List of Experiments PART A 21 Hrs 1. 3. with compressibility corrections. simulation of the oscillations. Digital simulation of Analog Computations. Simulate a point take-off from a runaway. Scheme of Examination ONE question From Part-A ONE question From Part-B VIVA Voce Total 20 Marks 20 Marks 10 Marks 50 Marks . Falling sphere with viscous drag – Investigate velocity versus time plot. & simulate the fall. Simulate an Air Speed Indicator to read air speeds for the pressures read from a Pitotstatic tube. Simulation of simple servo-mechanism feedback system in time domain. Frequency response for a spring-mass system. Simulate a bomb drop from an aircraft on a moving tank for pure –pursuit motion. 2. 21 Hrs PART B 6. Simulate a runaway. Subject Code 10AE831 * Elective IV (Group D) Subject Code Flight Testing 10AE841 10AE832 Fracture Mechanics 10AE842 10AE833 Theory of Aeroelasticity 10AE843 10AE834 Hydraulics and Pneumatics Reliability and Maintenance 10AE835 Engineering 10AE836 Boundary Layer Theory 10AE844 10AE837 Operation Research 10AE847 10AE838 10AE848 Aerospace Quality Assurance 10AE845 10AE846 * Elective V (Group E) Aircraft Safety Rules and Regulations Guidance and Navigation Management Information Systems Project Management Product Design and Manufacturing Artificial Intelligence Computer Integrated Manufacturing Aircraft Systems Instrumentation * Students shall register for one subject each from Group D and E Electives.Proposed Scheme and Syllabus for academic year 2010-11 Aeronautical Engineering VIII Semester Sl No Subject Code Title Teaching Dept. Teaching Hours / week Examination 1 10AE81 Flight Vehicle Design AE 04 -- Duration 03 2 10AE82 Avionics AE 04 -- 03 25 100 125 3 10AE83* *Electives IV.(Group D) AE 04 -- 03 25 100 125 4 10AE84* *Electives V. Pr. and .(Group E ) AE 04 -- 03 25 100 125 5 10AE85 Project Work AE -- 03 -- 100 100 200 6 10AE86 Seminar on Current Topics Total AE 03 -- -- 50 -- 50 19 03 12 250 500 750 Th.A Marks 25 Theory/ Practical 100 Total Marks 125 Note: One question has to be set for every 6 to 8 hours of teaching. I. . Landing approach. climb gradients. glide rate. number of engines. Airfoil selection type. Wing loading effect on takeoff. Aerodynamic considerations and drag estimation. Piston and turbo-prop sizing. Propeller propulsive systems. Fuselage: Volume consideration. over-view of design process. Tail placement.Flight Vehicle Design Sub Code: 10AE81 IA Marks: 25 Hrs/ Week: 04 Exam Hours: 03 Total Hours: 52 Exam Marks: 100 PART-A Unit 1. air inlets. Turboprop propulsion. wing drag estimation. climb. JAR-23 and JAR-25). Propeller spread sheets. Active lift enhancement. Enhance lift considerations . wing attachments. moment and inertia properties & balance diagram. Drag polar. Spread sheets for tail design. Spread sheet for wing design. flight ceiling. Spread sheets.passive lift enhancement. mass. thrust to weight ratio. minimum take-off specification. spread sheets. lift and drag determination. Power to climb and maneuver. Balanced field length. Take-off weight-Preliminary Estimate-Spread sheet approach. Fuselage And Tail Mainplane: Airfoil cross-section shape. Design process. Tail planform shapes. rudder area sizing. Unit 6. Longitudinal maneuverability. Arrangement of surfaces. Aileron sizing. landing. Airplane configuration description. Unit 4. Propeller design for cruise. static margin and stabilization. Effect of static margin on performance. survey of various types of airplanes. static thrust. 07 Hrs Static Stability Longitudinal stability. engine rating. Initial Airplane layout. taper ratio selection. range. Unit 2. Spread sheets. Unit 3. Performance Estimation 07 Hrs Take-off phases. 06 Hrs Preliminary Aerodynamic Design Selection of wing loading. trailing edge flap configuration. Control surface sizing. Three view drawings. quantitative shapes. 07 Hrs Power for Flight Propulsion selection. flow chart. combat. acceleration. turbo-jet engine sizing. PART-B Unit 5. Tail arrangements: Horizontal and vertical tail sizing. sweep angle selection. 06 Hrs Conceptual Aircraft Design Operational specifications-mission requirements. Installed thrust corrections. Spread sheet for take-off and landing distance. Lateral and directional static stability-contribution of airframe components. 07 Hrs Design Of Structural Components:Wing. Free roll and braking. Government standards and regulations (MIL Specs. Daniel P.. Tomas C Corke. Raymer. 06 Hrs Design Aspects of Sub-Systems Air-conditioning and pressurisation. and weapon system interface. 1999 Reference: 1.. John P Fielding. 2.Unit 7. Darrol Stinton D. Introduction to Aircraft Design Cambridge University Press. Students have to answer any FIVE full questions out of EIGHT questions. LPE. 06 Hrs Communication system. 2001 2. Controls and Weapon Systems. Navigation system. “Design of Aircraft. . Text Books: 1. Scheme of Examination: Four questions from Part A and Four questions from Part B to be set. Design Aspects: Avionics." The Design of the Aeroplane".” Person Education. AIAA Education Services. Hydraulic systems. Weapon systems. 2nd Edition. Electric power system. ice protection systems. Black Well Science. Radar. Landing gear. fuel system. Unit 8. "Aircraft Design: A Conceptual approach". Flight control system. 1992. choosing at least 2 questions from part A and 2 questions from part B. 2003. Electrical diagram and identification scheme. special purpose cables. Common mode of failures and effects analysis. Inertial Navigation units. Electronic Flight Instrument Systems Display -units. oscillator. Unit 4.Direct voice input (DVI) . Control Laws. Inertial interface system. failure. HOTAS . transmitter.Touch screen . Structure of stable platform. Cooper Harper scale. 06 Hrs PART-B Unit 5.basic concept and features.Civil cockpit and military cockpit : MFDS. HUD. and annunciation. antenna. Display of air data. MFK. Redundancy and failure survival. Amplifier. receiver. Unit 3. 07 Hrs Power Distribution Sytem Bus Bar. Power utilisation-typical application to avionics. Pitch and Roll rate: . Circuit controlling devices. 06 Hrs Flight Deck and Cockpits Control and display technologies CRT. Inertial alignment. 07 Hrs Introduction to Avionics Sub Systems and Electronic Circuits Typical avionics subsystems.command and response. Principles of Digital Systems Digital Computers – Microprocessors – Memories 06 Hrs Unit 7. LED. Unit 2. split bus bar system. 07 Hrs Electronic Flight Control System Fly-by-wire system: . Need for Avionics in civil and military aircraft. Frequency response of a typical FBW actuator. Unit 6. Importance of Compass swing. 06 Hrs Inertial Navigation System Gyroscopic versus Inertial platform. LCD. EL and plasma panel . aircraft communication system.Avionics Sub Code: 10AE82 IA Marks: 25 Hrs/ Week: 04 Exam Hours: 03 Total Hours: 52 Exam Marks: 100 PART A Unit 1. presentation. ` Introduction to Avionics Systems. C.Unit 8. Prentice Hall. Text Books 1. Radar ..H.. Avionics system architecture–Data buses MIL–STD 1553 B.. 1987. 1989. 2003 2. 2 Spitzer.` Aircraft Electrical System.B. 1976. Pitman Publishers. `Avionics Systems`. E H J Pallett. Electrical data bus system.` Kulwar Academic Publishers`.. R P G Collinson. Communication Systems. D. USA.`. R. England. Flight control systems. Underdown & Tony Palmer. 3. 07 Hrs Avionics Systems Integration Avionics equipment fit. Electronic Warfare.. Englewood Cliffs.J.. `Digital Avionic Systems`. `Navigation~. and fire control system. References 1 Middleton. Longman Scientific and Technical Longman Group UK Ltd. Students have to answer any FIVE full questions out of EIGHT questions. choosing at least 2 questions from part A and 2 questions from part B. N. Ed. .R. Navigation systems. Black Well Publishing 2001 Scheme of Examination: Four questions from Part A and Four questions from Part B to be set. PART B Unit 5. 07 Hrs Stability And Control . temperature . Take-off and landing -methods. sensing and transuding techniques. Range and endurance estimation of propeller and jet aircraft. types of flight tests. flight testing tolerances. planning the test program. Climb performance methods. avoiding and minimizing errors. Unit 4. 07 Hrs Performance Flight Testing . Level flight performance for propeller driven aircraft and for Jet aircraft . Turning Flight 06 Hrs Turning performance limitations. basic definition. Regulations and data reduction. Unit 6. Performance Flight Testing -Take-Off. Method of reducing data uncertainty in flight test data -sources and magnitudes of error. Radio telemetry. Landing. Aircraft weight and center of gravity. Lateral and directional dynamic stability. 07 Hrs Flight Test Instrumentation Planning flight test instrumentation.Longitudal And Manoeuvring 07 Hrs Flight test Methods :-Static longitudinal stability . Data reduction. 06 Hrs Introduction Purpose and scope of flight testing. velocities and accelerations. vibration. . sequence of flight testing.Lateral & Directional Flight Test methods: . Unit 2.Techniques and data reduction.Range. Unit 3.onboard and ground based data acquisition system. Stability And Control .Lateral and directional static stability. Endurance And Climb Airspeed – in flight calibration. force. governing regulations. procedures and data reduction. Dynamic longitudinal stability. Maneuvering stability methods & data reduction. Measurement of linear and angular displacements.Elective IV (Group D) Flight Testing Sub Code: 10AE831 IA Marks: 25 Hrs/ Week: 04 Exam Hours: 03 Total Hours: 52 Exam Marks: 100 PART A Unit 1. Drag estimation. . vibration and buffeting. Dive testing for flutter. Unit 8. Text Books: 1. Students have to answer any FIVE full questions out of EIGHT questions. test and recovery techniques. I to IV Scheme of Examination: Four questions from Part A and Four questions from Part B to be set. ADARD.regulations. Reference Books: 1. `Flight Testing of Fixed Wing Aircraft` . 06 Hrs Hazardous Flight Testing Stall and spin. choosing at least 2 questions from part A and 2 questions from part B. 06 Hrs Flying Qualities MIL and FAR regulations.Unit 7.AIAA educational Series. Ralph D Kimberlin. Flight Test Manual Vol. Cooper-Harper scale. Flight test procedures.2003. Pilot Rating . Fracture Mechanics Sub Code: 10AE832 IA Marks: 25 Hrs/ Week: 04 Exam Hours: 03 Total Hours: 52 Exam Marks: 100 Syllabus same as existing Subject code 10ME832 . load distribution. and finite wing case. Unit 6.freedom system. Determination of critical flutter speed. Properties of influence functions. Unit 3. Critical aileron reversal speed. Dynamic response phenomenon equations of disturbed motion of an elastic airplane. 07 Hrs Control Effectiveness and Reversal Aileron effectiveness and reversal -2 dimensional case. Integration by weighting matrices. 06 Hrs Introduction Aeroelasticity . . Deformation under distributed forces. Influence of aeroelastic phenomenon on design :flutter. Aileron buzz. divergence. Stall flutter. Unit 2. 07 Hrs Dynamic Problems of Aeroelasticity Flutter.Theory of Aeroelasticity Sub Code: 10AE833 IA Marks: 25 Hrs/ Week: 04 Exam Hours: 03 Total Hours: 52 Exam Marks: 100 PART A Unit 1. Swept wing divergence. Wing bending and torsion flutter. 06 Hrs Static Aeroelastic Phenomena Load distribution and divergence-wing torsional divergence (two-dimensional case. Simplified elastic airplane. dynamic loads problems. Prevention of Aeroelastic instabilities. PART B Unit 5. Buffeting and. Strip theory. Aileron effectiveness in terms of wing -tip helix angle.definition and problems. buffeting. Bending. Natural modes and frequencies of complex airplane structures .introduction. Force and torque applied to wing. Flutter prevention and control. 07 Hrs Deformation of Airplane Structures Under Static Loads Deformation due to several forces. Effect of speed on control effectiveness. & finite wing case). Influence coefficients. Deformation of airplane wing. Properties of influence coefficients. Unit 4. control effectiveness & reversal. Aeroelastic modes. Influence functions. Coupling of bending and torsion oscillations and destabilizing effects of geometric incidences. torsional and shear stiffness curves. 06 Hrs Deformation Of Airplane Structures Under Dynamic Loads Differential and Integral forms of equations of motions of vibrations. Rate of change of local pitching moment coefficient with aileron angle. Single-degree-of. Supersonic panel flutter. Critical flutter speeds versus wing sweep back. F. Measurements of natural frequencies and mode shapes.. Students have to answer any FIVE full questions out of EIGHT questions. Kluwer Academic Publishers. . R.. E. R. Dover. D. Principles of Aeroelasticity. An Introduction to the Theory of Aeroelasticity. stiffness. (TL570.. F. H. Scale factors. Curtiss Jr. Structural simulation:-shape.. A. .A37. 1962. 1955 (Dover.. H. H.. mass and. Model scale factors. L. Crawley. C.M62) 2. Polar plot of the damped response.. H. Mode shapes and natural frequencies in dimensionless forms.` Aircraft structures for Engineering students`. 3. Unit 8. Text Books: 1.B623) Scheme of Examination: Four questions from Part A and Four questions from Part B to be set. Dimensionless form of equation of motion. Peters.Unit 7. Identification and measurement of normal modes.. Dowell. 1995.. and Sisto.. and Ashley. 1955.Flutter model similarity law. E. 1969). and Halfman. R. 06 Hrs Testing Techniques Measurement of structural flexibility. A Modern Course in Aeroelasticity. Aeroelasticity. Megson THG. Flight flutter testing. R. (TL570. Dynamic aeroelastic model testing.. (TL574. Ashley. 2. Bisplinghoff.B622) Reference Books: 1.. C. Fung. 07 Hrs Test Model Similarities Dimensional concepts. Y. Steady state aeroelastic model testing. 3rd Edition. Scanlan. Edward Arnold. Vibration model similarity laws. H. Dover. Bisplinghoff. choosing at least 2 questions from part A and 2 questions from part B. Hydraulics and Pneumatics Sub Code: 10AE834 IA Marks: 25 Hrs/ Week: 04 Exam Hours: 03 Total Hours: 52 Exam Marks: 100 Syllabus same as existing Subject code 10ME74 . 07 Hrs Maintained Systems Types of maintenance. reliability and safety. Bath tub curve. Accelerated life testing. Quality measure. Component failures and failure modes. MTBF concept. Idealised maintenance. . Imperfect maintenance. Constant failure rate models. IRAN. Normal and Lognormal Parameters. Performance. Time dependent failure rates. Modern trends in maintenance Philosophy like BITE. Ungrouped data. Continuous random variables.Redundant components. Prediction of maintenance schedules. 06 Hrs Introduction Definition. Multiple sampling methods. Maintainability. TPM etc. 07 Hrs Reliability & Rates of Failure Reliability characterisation. Corrective maintenance. Probability concept. Histograms. Taguchi methodology. Quality. Unit 3. cost and reliability. Nonparametric methods. Reliability growth testing. Testing & repair: unrevealed failures. 06 Hrs Reliability Testing Reliability enhancement procedures. 06 Hrs Data & Distributions Non parametric methods. Binomial distribution. 07 Hrs Quality & Its Measures Quality & reliability. Probability and sampling. 07 Hrs Redundancy Introduction: Active and standby redundancy. Point and interval estimates. Unit 6. Environmental stress testing. PART-B Unit 5. Probability Plotting. Unit 2. Multiply redundant system. HUM. Repair: revealed failures. Case studies. Constant failure rate model. Discrete random variables. Preventive maintenance. Unit 4. Redundancy limitations.Reliability and Maintenance Engineering Sub Code: 10AE835 IA Marks: 25 Hrs/ Week: 04 Exam Hours: 03 Total Hours: 52 Exam Marks: 100 PART A Unit 1. The six Sigma Methodology. Unit 7. 1994 Reference Books: 1 K.` Tata McGraw Hill Publications.Unit 8. Fault tree construction. Scheme of Examination: Four questions from Part A and Four questions from Part B to be set.E. 06 Hrs System Safety Analysis Product and equipment hazards. 2 E Balagurswamy. Human errors. Direct evaluation of fault tree.S. Failure Modes and Effects Analysis. John Wiley. `Introduction to Reliability Engineering`. `Reliability Engineering. choosing at least 2 questions from part A and 2 questions from part B. Text Book: 1 E. Trivedi. Lewis. Methods of analysis.. . Students have to answer any FIVE full questions out of EIGHT questions. Queuing and Computer Science Applications. PHI. `Probability and statistics with Reliability`. Affecting parameters. The kinematics properties of viscous flow.concept of small disturbance stability. cylinder. Discussion of Navier Stokes equations. 07 Hrs Introduction to Laminar Boundary Layer Laminar boundary layer equations. Reynolds analogy as a function of pressure gradient. circular pipe. Boundary conditions for viscous flow problems. Unit 4. Momentum and Energy thicknesses for two dimensional flows.aerofoil. Shape factor. PART B Unit 5. 06 Hrs Laminar Boundary Layer Equations Dimensionless variables. Laminar boundary layer equations. . wall shear stress. Stability of Blasius and Falkner-Skan profiles. Unit 6. momentum and energy equations. stability of Couette flow. Effect of wall temperature. 06 Hrs Preliminary Concepts Some examples of viscous flow phenomena: . Couette flow. Unit 3. Transition to turbulence. Poiseuille steady flow through duct. Dimensionless parameters in viscous flow. 06 Hrs Transition to Turbulence Stability of laminar flows .differential equation free of parameters. Unit 2. 06 Hrs Solutions of Viscous Flow Equations Classification of solutions. Temporal instability and Spatial instability. Displacement thickness. Flat plate Integral analysis.Boundary Layer Theory Sub Code: 10AE836 IA Marks: 25 Hrs/ Week: 04 Exam Hours: 03 Total Hours: 52 Exam Marks: 100 PART A Unit 1.plate flow. Similarity solutions for steady twodimensional flow. Some insight into boundary layer approximations. Unsteady duct flow between plates with bottom injection and top suction. Flat plate heat transfer for constant wall temperature. Plane stagnation flow. Blasius solution for flat. Mathematical characterisation of basic equations. Some examples of Falkner-Skan potential flows. 07 Hrs Fundamental Equations of Viscous Flow Conservation of mass. Concept of thermal boundary layer. 5th Edition McGraw. Turbulent flow in pipes and channels. Students have to answer any FIVE full questions out of EIGHT questions. 2. 1979. wakes and mixing layers. H. `Incompressible fluid flow`. Pressure probes.Hill. Text Books: 1.P. Free turbulence: . New York. Jr.. Schlichting. choosing at least 2 questions from part A and 2 questions from part B. `Boundary Layer Theory`. Schlieren methods for flow visualization. Unit 8. Panton. .` Viscous Fluid flow` .R.J. 1989 Reference Books: 2. Boundary Layer by T. Ronald L. John Wiley & Sons.Unit 7. 07 Hrs Incompressible Turbulent Mean Flow Physical and mathematical description of turbulence. McGraw. 3.McGraw Hill. Fluctuations and time averging. 3. 1984.jets. J.Oke Scheme of Examination: Four questions from Part A and Four questions from Part B to be set.Hollman and W. 07 Hrs Instrumentation and Measurements: Hot wire and Hot film anemometer for turbulence measurements. Gajda. Interferometer and Smoke method. ‘Experimental methods for Engineers’. 1991. Frank White.Hill . Operation Research Sub Code: 10AE837 IA Marks: 25 Hrs/ Week: 04 Exam Hours: 03 Total Hours: 52 Exam Marks: 100 Syllabus same as existing Subject code 10ME73 . Setting specification limits. 07 Hrs Probability Concepts Concept of variation. Quality culture. Feed back . design specifications. Failure patterns. Evaluation of parameters affecting field performance. role of quality assurance during usage of aircraft. Self inspection. Binomial distribution. Designing for safety. measuring actual performance. 07 Hrs Manufacture & Reliability Prediction Initial planning for qualities. Acceptance sampling plan. 07 Hrs Inspection. Unit 3. Analysis of some rule to thumb. 06 Hrs Quality Concepts Concepts and definition. concession and deviations . Production permits. 07 Hrs Quality Assurance during Overhaul Quality assurance during overall / repair of aircraft and its aggregates. Sampling plot. manufacture in conformance with design applications. Exponential formula. Strategic quality management. Design for Time. PART B Unit 5. Role of quality director. 06 Hrs Quality Control Units of measure. Regression analysis. Weibull probability distribution.Oriented performance. Quantitative methods of summarizing data. Designing for maintainability. Predicting reliability during design. Scope for data analysis. 06 Hrs Designing For Quality Early warning concepts and design assurance. Process quality audits. Unit 6. Normal curve. Unit 4. Continuous process regulation. Designing for basic function requirements. Sample size. Unit 7. . Test & Measurements Sampling risk. Unit 2. Poisson distribution. Field data.Aerospace Quality Assurance Sub Code: 10AE838 IA Marks: 25 Hrs/ Week: 04 Exam Hours: 03 Total Hours: 52 Exam Marks: 100 PART A Unit 1. Exponential Probability distribution. quality circles. 06 Hrs Quality Assurance Zero defect analogy. CMM. Frank M Gryna. FMECA. Six Sigma. Quality standards ISO 9000. Fault Tree Analysis.` TMH Publications. Text Books: 1. 2005 Reference Books: 1. 3.Unit 8. Students have to answer any FIVE full questions out of EIGHT questions. quality audit. Quality organizational set up in production / repair / operational set up. `Aircraft production technology and Management. ` Interline Publishers. Oalela. `Quality Assurance Management`. S C Keshu and K K Ganapathi. McGraw Hill Publications 2. Parga man Publishers. `Quality Planning and Analysis. .1993 Scheme of Examination: Four questions from Part A and Four questions from Part B to be set. M Fox. choosing at least 2 questions from part A and 2 questions from part B. bench marking. J M Juran. `ISO 9000 A. TQM. Manual for TQM`. E. Cdl: Deficiency list (MEL & CDL). Unit 6. Investigation and Reporting Defect recording.R. 07 Hrs C. Reporting and rectification of defects observed on aircraft. Monitoring. Flight report. Mel. F.R.A. B.A. Objectives and targets of airworthiness directorate. investigation. Unit 2. Issue / revalidation of Certificate of Airworthiness. Aircraft maintenance programme & their approval. 06 Hrs C. 06 Hrs C. Maintenance of fuel and oil uplift and consumption records – Light aircraft engines. Airworthiness regulations and safety oversight of engineering activities of operators.A. Fixing routine maintenance periods and component TBOs – Initial & revisions. 07 Hrs C.R. Analytical study of in-flight readings & recordings.A. Series ‘E’ – Approval of Organizations Approval of organizations in categories A. Requirements for renewal of Certificate of Airworthiness. Series ‘A’ – Procedure for Civil Air Worthiness Requirements and Responsibility Operators Vis-À-Vis Air Worthiness Directorate Responsibilities of operators / owners.Procedure of CAR issue. Preparation and use of cockpit checklist and emergency list.. Series ‘F’ – Air Worthiness And Continued Air Worthiness: Procedure relating to registration of aircraft. PART B Unit 5. Series ‘C’ – Defect Recording. 06 Hrs C. On condition maintenance of reciprocating engines. Series ‘B’ – Issue Approval of Cockpit Check List. Unit 3.R. Maintenance control by reliability Method. 07 Hrs C. Series ‘D’ – And Aircraft Maintenance Programmes Reliability Programmes (Engines).R. C. reporting. rectification and analysis. Unit 4. TBO – Revision programme.Requirements of infrastructure at stations other than parent base.Elective V (Group E) Aircraft Safety Rules and Regulations Sub Code: 10AE841 IA Marks: 25 Hrs/ Week: 04 Exam Hours: 03 Total Hours: 52 Exam Marks: 100 PART A Unit 1.A. Procedure for issue / revalidation of Type Certificate of aircraft and its engines / propeller. .R. D.A. & G . amendments etc. 17-1. Series ‘L’&’M’ Issue of AME Licence. . Procedure for issue of tax permit. its classification and experience requirements. 17-1. 07 Hrs C. Mandatory Modifications / Inspections. Procedure for issue of type approval of aircraft components and equipment including instruments. Series ‘T’&’X’ Flight testing of (Series) aircraft for issue of C of A. Connaught Circus. Registration Markings of aircraft. “Aircraft Manual (India) Volume” – Latest Edition. Concessions. 06 Hrs C. Use furnishing materials in an aircraft. choosing at least 2 questions from part A and 2 questions from part B. Connaught Circus. Scheme of Examination: Four questions from Part A and Four questions from Part B to be set. Text Books: 1. New Delhi. Flight testing of aircraft for which C of A had been previously issued.A. Weight and balance control of an aircraft. References: 1. Students have to answer any FIVE full questions out of EIGHT questions.R. New Delhi 2000.A. The English Book Store. Document to be carried on board on Indian registered aircraft. Aircraft log books. Provision of first aid kits & Physician’s kit in an aircraft. Unit 8.R. “Civil Aviation Requirements with latest Amendment (Section 2 Airworthiness)” – Published by DGCA.Unit 7. The English Book Store. Unit 6. PART B Unit 5.Inertial guidance and Laser based guidance. Imaging Infrared guidance. Limitation of MTI performance. Components of Inertial Navigation System. Comparison of guidance system performance. Unit 7.Guidance And Navigation Sub Code: 10AE842 IA Marks: 25 Hrs/ Week: 04 Exam Hours: 03 Total Hours: 52 Exam Marks: 100 PART A Unit 1. Basic altitude reference. 07 Hrs Other Guidance Systems Gyros and stabilised platforms. Introduction to basic principles. Concepts of Open loop and Close Loop. Automatic tracking with surveillance radar (ADT) Unit 4. MTI from a moving platform (AMTI) Unit 3. command guidance. Control of aerodynamic missile. 06 Hrs Missile Guidance Proportional navigation guidance. MTI and Pulse Doppler radar. 06 Hrs Introduction Concepts of navigation. 07 Hrs Missile Control System Guided missile concept. Missile parameters for dynamic analysis. guidance and control. Bank to turn missile guidance . Satellite navigation. 07 Hrs Radar Systems Principle of working of radar. 06 Hrs Tracking With Radar Mono pulse tracking. Unit 2. Moving target detector. Conical scan and sequential lobbing. GPS. Acceleration command and root locus. Roll stabilisation. 06 Hrs Transfer Functions Input-output Transfer function. Air data information. Missile autopilot schematics. Rate of change of Euler angle . Scheme of Examination: Four questions from Part A and Four questions from Part B to be set. May 1990. 2001. Skolnik. . Underdown & Tony Palmer. John H Blakelock. Tata Mc Graw Hill . choosing at least 2 questions from part A and 2 questions from part B. 2. 07 Hrs Integrated Flight/Fire Control System Director fire control system. Tracking control laws.Unit 8. Merrilh I. R. `Navigation`. Reference Books: 1. Longitudinal flight control system. Lateral flight control system.B. 2nd edition. Wile –Inter Science Publication. Auto Pilot Text Books: 1. Students have to answer any FIVE full questions out of EIGHT questions. Black Well Publishing.` Automatic control of Aircraft & Missiles`. 2001. 3rd edition.` Introduction to Radar Systems`. Management Information Systems Sub Code: 10AE843 IA Marks: 25 Hrs/ Week: 04 Exam Hours: 03 Total Hours: 52 Exam Marks: 100 Syllabus same as existing Subject code 10ME756 . Project Management Sub Code: 10AE844 IA Marks: 25 Hrs/ Week: 04 Exam Hours: 03 Total Hours: 52 Exam Marks: 100 Syllabus same as existing Subject code 10ME667 . Economic analysis. Geometric Programming. Profit and Competitiveness.Product Design and Manufacturing Sub Code: 10AE845 IA Marks: 25 Hrs/ Week: 04 Exam Hours: 03 Total Hours: 52 Exam Marks: 100 PART –A UNIT-1 INTRODUCTION TO PRODUCT DESIGN: Asimow’s model: Definition of product design. 6 Hours . the Morphology of design(The seven phases). Siddal’s Classification of Design Approaches. pressed components design. role of aesthetics in product design. process capability and tolerance in detailed design & assembly. 7 Hours UNIT-4 DESIGN FOR PRODUCTION. Economic pf a New Product Design.METAL PARTS: Producibility requirements in the design of machine components. product strategies. 6 Hours UNIT-3 REVIEW OF STRENGTH. STIFFNES AND RIGIDITY CONSIDERATIONS IN PRODUCT DESIGN: Principal stress trajectories (force-flow lines). Johnson’s Method Optimum Design. Break – even Analysis. criteria and objectives of design. Primary design phases and flowcharting. 6 Hours UNIT-2 PRODUCT DESIGN PRACTICE AND INDUSTRY: Introduction. machining process. Renard series. the role of process engineer. time to market. rubber. Design for safety. Design by Evolution. Design by Innovation. simplification. material toughness: resilience designing for uniform strength. analysis of the product. ProductionConsumption Cycle. balanced design. 7 Hours PART –B UNIT – 5 OPTMIZATION IN DESIGN: Introduction. Optimisation by Differential Calculus. ceramics and wood: approach to design with plastics bush bearings. rubber parts. Reliability and Environmental Considerations. Manufacturing Operations in relation to Design. 6 Hours UNIT – 6 ECONOMIC FACTOR INFLUENCING DESIGN: Product value. and design for machining ease. design recommendations for rubber parts. nontraditional machining processes. Lagrange Multipliers. Review of production process: Introduction. ease of location casting and special casting. gears in plastics. Linear Programming (Simplex Method). role of allowance. casting design. ceramic and glass parts. functional design practice. Essential Factors of Product design. primary processes. Flow and value addition in the Production-Consumption Cycle. The S’s Standardization . forging design. tension vis-à-vis compression. Designing with plastic. 2003 REFERENCE BOOKS: 1. Epinger. Karl T. Historical perspective. Inc. Modern approaches to product design: Concurrent design and Quality Function Deployment (QFD) 8 Hours TEXT BOOKS: 1. 2. Normal degree of value. Human being as Applicator of forces. Man as occupant of space. 2. Value Engineering idea Generation Check – list Cost Reduction through value engineering case study on Tap Switch Control Assembly. Importance of value. Creativity. N. PHI 4th Edition.Ulrich & Steven D. Jon eiley & Sons. Anthropometry. mc 1997 New Product Development. Roland Engene Kinetovecz. New Product Development. Chitale and R.C. A. The value analysis job plan. material and Process selection in value Engineering. 2007 Product Design & Development. Tim Jones Butterworth Heinmann. Design & Analysis . The Design of Controls. Man/Machine information exchange. Steps to problems –solving and value analysis. Tata Mc Graw Hill. the design of displays.C.UNIT – 7 HUMAN ENGINEERING CONSIDERATIONS IN PRODUCT DESGN: Introduction. 6 Hours UNIT – 8 VALUE ENGINEERING AND PRODUCT DESIGN: Introduction. Product Design and Manufacturing.Y. Value analysis Test. Oxford. 3rd Edition. Gupta. what is value? Nature and measurement of value. 1990 . Artificial Intelligence Sub Code: 10AE846 IA Marks: 25 Hrs/ Week: 04 Exam Hours: 03 Total Hours: 52 Exam Marks: 100 Syllabus same as existing Subject code 10ME846 . Computer Integrated Manufacturing Sub Code: 10AE847 IA Marks: 25 Hrs/ Week: 04 Exam Hours: 03 Total Hours: 52 Exam Marks: 100 Syllabus same as existing Subject code 10ME61 . Pneumatic system and components. Unit 3. Unit 4. Gravity feed and pressure feed. altitude alerting system. Advanced actuation concepts. Shock absorbers . Starting and Ignition systems. 06 Hrs Aircraft Instruments Instruments displays.Aircraft Systems And Instrumentation Sub Code: 10AE848 IA Marks: 25 Hrs/ Week: 04 Exam Hours: 03 Total Hours: 52 Exam Marks: 100 PART A Unit 1. Study of typical workable system. Instrumentation grouping. Electrohydraulic. Vertical speed indicator. Power packs. Engine starting sequence. Conventional Systems. Altimeter. Barometric pressure sensing. Power assisted and fully powered flight controls. Mach warning. panels & layouts. 06 Hrs Environmental Control and Emergency Systems Air-conditioning system. Hydraulic and Engine instruments Unit 6. Hydraulic system and components. Hydraulic actuators. vapour cycle system. deicing and anti-icing system. 06 Hrs Flight Control Systems Primary and secondary flight controls. Power control unit – Mechanical. Mach meter. 07 Hrs Mechanical Systems Hydraulic fluid. Air speed indicator.angle of attack sensing.Retraction mechanism. Crew escape aids. Radio instruments. Fuel control unit. 07 Hrs Aircraft Fuel and Engine Systems Characteristics of aircraft fuel system. stall warning. Fuel pumps-classification. Flight control linkage system. Air data alerting system. Gyroscopic Flight Instruments 07 Hrs . Use of bleed air. 07 Hrs Air Data Instruments Basic air data system and probes. Unit 7. Emergency lowering of landing gear and braking. Engine oils and a typical lubricating system. A generalized fuel system. Navigation instruments. PART B Unit 5. Unit 2. Fire detectionwarning and suppression. Indian reprint 1996. 2001. IV)`. Temperature.` Aircraft Systems: Mechanical. Treager. 3.J.RPM. “Aircraft Instruments and Integrated Systems”. Turn and Bank Indicator. Instruments -Pneumatic. Electrical and Avionics-Subsystem Integration`.. No 4. 2. Fuel quantity. Pallet. 3. `Aircraft Hydraulic Systems`. 2006. H. Text Books 1. Sloley and W. Himalayan Books.` Pneumatic Systems`. Unit 8. .The gyroscope and its properties. Coulthard. Tata McGraw Hill Publishing Co. W. Direction indicator. 2. “Gas Turbine Technology”. References 1. Pressure. McGraw-Hill. Scheme of Examination: Four questions from Part A and Four questions from Part B to be set. 1997.. Ian Moir and Allan Seabridge. 4. 2005. E. AIAA Educational Series. and Electric.` The aircraft Engineers Handbook. 1995. Himalayan Books. Lalit Gupta and O P Sharma. 2007. Sterling Book House. S R Majumdar.` Aircraft Systems (Fundamentals of Flight Vol. William A Neese. Limitations of a free gyroscope. Gyroscopic flight. Longman Scientific and Technical. S. and vibrations. Students have to answer any FIVE full questions out of EIGHT questions.H. Fuel flow. 06 Hrs Engine Instruments Study of various types of engine instruments. R.. Drift. choosing at least 2 questions from part A and 2 questions from part B. 6th Edition. INSTRUMENTS’.