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June 9, 2018 | Author: ЕМЗ Стил | Category: Documents


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Горлівський інститут іноземних мов
ДВНЗ «Донбаський державний педагогічний університет»










Пожидаєва Н.П.

ТЕОРІЯ ТА ПРАКТИКА ПЕРЕКЛАДУ


КУРС ЛЕКЦІЙ ТА МАТЕРІАЛИ ДО СЕМІНАРСЬКИХ ЗАНЯТЬ
ЗАВДАННЯ З САМОСТІЙНОЇ РОБОТИ



























Горлівка – 2014







Пожидаєва Н.П.

Теорія та практика перекладу. Курс лекцій та матеріали до семінарських занять. Завдання з самостійної роботи. – Горлівка : Вид-во «Колегія», 2014. – 62 с.






Укладач: Н.П. Пожидаєва, кандидат філологічних наук, доцент


Рецензенти: С.О. Швачко, доктор філологічних наук, професор
Л.І. Сердюкова, кандидат філологічних наук, доцент














Друкується за рішенням вченої ради Горлівського інституту іноземних мов
ДВНЗ «Донбаський державний педагогічний університет» (протокол №3 від 15 жоітня 2014 р.)

















ПОЯСНЮВАЛЬНА ЗАПИСКА


Ці методичні матеріали призначені для студентів п'ятого курсу факультету англійської мови, які вивчають курс «Теорія та практика перекладу». Матеріал скерований на розвиток вмінь та навичок перекладу з англійської на українську/російську та з української/російської на англійську мови.
Методичні матеріали укладено згідно з вимогами та змістом типової програми з теорії та практики перекладу.
Основним принципом та метою методичних матеріалів, підбору та розташування навчального матеріалу є надання системного знання про способи та засоби перетворення мовних одиниць в процесі двостороннього перекладу, удосконалення фахових і дослідницьких вмінь та навичок вирішувати перекладацькі проблеми шляхом співвіднесення мовних систем мови джерела і мови реципієнта. Така мета зумовлює завдання наданого матеріалу – розвивати уміння практичного застосування знань про труднощі перекладу, перекладацькі відповідності та особливості мовних систем учасників процесу перекладу.
Методичні матеріали складаються з курсу лекцій, які пройшли апробацію у Горлівському інституті іноземних мов ДВНЗ «Донбаський державний педагогічний університет», питань для обговорення на семінарських заняттях, вправ, практичних завдань, завдань для самостійної роботи та додатків.
Структурно методичні матеріали оформлені так, що до учбового процесу залучаються не тільки теоретичні ресурси для обговорення перекладацьких проблем, а й додатковий текстовий матеріал для самостійної роботи студентів.
Додатки містять тексти для самостійного перекладу з урахуванням міжкультурних та міжмовних відповідностей. Комплексне застосування вмінь та навичок перекладу, які були придбані протягом вивчення курсу «Теорія та практика перекладу», є необхідною умовою для виконання завдань з самостійної роботи над текстами для перекладу. Робота над перекладом текстів додатків передбачає як самостійне виконання письмового перекладу, так і обговорення способів усного перекладу окремих мовних одиниць під час семінарських занять.
Проблеми перекладу, а також способи їх вирішення, які окреслені в даних методичних матеріалах, віддзеркалюють лише основні типові ситуації пошуку лексичних, граматичних і стилістичних відповідностей. Головним завданням для досягнення поставленої мети є навчання та розвиток вмінь ефективного використання перекладацьких прийомів перетворення мовних одиниць.
Дисципліна «Теорія та практика перекладу» має на меті ознайомлення студентів лише з основними положеннями лінгвістичної теорії перекладу. Переклад розглядається у парадигмі міжмовної та міжкультурної комунікації, складовою якої є дискурсивний аналіз тексту відправника і вихідного тексту. Загальна теорія перекладу охоплює специфіку культурних розбіжностей на всіх рівнях лінгвістичної науки. Загальні принципи класифікації перекладу, окремі види перекладу, типи еквівалентності – все це потребує більш детального вивчення за допомогою спеціальних курсів з усного перекладу, з художнього перекладу, з науково-технічного перекладу тощо.
Проблеми опису процесу перекладу і стратегій перекладача під час творення тексту в результаті міжмовної комунікації тісно пов'язані з аналізом і відбором варіантів перекладу наданих текстів для самостійного виконання перекладу.




ЗМІСТ

1. Лекція 1......................................................................................................................5
2. Використана література...........................................................................................8
3. Вправи для самостійного опрацювання.................................................................9
4. Лекція 2.....................................................................................................................10
5. Використана література..........................................................................................12
6. Вправи для самостійного опрацювання................................................................13
7. Семінар 1..................................................................................................................14
8. Лекція 3.....................................................................................................................16
9. Використана література..........................................................................................20
10. Вправи для самостійного опрацювання..............................................................20
11. Семінар 2................................................................................................................22
12. Завдання з самостійної роботи.............................................................................23
13. Лекція 4...................................................................................................................24
14. Використана література........................................................................................27
15. Вправи для самостійного опрацювання..............................................................27
16. Семінар 3................................................................................................................28
17. Завдання з самостійної роботи.............................................................................29
18. Лекція 5...................................................................................................................29
19. Використана література........................................................................................33
20. Вправи для самостійного опрацювання..............................................................33
21. Семінар 4................................................................................................................35
22. Завдання з самостійної роботи.............................................................................36
23. Лекція 6...................................................................................................................37
24. Використана література........................................................................................41
25. Вправи для самостійного опрацювання..............................................................43
26. Семінар 5................................................................................................................43
27. Завдання з самостійної роботи.............................................................................44
28. Семінар 7................................................................................................................45
29. Вправи для самостійного опрацювання..............................................................46
30. Завдання з самостійної роботи.............................................................................46
31. Семінар 8................................................................................................................47
32. Вправи для самостійного опрацювання..............................................................48
33. Завдання з самостійної роботи.............................................................................49
34. Семінар 9................................................................................................................49
35. Вправи для самостійного опрацювання..............................................................51
36. Завдання з самостійної роботи.............................................................................51
37. Семінар 10..............................................................................................................52
38. Вправи для самостійного опрацювання..............................................................53
39. Завдання з самостійної роботи.............................................................................53
40. Семінар 11..............................................................................................................54
41. Вправи для самостійного опрацювання..............................................................55
42. Завдання з самостійної роботи.............................................................................56
43. Додатки...................................................................................................................57







LECTURE 1
BASIC APPROACHES TO TRANSLATION. TRANSLATION AS INTERCULTURAL COMMUNICATION

1. Essence of translation. Its objectives.
2. The controversy in the definition of translation.
3. Translation as intercultural communication.
4. Levels of analysis in translation.

1. Essence of translation. Its objectives.
Translation has been and nowadays is a mighty means of cultural, political, economic contacts among nations. Translation, as any other phenomenon of nature and human life, presents a many-sided object of study, but since it deals with languages and is an operation performed on languages, it must be given a thorough consideration from the linguistic point of view.
The study of translation or translatology (the study of the theory and practice of translating and interpreting, especially in an academic context, combining elements of social science and the humanities) also known as translation studies or traductology is concerned with both theoretical and applied aspects of translation. On the one hand, it places the emphasis on evaluation of the product of translation – translation as a result of a certain action, the translated text itself. On the other hand, it seems essential that the systematic study of the process is needed. Translation theorists state that advances in translation theory cannot be achieved without studies of the process of translation – a certain type of human activities resulting in a new text, they seek to describe the process of translating and explain it, in other words, to answer the following questions: a) what happens during the process of translating? b) why is the process as it is?
The theory of translation is concerned with a certain type of binary relations between languages and is consequently a branch of linguistics. In the process of translation there always exist two texts: the Source language text (SL text) & the Target language text (TL text). The target text, that is created by the translator never perfectly reflects, either in meaning or in tone, the original source text. This is due to the constraints imposed on the translator by the formal and semantic differences between the source language and the target language. Nevertheless, the users of the TL usually accept a translation as the functional, structural, and semantic equivalent of the original.

2. The controversy in the definition of translation.
There exist many rather controversial definitions of translation suggested by the representatives of different schools of linguistics and translation. These definitions range from formal, structural approaches to translation, e.g. "translation is substitution of elements or structures of one language by elements or structures of another language" (A.Oettinger, N.Chomsky, O.Kade, V.Rozentsveig), to semantic and functional treatment of translation, e.g. "translation is rendering in the target language of the closest equivalent of the initial message from the point of view of its meaning and style" (E.Nide, C.Taber, A.Shveitser).
According to the proposal made by S.Bassnett-McGuire a descriptive rather than a prescriptive approach to the investigation of the process of translation should be adopted, as a purpose of the translation theory is "to reach understanding of the processes undertaken in the act of translation and not, as is so commonly misunderstood, to provide a set of norms for effecting the perfect translation" [Bassnett-McGuire, 1980: 37]. In other words, theory of translation must be oriented towards the objective specification of the translator's steps, stages through which the translator goes as the source text (ST) is transformed into the target text (TT). But theories and models shouldn't be exaggerated: "it is inappropriate to expect that theoretical models of translation will solve all the problems a translator encounters. Instead, theory of translation should formulate a set of strategies for approaching problems and coordinating different aspects entailed" [Beaugrande de, 1978: 135]. Thus, theory of translation can suggest the following:
models which offer probable post factum explanations of what has been done rather than a priori models which claim to predict what will be done;
models of the dynamics of the process rather than static descriptions of the structure of the product;
indications of the relations between translation, on one side, and such notions as "communicative competence", "discoursal coherence" and appropriateness in the use of the code, on the other.
As Prof. Komissarov has remarked, the basis of translation theory is linguistics in the broadest sense of the word, that is, macrolinguistics with all its new branches, such as psycholinguistics, sociolinguistics, text linguistics, communicative linguistics, studying the language structure and its functioning in speech in their relationship to mind, culture and society. Special relations have been established between translatology and contrastive linguistics. As German scholar Helbig has pointed out, translation correspondences make up the empirical ground for contrastive linguistics [Helbig, 1990: 17]. Prof. Shveitser favours the same thought: "Translation does a great favour to contrastive linguistics in terms of being the only source of the metalanguage which is essential for contrastive analysis [Shveitser, 1987: 166].
According to this understanding translation is a process of transforming speech messages in the SL into the speech messages in the TL under condition that their sense and communicative intention remain unchanged (Чернов Г.В., 1987: 6). It is quite natural that in the process of translation the form of the messages can be transformed due to the structural (lexical, morphological and syntactical) differences between languages. Such transformations which are inevitable in the process of translation are also called "code shifting" (substitution of the SL structures by the TL structures).

3. Translation as intercultural communication.
As a means of interlingual communication, translation is a transfer of meaning across cultures. More specifically, translation is the process and result of creating in a TL a text which has approximately the same communicative value as the corresponding text in the SL.
The process of translation is often described as a three-stage pattern (Shveitser 1988: 49; Miram 1998: 57): 1) S1 – R1; 2) code shifting; 3) S2 – R2. According to this scheme there are two interrelated communicative acts in the process of translation: communication between the initial sender of information and a translator and communication between a translator and the final addressee (receiver of information). In this process a translator is changing his (her) role all the time, acting as a receiver and as a sender of the respective messages. Focusing upon the code shifting process, this scheme, however, does not consider social, cultural, political and other extralinguistic factors of communication.
Translation may also be defined as a two-stage process of interlingual and intercultural communication, during which a translator, on the basis of an analyzed and transformed text in SL, creates another text in TL which substitutes the source text in the target language and culture. It should be also added to this definition that translation is a process aimed at rendering communicative effect of the source text modified by the difference between two languages, two cultures and two communicative situations.
So an act of translation appears to be an intercultural communicative event, so far as cultures include the corresponding languages, languages include texts and texts pertain to specific subject fields (mathematics, politics, law, economics, medicine, etc.).

4. Levels of analysis in translation.
It has been stated that in the process of translation there takes place transformation of textual material which results in the changing of form. Therefore, it is necessary to know peculiar form of speech patterns of the source language text and a target language text and it is important to be able to establish correspondences between them. It is possible to do so by breaking down the object of speech, i.e. the text. However, parts of the SL text, as well as TL text should retain qualities of a single whole.

The problem of establishing and defining the unit of translation has been the overcoming of the obstacles in the translator's work. There is still much confusion in defining criteria of the unit of translation.
In modern general linguistics the following levels of language hierarchy are distinguished: phoneme level, morpheme level, word level, word-combination level, sentence level, text level. According to prof. L. Barkhudarov "practically any unit of the above language levels may be the unit of translation". Thus, any minimum SL unit, having its equivalent counterpart in the TL, may be referred to one of the language levels. Hence translation can be performed on the following levels:
phoneme level;
morpheme level;
word level;
phrase level;
clause or sentence level;
paragraph level;
text level;
pragmatic, or sociocultural, level.
Phonemes are not meaningful units; they possess simply a distinctive function. But there are cases when the phoneme appears to be the unit of translation. Thus, the English word "Mister" sounds in Ukrainian as "Містер", "Smith" as "Сміт", "London" as "Лондон" etc, so the English phonemes are replaced by the closest equivalent in articulation phonemes of the Ukrainian language.
There are sometimes cases when each morpheme of the SL unit corresponds to a certain morpheme of the TL unit.
Ex: skier – лижнік (er – ік)
teacher – вчитель (er – ель)
boys – хлопці (s – і)
In most cases the morphological structure of semantically equivalent words does not coincide in different languages and translation on this level is very rare.
The following English sentences and their correspondences in Ukrainian may be taken for illustration of the translation on the word level:
He lives in Kyiv – Він живе у Києві.
She returned home late. – Вона повернулася додому пізно.
Word-for-word translation is limited in practice because only a part of words gets word-for word correspondences while other words of a sentence are translated on a higher level.
A typical example of translation on the word-combination level becomes the unit of translation. In a free word-combination the components retain their primary meaning and the meaning of the whole word combination is quite transparent:
He did very well in the exam. – Він відмінно витримав екзамен.
The talk had done him good. – Розмова заспокоїла його.
He did well in the war. – Він прославився на війні.
(to do well –w-c level ;, he, in the war – w. level (досл. переклад )
In some cases the translator resorts to the translation of a sentence as a whole (usually such sentences are idiomatic):
No bees, no honey; no work, no money – під лежачий камінь вода не тече. The pot calls the kettle black – Сам хороший!
The meaning of the sentences is perceived and the sentences are taken as a single whole. This kind of translation also takes place when translating forms of politeness, various inscriptions and signs:
Fragile! – обережно, скло!
Many happy returns on the day! – З днем народження!
Pragmatics is the study of language as it is used in a sociocultural context, including its effect on the participants in the process of communication. Sociocultural means involving social and cultural factors. The translator must be aware of the situational aspects of language usage in order to produce authentic translation. The translator has to work at all these levels of text analysis and synthesis at the same time. For academic purposes ST and TT used in this course will be first broken down into their constituent meaningful components (analysis) and then reassembled as finished products (synthesis).



Literature

Комиссаров В.Н. Теория перевода (лингвистические аспекты): Учеб. пос. для ин-тов и ф-тов ин. яз. / В.Н. Комиссаров. М. : Высш. шк., 1990. С. 6-42.
Комиссаров В.Н., Коралова А.Л. Практикум по переводу с английского языка на русский: Учеб. пос. для ин-тов и ф-тов ин. яз. М. : Высш. шк., 1990. С. 4-10.
Корунець І.В. Теорія і практика перекладу (аспектний переклад): Підручник / І.В. Корунець. Вінниця : Нова книга, 2000. С. 10-15.
Латышев Л.К. Перевод: проблемы теории, практики и методики преподавания: Кн. для учителя шк. с углубл.. изуч. нем. яз. / Л.К. Латышев. М. : Просвещение, 1988. С. 6-13.
Мірам Г. Алгоритми перекладу: Вступ. курс з формалізації перекладу (англ. мовою) / Г. Мірам. К. : Твім інтер, 1998. С. 32-33.
Федоров А.В. Основы общей теории перевода (лингвистические проблемы): Учеб. пос. для ин-тов и ф-тов ин. яз. / А.В. Федоров. М .: Высш. шк., 1983. С. 9-23.
Хельбиг Г. Общие вопросы конфронтативной лингвистики // Конфронтативная лингвистика. К. : Лыбидь, 1990. С. 5-25.
Чернов Г.В. Основы синхронного перевода / Г.В. Чернов. – М. : Высшая школа, 1987. – 256 с.
Швейцер А.Д. Контрастивная лингвистика и теория перевода// Сопоставительная лингвистика и обучение неродному языку. М. : Наука, 1987. С. 157-166.
Bassnett-McGuire, S. Translation studies / S. Bassnett-McGuire. London, 1980.
Beaugrande, R. de. Factors in The Theory of Poetic Translating / R. de Beaugrande. Assuan, 1978.
Bell, Roger T. Translation and Translating: Theory and Practice. London, NY : Longman, 1991. P. 21-32.
Jacobson, R. On the Linguistic Aspect of Translation // Theories of Translation. Chicago : The University of Chicago Press, 1992. P. 144-151.
Newmark, P. About Translation / P. Newmark. Clevedon, Buffalo, Toronto, Sydney : Multilingual Matters Ltd., 1991. P. 14-60.
Newmark, Peter. A Textbook on Translation / P. Newmark. London, 1988.
Nida E.A., Taber C.R. The Theory and Practice of Translation. Leiden : E.J.Brill, 1968.
Nietsche, F. On the Problem of Translation // Theories of Translation. London, Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1992. P. 68-69.



ISSUES FOR DISCUSSION

Define the subject and objectives of the theory of translation.
Give the most practical definition of translation. Explain the reasons of your choice.
Comment on translation as a process of interlingual and intercultural communication.
What are the levels of analysis in translation?
Comment on the phonological aspect of translation.
Comment on the lexical aspect of translation



ВПРАВИ ДЛЯ САМОСТІЙНОГО ОПРАЦЮВАННЯ

Рекомендації щодо обраного способу перекладу.
Частковий переклад застосовується для передачі вихідного тексту з метою загального ознайомлення з його змістом без комунікативно вагомих деталей.
Вибірково частковий переклад здійснюється при інтерпретації доповідей, ділових листів, стандартних повідомлень, газетних матеріалів тощо. Під час такого перекладу відбувається лише ознайомлення з характером повідомлення і стилем тексту.
Функціонально частковий переклад застосовується для скорочення або спрощення вихідного тексту з метою донести його до непідготованого адресату. Результатом такого перекладу є переказ, адаптація або версія.

ВПРАВА 1: Порівняйте тексти англійською та російською мовами, визначте спосіб перекладу і умови для такого вибору. Перекладіть другий текст за допомогою такого ж самого способу перекладу.

I. Marks Spencer
Dear Sir: I have many items purchased at Marks Spencer by my peripatetic businessman father, including some beautiful clothes and a fold-up umbrella. Ah, the umbrella! It has never broken, inverted, failed to open or been mislaid without being recognised as mine and returned to me. Having had it for about four years, I call that unusual life span a testimony to British ingenuity.
If Mrs. Thatcher ever decides to hand over the government to Marks Spencer, I may emigrate and change my nationality. Or maybe we could import some MS managers to run our government!
Barbara Pilvin Philadelphia

Барбара Пилвин из Филадельфии в своем письме рассказывает о своем восхищении торговой фирмой Marks Spencer, ссылаясь на пример купленного у них зонта, который вот уже много лет не ломается, не заворачивается при ветре, не заедает и не теряется, что свидетельствует, по ее мнению, о подлинно Британском качестве. Переходя на политические темы, Барбара уверяет, что MS могли бы возглавить хоть британское, хоть американское правительство.

ІІ. Dear Sir: Last summer, as we hosted a city child through the Fresh Air Fund, a garter snake appeared in our woodpile. Geraldo had never seen a snake. Fascinated, he stood just a foot or so away, watching the snake as it wanned in the sunlight. There aren't any snakes in the urban South Bronx. Gerry murmured that he'd like to catch this snake and put it in a bottle to keep. I replied that I'm opposed to caging wild animals. Gerry looked at me, bug-eyed and gasped, That's a wild animal?'
Rhu M. McBee Brewster, New York

ВПРАВА 2: Перекладіть текст за допомогою часткового перекладу, зберігаючи основне повідомлення й опускаючи зайві деталі.

 In February 1987, the real thing happened. A star much larger and much hotter than our sun reached the end of its conventional life. In its core, hydrogen in quantities equal to about six times the mass of the sun had been converted to helium in hellish thermonuclear reactions. Helium in turn had fused into carbon and oxygen, which themselves fused into even heavier elements. Eventually the innermost section of the core, about half again as massive as the sun, was turned into almost pure iron. The star was running out of available reactions, and activity in the core slackened, the radiation pouring outward was no longer as strong as the gravitational force pulling inward; the star collapsed, falling inward on itself until it could give no more, and exploded, spewing radiation and most of its mass into space. For astronomers, the supernova (known as Supernova 1987A, or SN1987A for short) was - and is - the story of the century.



LECTURE 2
BRANCHES OF TRANSLATOLOGY. TYPES OF CONTEXTS AND CONTEXTUAL RELATIONSHIPS IN A DISCOURSE


General theory of translation as the core of translatology. Branches of translatology. Bilingual theory of translation.
Text, context and discourse.
Contextual relationships in oral interpretation.

General theory of translation as the core of translatology. Branches of translatology. Bilingual theory of translation
The core of translatology is the general theory of translation which is concerned with the fundamental aspects of translation inherent in the nature of bilingual communication and, therefore, common to all translation events, irrespective of the languages involved, kind of the text being translated and the circumstances of translation. The general theory of translation deals, so to speak, with translation universals and is the basis for all other theoretical studies in this area, since it describes what translation is and what makes it possible. It describes the basic principles which are good for every translation event. In each particular case, however, translating process is influenced both by the common basic factors and by a number of specific variables which stem from the actual conditions and modes of the translator's work: type of the original text he has to cope with, the form in which the ST is presented to him and the form in which he is supposed to submit his translation, some specific requirements to his work etc.
An important part of the theory of translation is the theory of equivalence aimed at studying semantic relations between the ST and the TT. There is a presumption of semantic identity between the translation and its ST. At the same time it is easy to demonstrate that, in fact, there is no such identity for even a cursory examination of any translation reveals inevitable losses, increments or changes of the information transmitted. For instance, "verbal systems may differ in that one puts great emphasis on temporality, whereas another has an overt marking of aspect, a category that does not have the deictic character of temporality. Even if the first language is able to express aspect and the second language temporality, these categories do not have a prominent position, so that there is no real equivalence between the two languages as to temporality and aspect" [Schogt, 1992: 194]. We can observe divergences in the semantic structures of Ukrainian and English if we consider Ukrainian diminutive suffixes conveying the attitude of endearment or sympathy to the object, or if we take the so called units of specific national lexicon. As Roman Jacobson has remarked, "languages differ essentially in what they must convey and not in what they may convey. Naturally the attention of native speakers and listeners will be constantly focused on such items which are compulsory for their verbal code" [Jacobson, 1992: 149].
Each type of translation has its own combination of factors influencing translating process. In simultaneous interpreting the translator is expected to keep pace with the fastest speakers, to understand all kinds of foreign accents and defective pronunciation, to guess what the speaker meant to say but failed to express because of his inadequate proficiency in the language he speaks. In consecutive interpreting he is expected to listen to long speeches, taking the necessary notes, and then produce his translation in a complete or compressed form, giving all the details or only the main ideas. Thus, the general theory of translation should be supplemented by a number of special translation theories identifying major types of translation activities and describing predominant features of each type.
Of particular interest is the branch of translatology concerned with translating process itself. This direction of translation theory is of considerable practical value for it makes possible the description of particular methods of translation that can be used by the translator to ensure equivalence between the ST and the TT.
One more branch of the theory of translation deals with the pragmatic aspect of translation. The communicants involved in interlingual communication not only speak different languages but they also belong to different cultures, have different general knowledge, different social and historical background. This fact has a considerable impact on the translator's strategy since the most truthful rendering of ST contents may sometimes be partially or fully misunderstood by receptors of the translation or fail to produce a similar effect upon them. The translator has to assess the possible communicative effect of the TT and take pains to ensure an adequate understanding of the message by the TR. This may necessitate expanding or modifying the original message to make it more meaningful to the members of a different language community.
The bilingual theory of translation studies separate sets of equivalents within the two languages considered. All bilingual theories of translation proceed from the identical basic assumptions as to classification of equivalents and their role in translation process.
All branches of the theory of translation are concerned with important aspects of the translator's work and constitute a body of theoretical thought of indisputable practical value.

Text, context and discourse.
Oral communication, in the same way as written, always takes place in a certain context or communicative situation. This situation in its turn is embedded into the macro-context of interaction which includes extralinguistic factors of the 'world" such as cultural, social, economic, political, historical, religious, etc. In linguistics there are many writers on this issue expressing different points of view (Гальперин 1981; Дейк 1989; Halliday 1961; Hoey 1991) but most of them agree that oral and written texts function in a certain discourse. Most of them also agree that meaning of language units is a linguistic phenomenon (recorded in dictionaries and, therefore, belong to the sphere of language), while sense is born in a communicative situation as a result of interaction of linguistic and extralinguistic contextual factors and belongs to the sphere of speech (Чернов 1987).
For practical reasons of oral bilingual interpretation we will assume the following working definitions of text and discourse (Максимов, Радченко 2001: 6-11):
Text is any verbalized (expressed by means of human language) communicative event performed via human language, no matter whether this communication is performed in written or oral mode.
It means that we will consider all complete pieces of oral verbal communication to be texts.
Discourse is a complex communicative phenomenon which includes, besides the text itself, other factors of interaction (such as shared knowledge, communicative goals, cognitive systems of participants, their cultural competence, etc.), i.e. all that is necessary for successful production and adequate interpretation (comprehension, understanding and translation) of the text.
Therefore text is embedded into discourse and both of them are "materialized" in a communicative situation which, in its turn, is embedded into the macro context of interaction, i.e. cultural, social, economic, political, historical, religious etc. contexts of the world.

Contextual relationships in oral interpretation.
Messages operate within three types of contexts – macro (global) context, communicative context, micro (local) context. Therefore, elements of meaning of each message have to be related to these contexts in some way. It is generally assumed that such contextual relationships of messages may be of three kinds:
anaphoric or "backward" relationships, when the meaning of an element becomes clear through the reference of the preceding elements of the micro or communicative context, e.g.:
China's President continues his visit to former Soviet republics – this time to Ukraine. It's the first official visit by China's leader to the independent Republic
(Euro News)
where the meaning of the independent Republic is determined by the lexical element Ukraine in the previous sentence.
cataphoric or "forward" relationships, when the meaning of an element becomes clear through the reference to the oncoming, "expected" elements of the micro or communicative context, e.g.:
Russian and American troops have been taking part in "Peacekeeper-94" – the first Russian-American joint military exercise
(Euro News)
where the meaning of "Peacekeeper-94" becomes clear from the rest of the utterance.
с) exophoric or "outward" relationships, when the meaning of an element becomes clear through the reference to the macro context, i.e. to the background knowledge, cultural and subject field (professional) competence of the addressee and to the knowledge about "the world", e.g.:
Veteran Nazi hunter Simon Weisenthal has been awarded one of Poland's top decorations by President Walesa. The 85-year old Auschwitz death camp survivor is in Poland at Walesa's invitation
(Euro News)
where general cultural competence will help to translate Auschwitz death camp as табір смерті Освенцім.
Contextual relationships of meaningful elements in oral discourse play a key role in successful interpretation of messages. Thus, anaphoric and cataphoric relationships provide for lexical coherence of discourse, while exophoric relationships ensure links with the macro context.


Literature

Гальперин И.Р. Текст как объект лингвистического исследования / И.Р. Гальперин. – М. : Наука, 1981. – 139 с.
ван Дейк Т.А. Язык. Познание. Коммуникация / Т.А. ван Дейк. – М. : Прогресс, 1989. – 312 с.
Kомиссаров В.Н. Теория перевода (лингвистические аспекты): Учеб. пос. для ин-тов и ф-тов ин. яз. / В.Н. Kомиссаров. М. : Высш. шк., 1990. С. 158-170, 189-192.
Комиссаров В.Н., Коралова А.Л. Практикум по переводу с английского языка на русский: Учеб. пос. для ин-тов и ф-тов ин. яз. М. : Высш. шк., 1990. С. 30-32, 59-66.
Максимов С.Є., Радченко Т.О. Перекладацький аналіз тексту (англійська та українська мови). – Київ : Вид. центр КДЛУ, 2001. – 105 с.
Чернов Г.В. Основы синхронного перевода / Г.В. Чернов. – М. : Высш.школа, 1987. – 256 с.
Bell, Roger T. Translation and Translating: Theory and Practice / Roger T. Bell. London, NY : Longman, 1991. P. 43-75.
Halliday M.A.К. Categories of the theory of grammar // Word, 1961, Vol. 17, №3. – P. 241-292.
Hoey M. Patterns of Lexis in Text / M. Hoey. – Oxford : Oxford Univ. Press, 1991. – 276 p.
Jacobson, R. On the Linguistic Aspect of Translation // Theories of Translation. Chicago : The University of Chicago Press, 1992. P. 148.
Ortega-y-Gasset, J. The Misery and the Splendour of Translation // Theories of Translation. London, Chicago : The University of Chicago Press, 1992. P. 106-107.
Schogt, H. Semantic Theory and Translation Theory // Theories of Translation. London, Chicago : The University of Chicago Press, 1992. P. 194.



ISSUES FOR DISCUSSION

Why is general theory of translation considered to be the core of translatology?
What are the branches of translatology?
Talk on bilingual theory of translation.
Give the definition of text and context.
Give the definition of discourse.


ВПРАВИ ДЛЯ САМОСТІЙНОГО ОПРАЦЮВАННЯ

Рекомендації щодо обраного способу перекладу.
Повний переклад застосовується для передачі вихідного тексту з метою ретельного ознайомлення з його змістом з урахуванням комунікативно вагомих деталей.
Повний семантичний переклад здійснюється при інтерпретації наукових текстів або текстів соціально-культурної значущості, що призначаються до вузького кола спеціалістів. Результатом такого перекладу має бути технічна інструкція, наукова публікація або юрідичний документ.
Повний комунікативно-прагматичний переклад застосовується для передачі такого вихідного тексту, що має високу культурну значущість. Результатом такого перекладу є ретельний опис емоціонального стану без скорочень, що є характерним для текстів літературного або публіцістичного стилю.


ВПРАВА 3: Перекладіть наданий текст за допомогою повного способу перекладу. Застосовуйте семантичний переклад для інтерпретації цитат, комунікативно-прагматичний переклад – для всього тексту.

Молитва Господня "Отче наш" есть выше и драгоценнее всех написанных молитв, какие мы, христиане, имеем. Начало молитвы " Отче наш, иже ecu на Небесех" должно возводить ум на небо к небесному Отцу. Слова "да святится Имя Твое" есть прямое прошение о внутренней сердечной молитве. Слова "да приидет Царствие Твое" изъясняют так: да приидет в сердца наши внутренний мир, спокойствие и радость духовная. Под словами "хлеб наш насущный даждь нам днесь" должно разуметь прошение о потребностях телесной жизни, не излишних, но токмо нужных и для помощи ближним достаточных.


ВПРАВА 4: Перекладіть текст за допомогою повного перекладу, зауважуючи національно-культурні традиції реціпієнта. Застосовуйте як семантичний, так і комунікативно-прагматичний переклад задля різних частин тексту.

Devonshire Splits
1/2 oz. fresh yeast
1 teaspoon caster sugar
1/2 pint milk - warmed to blood heat
1 Ib strong white flour
1 oz. caster sugar
1 teaspoon salt
2 oz. butter
Mix together the yeast, the 1 teaspoon of sugar and the warm milk and leave in a warm place for 20-30 minutes until frothy. Rub the butter into the flour and stir in the 1 oz. of sugar and the salt. Add the yeast liquid to the flour and mix to a soft dough. Knead on a floured surface until smooth and elastic. Leave covered in a warm place for about 1 hour until doubled in size. Knock back, knead again and divide into 16 pieces. Mould into neat bun shapes and place on floured baking sheets. Leave once again in a warm place until well risen. Bake in a pre-heated oven at 425° F or Mark 7 for approximately 15 minutes until pale golden in colour. Cool on a wire rack. These sweet dough buns are often served with a traditional Clotted Cream tea. They are split and filled with the cream and home-made jam.



SEMINAR 1
GENERAL THEORY OF TRANSLATION

Theory of translation. Its subject and objectives.
The most practical definition of translation. Explain the reasons of your choice.
Translation as a process of interlingual and intercultural communication.
Levels of analysis in translation.
Translation universals. Branches of translatology. Bilingual theory of translation.
Text, context and discourse as a communicative phenomenon.

Practical part

1. Analyze the translation of the given passage "Хай! Бай!" by Alex Turobov from the point of view of:
translation models;
translation transformations;
lexical difficulties (the translation of proper names, bookish words, neologisms);
grammatical difficulties (indirect word order);
stylistic-pragmatic difficulties (the translation of stylistically colored words, contaminated speech, stylistic devices).
2. Translate the given passage «Оптимисты» into English taking into consideration different models of translation.

Literature

Комиссаров В.Н. Теория перевода (лингвистические аспекты): Учеб. пос. для ин-тов и ф-тов ин. яз. / В.Н. Комиссаров. М. : Высш. шк., 1990. С. 6-50, C. 158-186.
Комиссаров В.Н., Коралова А.Л. Практикум по переводу с английского языка на русский: Учеб. пос. для ин-тов и ф-тов ин. яз. М. : Высш. шк., 1990. С. 4-10, C. 30-38, C. 59-66.
Корунець І.В. Теорія і практика перекладу (аспектний переклад): Підручник / І.В. Корунець. Вінниця : Нова книга, 2000. С. 10-32.
Федоров А.В. Основы общей теории перевода (лингвистические проблемы): Учеб. пос. для ин-тов и ф-тов ин. яз. / А.В. Федоров. М. : Высш. шк., 1983. С. 9-23.
Швейцер А.Д. Контрастивная лингвистика и теория перевода // Сопоставительная лингвистика и обучение неродному языку. М. : Наука, 1987. С. 157-166.

1. Хай! Бай!
Пожалуй, к манере общения русскому труднее всего привыкнуть в Америке. Никак не могу ухватить эту манеру. Внимание и в то же время безразличие. Я или начинаю брататься, или остаюсь нелюбезно немногословен. Когда пытаюсь изобразить их любезность – тянет что-то вроде расшаркаться и раскланяться, в стиле восемнадцатого века.
У них чем ближе человек, тем меньше восклицаний при встрече-прощании. У нас наоборот: чем ближе – громко, чужому – сдержанно. Такие восторженные интонации у меня просто голосовые связки не воспроизводят. "Oh!! Fine!! Good!! And you??" С приписком даже.
«Хай!» при приветствии я тоже еле из себя выдавливаю. Какое-то вялое гавканье. То ли дело наши «Привет!» и «Пока!». Крепкие, энергичные слова.
В рукопожатии есть свои отличия. Наши мужики часто здороваются за руку как-то сбоку, сприсядки, заговорщицки. В школе у нас называлось - «Держи краба». А эти прямо стоят, далеко тянут выпрямленную руку, прямо смотрят в глаза.

Hi! Bye!
For a Russian, getting accustomed to social interactions in America, is perhaps the most difficult thing. In no way can I grasp this interaction. Attention is at the same time indifference. I either begin blabbing or remain sullenly terse. When I attempt to imitate their courteousness – I am driven to bow and scrape like they did in the 18th century.
In America, the more intimate the person, the less is said at their meeting and parting. With Russians it is the opposite – the closer the person – the louder the exclamation, to strangers – more reservation. Such ecstatic tones and even shrieks involved in "Oh! Fine! Good! And you??" my vocal cords simply refuse to reproduce. Instead, a squeaky sound comes out.
At the greeting I can also barely squeeze out "Hi!" from myself. Instead, an apathetic bark comes out. You can't compare our "Hello!" and "So long!" which are solid, forceful words.
Our handshakes also have their own distinguishing features. Our guys often greet each other with their hands somewhat sideways, curtsying and conspiring. At school they called it – "Hold the crab!". But these guys stand upright, stretch their hand way out, and look you right in the eye.

2. Оптимисты
Передача была по ТВ в прямом эфире, как выпутываться из долгов. Звонит зритель, обращается к ведущему:
- Как Вы?
- Прекрасно! А как Вы?
- О, спасибо, просто прекрасно!
- В чём вопрос?
- Да я тут потерпел банкротство… Тяжко. Такое чувство, что весь мир ополчился против меня.
У нас если кто отвечает на вопрос: «Как дела?» - «Прекрасно!» - значит, нечестным трудом живёт или не работает. Значит, продавщица ворует, а чиновник взятки берёт. А если «Потихонечку» - значит, работяга.
А для них «потихонечку» - значит, что-то задумал нехорошее, скрывает, что-то на уме. Под других копает. А если "Fine!" – значит, на других не глядит, своим доволен.






LECTURE 3

TRANSLATION MODELS


Translation as a special type of communication. Translating process. The notion of a translation model.
The situational model of translation.
The transformation approach to translation.
The denotative model of translation.
The communicational model of translation.
The distributional model of translation.


Translation as a special type of communication. Translating process. The notion of a translation model.
Translation is a special kind of communication called interlingual communication. The goal of translating is to transform the SL text into the TL text which will produce the same effect on the TL recepient as the original produces on the SL recepient. Translating process includes two mental processes understanding and verbalization. First of all the translator understands the contents of the ST, reduces the information it contains to his own mental program, then he develops this program into the TT. The problem is that these mental processes are not directly observable and we do not know much of what this program is and how the reduction and development operations are performed. Translation theory describes the process of translating by postulating a number of translation models.
A translation model is a conventional representation of the process of translating describing mental operations by which the ST or some parts of it may be translated, irrespective of whether these operations are actually performed by the translator. It may describe the translating process either in a general form or by listing a number of specific operations (transformations) through which the process can be realized.

The situational model of translation
The situational (or referential) model is based on the identity of the situations described in the original text and in the translation. This presumes that the translator actually makes a mental travel from the original to some interlingual level of equivalence and then further on to the text of translation. In the situational modal this intermediate level is extralinguistic. It is the described reality, the verbal representation of the facts of life. The process of translating presumably consists in the translator getting beyond the original text to the actual situation described in it. This is the first step of the process, i.e. the breakthrough to the situation.The second step for the translator is to describe the situation in the TL. Thus, the process goes from the text in one language through the extralinguistic situation to the text in another language. The translator first understands what the original is about and then reproduces the same things in the TL. This model includes both linguistic and extralinguistic factors. According to this scheme translating can be defined as a two-stage process of interlingual and intercultural communication when on the basis of the analyzed and transformed text in the SL a translator creates another text in the TL which substitutes the ST in the TL and culture. So an act of translating appears to be an intercultural communicative event so far as cultures include corresponding languages, languages include texts and texts pertain to a specific subject-matter (politics, law, economics, teaching) or reflect imaginary, fictional world (fiction texts).
For example, a translator reads in Arthur Conan Doyl's "The Lost World" the description of the main character blundering about the impenetrable forest full of prehistoric beasts and cruel ape-looking creatures hunting him: The path laid still behind him. The translator tries to understand what reality lies behind the words: the journalist is attempting to be very careful and quiet on the path evading the slightest noise which could attract undesirable attention. So, the translator describes the situation in Ukrainian in the following way: На дорозі нікого не було.

The transformational approach to translation
As Prof. Miram has stated, according to the transformational approach translating is viewed as the transformation of objects and structures of the SL into those of the TL. Transformation in translation is any replacement of a SL unit by its equivalent in the TL. Transformations may be observed at the phonological, orthographic, morphological, lexical, syntactic, stylistic, pragmatic levels.
At the phonological level substitution of phonemes occurs. This is observed through such way of translation as transcribing. Transformations at the orthographic level are performed during transliteration. At the morphological level morphemes (both word-building and word-changing) of the SL are transformed into those of the TL. For instance, English word-building suffixes "-tion", "-sion" may be transformed in the process of translation into Ukrainian "-ція", "-ка": revolution революція, preparation підготовка. At the lexical level we observe transformations of word combinations, substitutions of idioms, like: in blue mood не в дусі. Syntactic transformations comprise a broad range of structural changes, from the reversal of the word order in a sentence to the division and integration of sentences in the process of translation.
According to the transformational approach translation is seen as a set of multi-level transformations of the ST into the TT governed by specific transformation rules.
Due to the approach suggested by Prof. Nida, the transformational model postulates that in any two languages there is a number of nuclear structures which are completely equivalent to each other, each language has an area of equivalence in respect to the other language. It is presumed that the translator performs his work at three transformational strokes. The first stage is the stage of analysis: here the SL structures are transformed into the nuclear structures of the SL. At the second stage translation proper the SL nuclear structures are replaced by the equivalent TL nuclear structures. At the third the stage of synthesis the TL nuclear structures are developed into the terminal structures of the TT.
A similar approach can be used to describe the translation of semantic units. The semantic transformational model postulates the existence of "deep" semantic categories common to the SL and the TL. It is presumed that the translator first reduces semantic units of the original to the basic semantic categories and then replaces these notions by the appropriate semantic units of the TT. Thus, when the translator comes across the sentence "John is a proud owner of a new car", he is first to realize that it actually means that "John has got a new car" and that "He is proud because of that".

The denotative model of translation
According to the denotative approach the process of translation consists of the following steps:
translator reads/ hears a message in the SL;
translator finds a denotatum and concept that correspond to this message;
translator formulates a message in the TL relevant to the above-mentioned denotatum and concept.
One may see that, according to this approach, in the process of translation we deal with similar observed events (word forms of the matching languages and concepts deduced from these observed events). However, as opposed to the transformational approach, according to the denotative model of translation the relationship between the source and target word forms is occasional rather than regular.
To illustrate this difference let us consider the following two examples:
The sea is warm tonight. Сьогодні увечері море тепле.
A stitch in time saves nine. Гарна ложка до обіду.
In the first instance the equivalence is regular and the concept pertaining to the whole sentence may be divided into those relating to its individual components (words and word combinations): sea море, tonight сьогодні ввечері, is warm тепле.
In the second instance equivalence between the original sentence and its translation is occasional (i.e. worth only for this case) and the concept, pertaining to the whole sentence, cannot be divided into individual components.
The indivisible nature of the concept pertaining to the second example may be proved by literal translation of both source and target sentences: "Стібок, зроблений вчасно, економить дев'ять" and "A spoon is appropriate at lunch-time". "Spoon" "стібок" or "at lunch-time" "вчасно" are hardly regular equivalents. Does it mean, however, that the denotative approach is true only for some special cases of translation? Indeed, it is hard to say, because, as in many other cases of linguistic study, the unambiguous evidence is missing. The definitive answer lies beyond the scope of linguistics and can be given, perhaps, by psychology or physiology. To the best of our knowledge, however, this question has not yet been answered by other sciences either.

The communicational model of translation
The communicational theory of translation was suggested by O.Kade and is based on the notions of communication and thesaurus.
Communication may be defined as an act of sending or receiving some information which is called a message. Information may be of any kind (e.g. gestures), but we shall limit ourselves to verbal communication only, that is when we send and receive information in the form of a written or spoken text. Naturally, while communicating we inform others about something we know. Thus, in order to formulate a message, we use our system of interrelated data which is called a thesaurus.
We shall distinguish between two kinds of thesauruses in verbal communication: language thesaurus and subject thesaurus. Language thesaurus is a system of our knowledge which we use to formulate a message, whereas subject thesaurus is is a system of our knowledge about the contents of the message.
Thus, in order to communicate, the message sender formulates the mental contents of his/ her message using subject thesaurus, encodes it using the verbal forms of language thesaurus and conveys it to the message recepient who decodes the message also using language thesaurus and interpretes the message using subject thesaurus as well. This is a simple description of monolingual communication. So, in monolingual communication there are two actors, sender and recepient, and each of them uses two thesauruses.
In bilingual communication there are three actors: sender, recepient and intermediary (translator). The translator has two language thesauruses (of the SL and the TL) and performs two functions: decodes the source message and encodes the target one to be received by the recipient (terminal user of the translation).
Thus, generally speaking, O.Kade's communicational theory of translation describes the process of translation as an act of special bilingual communication in which the translator acts as a special communication intermediary, making it possible to understand a message sent in a different language.

The distributional model of translation
The distributional approach to translation is much less known than previously discussed theoretical treatments of translation.
The distributional model of translation developed by G.Miram seems also appropriate for the description of translation since it rests on such an objective modeling basis as distribution.
Linguistic distribution is an ability of language units (parts of words, words and word combinations) to occur in the text together.
Distribution pattern reflects meaning and combinatorial potential of lexical units.
Distribution of lexical units in the text reflects the fragmentation of the real world in human mind.
For instance, the distributional set of the word "stone" (a set of words with which this word occurs together in the text) embraces such lexical units as "heavy", "brown", "gray", "round", "throw", "grind" etc.
So, according to the distribution approach translation is a process of matching the distribution patterns of the source and target language units. The distributional translation model seems adequate for the purpose since distribution of lexical units in a text in a way reflects our conceptual arrangement of the real world and the selection of translation equivalents is made by a translator on the basis of their compatibility with the surrounding words and the relevance of their concepts to the conceptual arrangement of the particular fragment of the real world.





Literature

Комиссаров В.Н. Теория перевода (лингвистические аспекты): Учеб. пос. для ин-тов и ф-тов ин. яз. / В.Н. Комиссаров. М. : Высш. шк., 1990. С. 158-170, 189-192.
Комиссаров В.Н., Коралова А.Л. Практикум по переводу с английского языка на русский: Учеб. пос. для ин-тов и ф-тов ин. яз. М. : Высш. шк., 1990. С. 30-32, 59-66.
Мірам Г. Алгоритми перекладу: Вступ. курс з формалізації перекладу (англ. мовою) / Г. Мірам. К. : Твім інтер, 1998. С. 40-57.
Bell, Roger T. Translation and Translating: Theory and Practice / Roger T. Bell. London, NY : Longman, 1991. P. 43-75.


ISSUES FOR DISCUSSION

Is every text possible to translate?
What is "translation unit"?
Choice of words in creating target text.
What types of translation do you know?
What is a translation model?



ВПРАВИ ДЛЯ САМОСТІЙНОГО ОПРАЦЮВАННЯ

Рекомендації щодо сегментації тексту перекладу.
Якщо слово зберігає контекстуальну незалежність, воно може бути використано як мінімальний сегмент при перекладі.
Якщо слово є залежним від ближнього контексту, воно має бути членом сегменту, або одиниці перекладу, яким є словосполучення або просте речення.
Якщо слово є залежним від декількох текстових компонентів, то одиниця перекладу будується на складному реченні або уривку.
Якщо слово є залежним від великої кількості текстових компонентів, то за одиницю перекладу береться увесь вихідний текст.
Якщо слово є залежним від екстралінгвальних умов, то перекладач має надати коментар культурологічного характеру або вжити транслітерацію для створення нової мовної одиниці.

ВПРАВА 5: Вкажить екстралінгвальні фактори, що впливають на процесс перекладу наданого тексту. Як це відображується на сегментації тексту? Які коментарі мають бути наданими для адекватного перекладу? Чи зберігається сатиричний характер тексту при перекладі?

All the officer patients in the ward were forced to censor letters written by all the enlisted-men patients, who were kept in residence in wards of their own. It was a monotonous job, and Yossarian was disappointed to learn that the lives of enlisted men were only slightly more interesting than the lives of officers. After the first day he had no curiosity at all. To break the monotony he invented games. Death to all modifiers, he declared one day, and out of every letter that passed through his hands went every adverb and every adjective. The next day he made war on articles. Soon he was proscribing parts of salutations and signatures and leaving the text untouched.
When he had exhausted all possibilities in the letters, he began attacking the names and addresses on the envelopes, obliterating whole homes and streets, annihilating entire metropolises with careless flicks of his wrist as though he were God. Catch-22 required that each censored letter bear the censoring officer's name. Most letters he didn't read at all. On those he didn't read at all he wrote his own name. On those he did read he wrote, " Washington Irwing". When that grew monotonous he wrote, "Irwing Washington". Censoring the envelopes had serious repercussions and produced a ripple of anxiety on some ethereal military echelon that floated a C.I.D. man back into the ward posing as a patient.

Всех офицеров из палаты заставляли цензуровать письма рядовых, которые лечились в отведенных для нижних чинов палатах. Это было нудное занятие, и Йоссариан, читая письма, с разочарованием убедился, что жизнь нижних чинов ничуть не интереснее жизни офицеров. Уже на второй день он утратил всякий интерес к солдатским письмам, но, чтобы работа не казалась слишком скучной, он изобретал для себя всякие забавы. "Смерть определениям!" - объявил он однажды и начал вычеркивать из каждого письма, проходящего через его руки, все наречия и прилагательные. Назавтра Йоссариан объявил войну артиклям. Вскоре он начал сражаться с обращениями и подписями, а текст письма оставлял нетронутым. Когда фантазия Йоссариана истощилась и все возможности поиздеваться над письмами были исчерпаны, он начал атаковать фамилии и адреса на конвертах. Он отправлял в небытие дома и улицы и, словно Господь Бог, небрежным мановением руки стирал с лица земли целые столицы.
Инструкция требовала, чтобы на каждом проверенном письме значилась фамилия цензора. Большинство писем Йоссариан не читал вообще и спокойно подписывал их своей фамилией. А на тех, которые читал, выводил: "Вашингтон Ирвинг". Когда ему и это надоело, он стал подписываться: "Ирвинг Вашингтон".
Его цензорские шалости на конвертах привели к серьезным последствиям. Некие высокопоставленные военные обеспокоенно наморщили лбы и решили послать в госпиталь сотрудника контрразведки. Под видом больного он вскоре появился в палате Йоссариана.

ВПРАВА 6: Визначте систему контекстуальних і позатекстових залежностей для одиниць перекладу, що виокремленні курсивом. Встановіть причину декількох варіантів перекладу одного терміну.

Air Pollution… Cause and Effect
One of the traits that distinguishes humans from other forms of life is our ability to adapt to varying habitat. People populate this planet from the coldest Arctic regions to the steamiest rain forests. We've even made our environment portable for short periods of time, such as in space or ocean exploration. All of this aside, however, the plain truth remains that we cannot create the elements of our environment essential to our survival: air and water. It was realization of this, coupled with the rapid increase in manufacturing and technology and the accompanying pollution, that prompted researchers and government officials to take a good look at the consequences of air pollution.

Загрязнение воздуха… Причина и следствие
Одно из важнейших отличий человека от других форм жизни заключается в нашей способности адаптироваться к меняющимся условиям среды обитания. Люди населяют планету повсюду: от Арктики с ее вечным холодом до влажных тропиков с вечной парной баней тропических лесов. Человек исхитряется даже транспортировать окружающую среду на короткий срок, например для проведения исследований в космосе или мировом океане. Однако, несмотря на все эти достижения, следует признать простейшую истину: мы не способны создавать важнейшие компоненты природы, необходимые для поддержания жизни, - воздух и воду. Осознание этого, вкупе со стремительным развитием производства и техники и не менее стремительным загрязнением природы, поставило ученых и государственных деятелей перед необходимостью оценить последствия загрязнения атмосферы.



SEMINAR 2
TRANSLATING PROCESS

Translation as interlingual communication. The notion of a translation model and the process of translating.
The situational model of translation.
Transformation in translation.
The denotative approach to translation.
The communicational model of translation.
The distributional model of translation.

Practical part
Analyze the translation of the fragment "Peculiarities" from Alex Turubov's "America Every Day".
Suggest your variants of translation.
What transformations did the translator employ? For what reasons?
Translate the given passage «Правило общения» of the same author into English taking into consideration different models of translation.

Literature
Зинде М.М., Фридрих С.А. Качество перевода и стилистика текста // Тетради переводчика. 1989. Вып. 23. С. 23-31.
Комиссаров В.Н. Теория перевода (лингвистические аспекты): Учеб. пос. для ин-тов и ф-тов ин. яз. / В.Н. Комиссаров М. : Высш. шк., 1990. С. 158-186; 227-245.
Комиссаров В.Н., Коралова А.Л. Практикум по переводу с английского языка на русский: Учеб. пос. для ин-тов и ф-тов ин. яз. М. : Высш. шк., 1990. С. 30-38; 59-66.
Прокопович С.С. Адекватный перевод художественной прозы: возможен ли он? // Тетради переводчика. 1978. Вып. 15. С. 75-81.
Рецкер Я.И. Теория перевода и переводческая практика / Я.И. Рецкер. М. : Международные отношения, 1974. С. 23-27.
Цвиллинг М.Я., Туровер Г.Я. О критериях оценки перевода // Тетради переводчика. 1978. Вып. 15. С. 3-9.
Швейцер А.Д. Эквивалентность и адекватность перевода // Тетради переводчика. 1989. Вып. 23. С. 31-39.
Newmark, Peter. About Translation / P. Newmark. Clevedon, Buffalo, Toronto, Sydney : Multilingual Matters Ltd., 1991. P. 101-129.



Странности
Вообще у американцев какая-то непропорциональная оценка потребности в одежде. Всю зиму многие так и ходят в шортах, только куртку дутую сверху накинут. А чуть выпадет снег – выйдут отгребать его от ворот в шерстяных масках с вырезами для глаз, как у полярников или террористов. Я и сам к шортам незаметно привык, стал в них и дома, и на занятия ходить. Удобно оказалось – продувает, коленки не вытягиваются.
Целомудренные. Плавал в университетском бассейне в обычных шерстяных узких плавках, которые у меня пятнадцать лет. Пригляделся, уяснил, что так – просто неприлично, вызывающе. Должны быть широкие спортивные трусы до колен. В них многие ребята в сауне сидят, стесняются, под душем только оттопырят.

Peculiarities
Generally speaking, Americans have an odd idea about what to wear and when. All through the winter, many of them may wear just shorts, with a warm jacket draped over their shoulders. But once a light snow has fallen, they will go outside to shovel it away from the gate, wearing woolen ski masks with slits for eyes – the kind arctic explorers or terrorists wear. I gradually got used to wearing shorts myself, and started to wear them both at home and to class. They turned out very convenient – there's a breeze around your legs and your trouser knees don't get stretched out of shape.
Americans are very self-conscious. I once went for a swim at the university swimming pool, wearing ordinary narrow woolen bathing trunks which I've had for fifteen years. I took a closer look around and became aware that I looked downright indecent, even provocative. You must wear wide boxer shorts reaching to your knees – the kind many young guys wear in a sauna or in a shower where, out of modesty, they don't take them off but just pull away the waist band to let the water in.

Правило общения
Важнейшее правило американского общения – "Be articulate!"
Это значит, попав в общество, не куксись, не отсиживайся в углу, не изображай из себя умника. Если нечего сказать, всё равно подходи к кому-нибудь и что-нибудь говори!
Исходящие от тебя звуки должны быть громкими, отчётливыми. Желательно, чтобы их вообще было побольше. Мямленью тут нет места. Неприемлимо хихикать и испускать всепонимающие тонкие полуулыбки. Надо только громко и отчётливо смеяться: га-га-га!
Нет места публично выставленому духовному томленью, переливам психологии. Люди хотят иметь о тебе ясное и простое представление, и ты должен помочь им в этом. Нелишне рассказать о своём прошлом, о своём background, - это поможет лучше понять тебя. Желательно вообще составить о себе краткую легенду, чтобы не отцеживать каждый раз из всей своей жизненной истории три-четыре значимых для других момента.
Не стесняйся открыто говорить о своих планах и намерениях, даже если они корыстные. Тебя поймут, тут все такие.

ЗАВДАННЯ З САМОСТІЙНОЇ РОБОТИ

Завдання 1: Перекладіть текст на рідну мову. Виокремте географічні терміни, які повинні транскриптуватися або потребують коментарів перекладача.

The saga of the Northwest Indians probably began millennia ago when hunting families in search of food set out from Siberia, walked across a land bridge, the Bering Strait, to a new country that became known as Alaska. Later, many Indian tribes lived south of the Arctic Circle and divided into two distinct language groups: the Algonquians extended eastward to below Hudson Bay, and the Athapascans stayed in Northwest Canada. Gradually, some of each group moved southward.
The Lewis and Clark explorers of 1803 to 1806 probably were the first white men to be seen by some descendants of those ancient Athapascan tribes. Mainly they lived on the north side of the Columbia River; on the south side of the river tribes of the Salishan language family located. Salishan Indians derived their name from the Salish, another name for the Flathead tribes of Montana. Among other tribes of this group are Chelan, Okanogan, Wasco, Kwakiutle, Aleut, etc.

Термін виконання: семінарське заняття 2
Очікуваний результат: розвинуті уміння практичного застосування знань про труднощі перекладу географічних термінів, сформовані навички перекладу з коментарем, вдосконалені навчально-стратегічні компетентності білінгва.




LECTURE 4
APPROACHES TO THE STUDY OF WORD MEANING. TYPES OF MEANING. TRANSFORMATIONS

Three approaches to the study of word meaning: reference theory, component analysis and meaning postulates.
Denotative and connotative meanings.
Basic transformations in the proress of translation.

Three approaches to the study of word meaning: reference theory, component analysis and meaning postulates
Although the meanings of words may appear problematic for the translator, the greater problem is the meaning which derives from the relationship of word to word, i.e. the meaning of a word in a context.
Among the possible ways of approaching the description and explanation of the word meaning three stand out as particularly interesting: 1) reference theory; 2) component analysis; 3) meaning postulates.
1) Reference theory seeks to provide the answer to the question: "What is the relationship between the phenomena observed through the senses and the words used to refer to those phenomena?"
During the last hundred years linguists have taken as a starting point for the theory the conventional acceptance of the need for the relationship between a word and the nominated object/ phenomenon to be indirect and mediated by a concept. Building on the assumption de Saussure provides a rather explicit model of the relationship between the linguistic sign and the "object". The relative sophistication of de Saussure's model is that it sees the linguistic sign itself as being composed of two indivisible elements: the concept and the acoustic image which realizes it. De Saussure's linguistic sign may be compared with the models of mental representation currently developed by cognitive scientists
2) The theory of component analysis
Making sense of chaotic and continuous sensory data requires processes of pattern recognition and segmentation of the data into discreet, codable elements. An "atomic" and "molecular" approach to the description of word meaning was developed back in the 1950s. The essential assumption of component analysis is that the meaning of a word is made up of a number of semantic distinctive features. These elements are binary, i.e. marked as present or absent.
Applied to translation, component analysis compares distinctive features of sets of words in the two languages considered.
3) The theory of meaning postulates
A fundamental problem for the translator is that the relationship of similarity and difference between concepts and the words that express them do not necessarily coincide in the languages involved in translation. There can be isolated three types of relationhip between concept and concept and, therefore, between words.
The first of these is hyponymy which involves total inclusion: one concept or the meaning of one word is included into another. For instance, the notion animal includes the notion tiger. Naturally, where language systems are in agreement, hyponymy presents no problems for the translator. The difficulties start when they differ. Consider, for example, Dr.Johnson's famous inclusion in his dictionary of "oats" within the class "food for animals" rather than "food for men" or, even in contemporary dictionaries "foxhunting" or "bullfighting" within the class of sports.
The second, synonymy, is particularly problematic for the translator, since it involves overlap rather than total inclusion or exclusion. As there is no 100% identity between the two synonyms they are hardly interchangeable.
The third type of relationship, antonymy, implies exclusion rather than inclusion. When words are in contrast to each other we deal with polar oppositions: black white, dark bright, evil good. Relative oppositions demonstrate converse relations between the items; these may be assymetric social roles (teacher student, driver passenger), kinship terms (son daughter, father mother), temporal (before after) and space (under above) relations. In gradual oppositions, possibly made up of several words, the latter occupy positions according to their grade (gold silver copper iron). The difficulties in translation may arise with relative oppositions where relations are more culturally bound and variable. For instance, many languages provide separate sets of distinctive terms for relatives on father's side and relatives on mother's side.

Denotative and connotative meanings
A word-sense usually includes denotative and connotative elements of meaning. To denote means to serve as linguistic expression for a notion, idea or as a name for an actually existing object refferred to by the word-sense. To connote means to suggest or imply in addition to the denotative meaning. Connotation meaning, also called expressive meaning, is what is suggested by or associated with a particular word-sense.
Denotative meaning of the word is referential, objective and cognitive. It is the shared property of the speech community which uses the language of which the word or sentence forms a part.
Connotative meaning, in contrast, refers to the meaning which is not referential but associative, subjective and affective. This kind of meaning may or may not be shared by the whole community. E.g. the denotative meaning of the item "dog" is straightforward and a common property while the connotations may vary from person to person and from society to society, extending from the description of survile dedication to the well-being of the species and to utter abhorrence towards somebody.
The connotative components of a word-sense have the capacity to evoke or directly express:
emotion, e.g. mom as compared to mother is more emotional, i.e. it expresses greater closeness, love, tenderness;
intensity, e.g. to abhore as compared to to hate, to dislike expresses a more intense or poignant feeling;
evaluation, e.g. cronies as compared to friends may have a pejorative shade of meaning in certain contexts;
a stylistic colouring, e.g. to slay as compared to to kill is felt to be distinctly formal, bookish, or even poetic;
a dialectal reference, e.g. a lift is British while an elevator is American English.
In everyday usage, all these meanings often overlap and are often difficult to disentangle. Thus the forcefulness and emotionality of a word-sense are often difficult to separate and are, as a result, referred to as the emotive charge of a word-sense. It is important to understand the difference between emotive charge and individual emotive implications (субъективные эмоциональные ассоциации). Emotive charge is an objective semantic feature of connotation, i.e. it is perceived by members of the same speaking community more or less in the same way. Individual emotive implications are associations and ideas that a word may acquire in the mind of a particular person due to their subjective experience. The word prison, for example, would have different emotive implications for the architect who designed it, the warden working in it, and somebody who used to be a prisoner there.
The majority of word-senses have both types of meaning. However, there are some notable exceptions. Words which are grammatical operators like special terms or the, and, can, etc. possess little denotative meaning and no connotative meaning. On the other hand, interjections like wow!, ouch!, damn!, etc. alongside sound imitating words for all intents and purposes possess mostly connotative meaning.
The ultimate challenge for the translator is to try to preserve in the target text not only the denotative but also as much of connotative content of the original as possible.
Basic transformations in the proress of translation.
At the sentence level, the most common transformations every translator makes are: 1) omission, 2) addition, 3) transposition, 4) change of grammatical forms, 5) loss compensation, 6) concretization, 7) generalization, 8) antonymic translation, 9) meaning extension, 10) metonymic translation, 11) sentence integration, 12) sentence fragmentation.
These transformations are caused by differences in the grammar and vocabulary of the SL and TL. Examples:
omission – Summer rains in Florida may be violent, while they last / Летом во Флориде бывают сильные ливни.
addition – The policeman waved me on / Полицейский помахал мне рукой, показывая, что я могу проезжать.
transposition – A delegation of Moscow State University students arrived in Gainesville yesterday / Вчера в Гейнзвиль прибыла группа студентов из Московского государственного университета. Typically, an English sentence has a "SVO+Adv adjunct+place+time" word order. A typical Russian sentence would generally have a reverse word order – "time+place+VSO+Adv adjunct".
change of grammatical forms – Prime Minister Tony Blair was hit by a tomato / в британского премьера попал помидор.
loss-of-meaning compensation – I ain't got no time for that kind of thing! / Нет у меня времени на такую фигню.
concretization – There were pictures on all the walls and there was a vase with flowers on the table / На всех стенах комнаты висели картины, а на столе стояла ваза с цветами.
generalization – She ordered a daiquiri / Она заказала коктейль.
antonymic translation – I don't think you are right / Я думаю, что Вы не правы.
meaning extension – You can't be serious / Вы, должно быть, шутите. He answered the phone / Он поднял трубку. Cause is translated by its effect and visa versa.
metonymic translation – School broke up for the summer recess / Занятия прекратились. Все ушли на летние каникулы.
sentence integration – You presence isn't required. Nor is it desirable / Ваше присутствие не требуется и даже нежелательно.
sentence fragmentation – People everywhere are confronted with the need to make decisions in the face of ignorance and this dilemma is growing / Люди везде сталкиваются с необходимостью принятия решений при отсутствии достаточной информации. Эта проблема возникает всё чаще и чаще. Both sentence integration and sentence fragmentation are prompted by considerations of text cohesion.
Literature
Бурак А.Л. Translating culture. Перевод и межкультурная коммуникация. Этап 1: уровень слова / А.Л. Бурак. – М. : «Р.Валент», 2002. – 152 с.
Комиссаров В.Н. Теория перевода (лингвистические аспекты): Учеб. пос. для ин-тов и ф-тов ин. яз. / В.Н. Комиссаров. М. : Высш. шк., 1990. С. 79-93.
Латышев Л.К. Перевод: проблемы теории, практики и методики преподавания: Кн. для учителя шк. с углубл. изуч. нем. яз. / Л.К. Латышев. М. : Просвещение, 1988. С. 55-80.
Рецкер Я.И. Теория перевода и переводческая практика / Я.И. Рецкер. М. : Международные отношения, 1974. С. 17-23.
Bell, Roger T. Translation and Translating: Theory and Practice / Roger T. Bell. London, NY : Longman, 1991. P. 79-158.
Hervey, Sandor. Thinking Translation. A Course in Translation Method: French-English / S. Hervey. London, NY : Routledge, 1992. P. 87-114.



ISSUES FOR DISCUSSION

What are translation transformations?
When do you think we cannot use transformations in translation?
What causes the translation transformations?
What is contextual meaning of the word?
Comment on each type of transformation and provide your own examples.


ВПРАВИ ДЛЯ САМОСТІЙНОГО ОПРАЦЮВАННЯ

ВПРАВА 7: Перекладіть текст на рідну мову враховуючи необхідність застосування трансформацій.

The Naked and the Dead (1948) brought Norman Mailer unexpected and unnerving acclaim. But he turned his back on his easy success and began a deeper exploration of the contemporary consciousness than the technique of his first novel would allow. He has been savagely attacked for the "failure" of his later work, as well as for his unorthodox public opinions and behaviour. It was over a decade after the publication of his first novel before critics began to realize that Mailer's own instincts were surer than those of his reviewers. Structurally, The Naked and the Dead is well made. The events of the novel, reinforced by Mailer's ironic commentary, illustrate a deterministic view of the war. The war is shown to be irrational, a series of almost random accidents, despite the huge, intricate military organizations which nominally direct it. It is, in the structural metaphor of the whole novel, like a wave whipped up somewhere far offshore, gathering amplitude and direction, crashing upon a beach, receding once again. Mailer's soldiers - even his general - are like the molecules of water involved. The only fact is death, and confronted by the fact, man is naked. Much of Mailer's technique is derived from Dos Passos, Steinbeck, Hemingway, and later Fitzgerald - much, much later. And Thomas Wolfe, of course.



SEMINAR 3
WORD MEANING IN TRANSLATION

Denotative and connotative elements of meaning.
The most common transformations in translation.
Equivalence of translation.
Types of equivalence in translation.

Practical part
Translate the given passage from DWTV into your native language taking into consideration possibilities for translation equivalence.
Analyze the translation from the point of view of types of equivalence.


Literature
Комиссаров В.Н. Теория перевода (лингвистические аспекты): Учеб. пос. для ин-тов и ф-тов ин. яз. / В.Н. Комиссаров. М. : Высш. шк., 1990. С. 51-93.
Комиссаров В.Н., Коралова А.Л. Практикум по переводу с английского языка на русский: Учеб. пос. для ин-тов и ф-тов ин. яз. М.: Высш. шк., 1990. С. 10-30.
Корунець І.В. Теорія і практика перекладу (аспектний переклад): Підручник / І.В. Корунець. Вінниця : Нова книга, 2000. С. 391-418.
Федоров А.В. Основы общей теории перевода (лингвистические проблемы): Учеб. пос. для ин-тов и ф-тов ин. яз. / А.В. Федоров. М. : Высш. шк., 1983. С. 132-170.


US Defence Secretary Donald Ramsfeld plans to visit Baghram air base near the Afghan capital Kabul on Sunday, a US military spokesman has confirmed. Ramsfeld, currently on a tour of Central Asia, is expected to address US troops guarding Baghram airport before flying on to Pakistan. In Afghanistan US special forces are searching al-Qaeda's caves and tunnels in the Tora Bora area backed by heavy air-raids. They are gathering documents and other potential evidence in the caves. There is a report from Washington that Osama bin Laden has been heard giving orders over a short-range radio in the Tora Bora mountains during the last week.
It's been the same picture around the clock for days. Every thirty minutes US bombers drop their payloads on to al-Qaida positions. Poorly equipped Afghan fighters are supporting the US on the ground in the fight against Osama bin Laden and his terrorist organization.
This man said they'd caught the al-Qaida surrounded in those mountains. They were stuck in their caves, he said, and couldn't get out. But he didn't answer our question as to bin Laden's whereabouts. No-one here could tell us whether he was still in Tora Bora or whether he'd been able to escape across the border to Pakistan.
Instead of answering questions the local commander took us into the mountains up to the front line. The Afghan fighters here wanted to show users that they had gained the upper hand. But we gained a very different impression. These soldiers were nervous. They didn't know how strong the enemy was or what might be in store foe them. Some said, a number of Arab soldiers, deserters from the Taliban, were hiding under the sacks in these trucks. Others said, they were US ground forces. No-one could confirm either story. A few miles away the US are intensifying their strikes. Washington wants a swift resolution and an end to rumour and speculation.


ЗАВДАННЯ З САМОСТІЙНОЇ РОБОТИ

Завдання 2: Знайдіть слова в тексті, які відносяться до розряду власних імен та потребують транскрипції при перекладі. Оберіть найкращий варіант, який відповідає казковому стилю. Перекладіть текст.
After only a brief rest they started on their way again. All were eager to get the journey over as quickly as possible, and were willing, tired as they were, to go on marching still for several hours. Gandalf walked in front as before. In his left hand he held up his glimmering staff, the light of which just showed the ground before his feet; in his right hand he held his sword Glamdring. Behind him came Gimli, his eyes glinting in the dim light as he turned his head from side to side. Behind the dwarf walked Frodo, and he had drawn the short sword, Sting. No gleam came from the blades of Sting or of Glamdring; and that was some comfort, for being the work of Elvish smiths in the Elder days these swords shone with a cold light, if any Ores were near at hand. Behind Frodo went Sam, and after him Legolas, and the young hobbits, and Boromir. In the dark at the rear, grim and silent, walked Aragorn.

Термін виконання: семінарське заняття 3
Очікуваний результат: розвинуті вміння практичного застосування знань про стилістичні труднощі перекладу, а також сформовані навички перекладу імен, вдосконалені навчально-стратегічні компетентності мовної особистості.



LECTURE 5
LEXICO-SEMANTIC ASPECTS OF TRANSLATION

Semantic structure of the message and its main components.
Semantic redundancy as one of the main properties of oral discourse.
Lexical aspects of translation. "Trouble-making" lexical items.
Subject field words (terms). Set phrases (clichés) and phraseological units (idioms): ways of rendering them.

Semantic structure of the message and its main components.
Linguistics distinguishes between the notions of meaning, sense and semantics (Бондарко, Падучева, Чернов). The term semantics has three meanings: 1) contents, all information rendered by linguistic units; 2) section of linguistics dealing with contents or information rendered by linguistic units; 3) one of the sections of semiotics (science about signs) (Лингвистический энциклопедический словарь). Meaning of linguistic units is described as their contents reflected in the respective dictionaries or grammar books. The notion of sense goes outside pure linguistics and has to do with the context and situation of communication (the subject field of communication, aims of participants, their background knowledge). Therefore sense of linguistic units comes to life in real speech as a result of relations established between meanings of linguistic units and communicative situations. Indeed, it is practically impossible to translate such words as coach, challenge, event, network, powerless, account, run, рахунок, партія, справа, or practically any other word until the word is placed in the context and until the act of predication (creation of a proposition) takes place. Therefore, translators interpret sense of linguistic units which is born in each particular act of speech as a result of producing messages by speakers.
Messages have certain semantic structure, the main element of which is the proposition, i.e. a "picture" of the world, a "statement" about the world, which may be true or false, which is pronounced with a certain purpose, and which has the subject and the predicate, e.g. It is cold outside.
Messages must also contain the following components, which may be verbally expressed (explicit) or "hidden" (implicit):
Deictic component: orientation of the message with regard to the person, space and time, e.g. I warn you that it is cold outside;
Modal component: treatment of the proposition by the speaker as possible, impossible, desired, mandatory, unnecessary, likely, unlikely, doubtful, etc., e.g. I warn you that it is probably cold outside;
Evaluative component: positive or negative evaluation of the elements of the proposition (or absence of such evaluation – "zero evaluation"), e.g. I warn you that it is cold outside, so, since you are unwell, you'd rather wear your warm sweater;
Pragmatic component: indicator of the aim of the utterance (communicative intention), e.g. I warn you that it is cold outside.
It is quite obvious that for successful translation it is not enough to translate only the "propositional side" of the message but also render all other components of its semantic structure, thus ensuring that it "makes sense" for the addressee and produces desired effect.

Semantic redundancy as one of the main properties of oral discourse.

Semantic redundancy (семантична надмірність) is an important property of a discourse (especially of the oral one). It provides safeguards for successful transmission of information. It is generally believed that semantic redundancy of messages is based upon 1) repetition of components of the message and 2) interrelation of components of the message which are manifested through contextual relationships. In oral discourse these relationships are ensured by means of lexical and semantic cohesion, which is so important for successful comprehension and translation of messages.
Repetition is treated (Michael Hoey) as occurrence of one or more items (words or word combinations) in a sentence that by themselves tell the addressee nothing new but reinstate some elements from the earlier sentences. Repetition links and interrelation links are established between meaningful components of oral discourse through anaphoric, cataphoric and exophoric relationships.
Repetition links:
simple lexical repetition occurs when a lexical item that has already occurred in the text is repeated with no greater alteration than can be explained in terms of a grammatical paradigm ( singular vs plural, present vs past, etc.). Only lexical words can enter into such a link. Connections between grammatical or function words as articles, prepositions, particles are not treated as repetition links;
complex lexical repetition occurs when two lexical items share a lexical morpheme, but are not formally identical, or belong to different parts of speech (have different grammatical functions), e.g. computer – computing, human – humanity, politics – political, сіль – солоний, їсти – їжа, etc.
Interrelation links:
simple paraphrase occurs whenever a lexical item may substitute another item in context with no important change in meaning. Here belong most of the contextual synonyms, e.g. produce – cause, book – volume, killings – executions, викликати – спричиняти, робота – праця, особа – людина, etc;
complex paraphrase occurs when one of the lexical units includes the other, although they may share no lexical morpheme. Here belong the majority of antonyms, e.g. happy – unhappy, hot – cold, dry – wet, день – ніч, стояти – лежати. Complex paraphrase also occurs when an item is a complex lexical repetition of another item (writer – writings) and also a simple paraphrase of a third item (writer – author). In this case a complex paraphrase link is established between the second and the third items (writings - author). This link is called "a link triangle" (Hoey);
co-reference repetition occurs when two items are interpreted as having the same referent, i.e. refer to the same object of the real world (denotatum) in the given context, e.g. scientists – biologists; Augustus – the Emperor;
pro-form substitution occurs when certain grammatical words such as pronouns, adverbs, substitute lexical items, e.g. citizens – they, жінка – вона.
Semantic redundancy of oral discourse provides not only for successful transmission of maximum information in the process of communication but also for filling in the communicational gaps in oral interpretation.

Lexical aspects of translation. "Trouble-making" lexical items.
Most scholars believe that any unit of speech may be subject to translation. Experiments show that human brain is capable of keeping in memory around 7 focuses of meaning which are formed around the key words of oral discourse. The key words include subject field words, set phrases and idioms, numerals, proper names, abbreviations, acronyms, non-equivalent lexical items.
"Trouble-making" lexical items require taking interpreter's decision and the success of translation depends on the ability of the interpreter to react to information which is culturally or professionally specific.
Proper names make up one of the most "trouble-making" groups of lexical items. The best safeguard for an interpreter is to have at hand a list of names of people and organizations subject for interpretation. Next step is to use one of the accepted ways of rendering proper names (Гиляревский, Старостин 1985; Ермолович 2001; Корунець 2001; Леонович 2001):
practical transcription: Anthony Blair – Ентоні Блер, Lord Judd – лорд Джадд, Sunningdale Road – Саннінгдейл роуд;
transliteration: Donald – Дональд, Hastings – Гастінгс;
"traditional" (historical) rendering: Texas – Техас, Vienna – Відень, Queen Elizabeth – королева Єлизавета (however, Prince Charles – принц Чарльз but not Карл), Ярослав Мудрий – Yaroslav the Wise;
"ordinary" translation (for the names of organizations): World Bank – Світовий банк, The House of Commons – Палата громад, Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe – Парламентська Асамблея Ради Європи. However, there is a tendency to use practical transcription or transliteration if the name of an organization contains certain connotation or "national colouring": Greenpeace – Грінпіс, Верховна Рада – Verkhovna Rada, Державна Дума Російської Федерації – The State Duma of the Russian Federation.
For rendering names of newspapers, magazines, journals, hotels, shops, private homes, ships, trademarks, etc. mainly practical transcription and transliteration are used.
Successful rendering of specific items of national lexicon (реалії ) depends upon the level of the cultural competence of the interpreter. The following methods can be applied: practical transcription or transliteration, e.g. ombudsman – омбудсмен, прокуратура – prokuratura; translation by means of an analogy, e.g. roundabout – транспортна розв'язка; loan and word-for-word rendering, e.g. skyscraper – хмарочос; descriptive translation, e.g. Brummy – мешканець Бірмінгему, бірмінгемський діалект.
Abbreviations and acronyms make up a part of interpreter's active stock of lexical items, e.g. EU – European Union, GDP – gross domestic product. Lists of abbreviations of a specific nature have to be requested from the background sources before the interpretation, e.g. PIU – Project Implementation Unit, TOR – terms of reference, УДКР – Українська державна корпорація по реструктуризації. Selection of the way of rendering abbreviations may range from transliteration (e.g. BBC – Бі-бі-сі) and ordinary translation (e.g. PACE for Parliamentary assembly of the Council of Europe – ПАРЄ for Парламентська асамблея Ради Європи) to descriptive and loan translation (e.g. EFF for Extended Fund Facility – програма розширеного кредитування, СІЗО for слідчий ізолятор – pre-trial detention centre or SIZO).

Subject field words (terms). Set phrases (clichés) and phraseological units (idioms): ways of rendering them.
Subject field words (terms) are usually defined as monosemantic words, deprived of any expressive meaning. However today, with the increased specialization of all sectors of human life due to technological and scientific progress, the problem of understanding and rendering terminology has to be addressed in somewhat new dimension. The reason for this is that many lexical items acquire different terminological meanings in the context of different sectors or subject fields of human activity. E.g.: yield – доход від цінних паперів, врожайність, продуктивність, видобуток, осування, потужність, здаватися у полон, пружинити.
Roughly subject field words of any language may be classified into three groups:
general subject field words (known to most educated speakers of the language);
special subject field words (known to all people who work in a particular sector, such as computer science, banking, accounting, agriculture, medicine, etc.
professional jargon and slang (words known to comparatively narrow groups of professionals, often working for particular institutions or companies).
Whatever traditional or electronic dictionaries, as well as computer translation software may be available, the best way for a translator to cope with terminology is to keep personal records, then compile them into glossaries and thus improve personal skills.
Set phrases and idioms are "structurally, lexically and semantically fixed phrases or sentences having the meaning which is not made up by the sum of meanings of their component parts" (Корунець 2001). An important feature of these units is their figurative (connotational) meaning. The difference between the two is that set phrases are often used in oral discourse adding positive or negative assessment to it (cold-blooded killing, double standards, гальмуючий фактор, подати на розгляд, розсипання у вдячності) while idioms are used in cases, when there is a strong need to reinforce argumentation by reference to the popular wisdom, or wisdom of our ancestors or famous people (to cast pearls before swine, to fish in troubled waters, підкласти свиню, на ладан дихати).
Set phrases due to their frequent occurrence are easier to keep in memory comparing to idioms, some of which are quite rare, outdated or culturally specific. The best way of rendering set phrases and idioms is to choose an absolute equivalent or an analogy, e.g. cold-blooded killing – холоднокровне вбивство, to kill two birds with one stone – убити двох зайців. If no equivalent or analogies can be found, there exists an option of a descriptive translation, e.g. to climb on the band wagon – приєднатися до руху (групи людей, політичної партії), що має шанс на успіх.
Literature
Бурак А.Л. Translating culture. Перевод и межкультурная коммуникация. Этап 1: уровень слова / А.Л. Бурак. – М. : «Р.Валент», 2002. – 152 с.
Комиссаров В.Н. Теория перевода (лингвистические аспекты): Учеб. пос. для ин-тов и ф-тов ин. яз. / В.Н. Комиссаров. М. : Высш. шк., 1990. С. 79-93.
Комиссаров В.Н., Коралова А.Л. Практикум по переводу с английского языка на русский: Учеб. пос. для ин-тов и ф-тов ин. яз. М. : Высш. шк., 1990. С. 71-97.
Корунець І.В. Теорія і практика перекладу (аспектний переклад): Підручник / І.В. Корунець. Вінниця : Нова книга, 2000. С. 91-198.
Максимов С.Є. Усний двосторонній переклад (англійська та українська мови) / С.Є. Максимов. – Київ : Видавничий центр КНЛУ, 2002. – С. 39-58.
Hervey, Sandor. Thinking Translation. A Course in Translation Method: French-English / S. Hervey. London, NY : Routledge, 1992. P. 87-114.



ISSUES FOR DISCUSSION

Translating different layers of vocabulary.
Choice of words in creating target text.
What are zero equivalents and why do they exist?
What ways to achieve equivalence on lexico-semantic level do you know?



ВПРАВИ ДЛЯ САМОСТІЙНОГО ОПРАЦЮВАННЯ

Рекомендації щодо вживання перекладацької транскрипції/транслітерації.
Схема перекладацької транскрипції з української/російської на англійську мову:

А
--а
 
Л
-- l
Ц
-ts,

Б
--b
 
M
-- m
Ч
-- ch

В
--v
 
H
-- n
Ш
-- sh

Г
--h/g
gh
О
-- o
Щ
-- shch
Д
--d

П
-- p
Ъ


Є/Е
--е
ye
Р
-- r
Ы
-- у

ЙО/Ё
--е
yo
С
-- s
'/Ь


Ж
--zh
j
Т
--f
Е/Э
-- е

З
--z
 
У
-- u
Ю
-- yu

І/И
--i
у
Ф
-- f
Я
-- уа

К
--k
 
X
-- kh, h
 
 



Схема перекладацької транскрипції з англійської на українську/російську мову:

А
--
а,
э,
е
J
--
дж,ж,
и
S
--
с,
ш
В
--
б
 
 
К
--
к
 
Т
--
т
 
С
--
с,
ц,
к
L
--
л
 
U
--
у,
ю
D
--
д
 
 
М
--
м
 
V
--
в
 
Е
--
и,
є/е
 
N
--
н
 
W
--
у,
в
F
--
ф
 
 
О
--
о, оу
 
X
--
кс
 
G
--
г,
дж
 
Р
--
п
 
Y
--
и/ы,
і/и
Н
--
x
 г
 
Q/qu
--
к/кв
 
Z
--
з,
ц
I
--
і/и,
аи
 
R
--
Р
 
 





Сполучення літер, як от -ch-, -aw- тощо, передаються згідно правил читання: -ч-, -о, -оу-.
Вживання перекладацької транскрипції/транслітерації потребує ретельного культурологічного аналізу тексту з метою визначення традиційних форм перекладу географічних назв, фольклорних героїв, періодичних видань, компаній, національно-культурних реалій або імен.
Перекладацька транскрипція/транслітерація є способом перекладу як компонент змішаного перекладу поряд з калькуванням, семантичним перекладом або перекладацьким коментарем.

ВПРАВА 8: Визначте і запишить перекладацькі відповідності до наданих імен та назв.

A. Eugene Garside Edward Westbury
Sophie Wilkins Aubrey Herbert
Graham Hancock Katharine Woolley
James Dylan Giles G, Stephens
Marion Edmonds William Cathcart
Howard Carter H. J. Plenderleith 78

Б. Tutankhamen Chichen-Itza
Amenemhet Moctezuma Pyramid of Cheops Nebuchadnezzar
Chephren Quetzalcoatl
Mcnelaus Rosetta Stone
Euripides Queen Shub-ad
Eurymedon Xerxes
Corinth Harun al-Rashid
Phidias Nazareth Zeus

B. Vintage Books
Random House of Canada Limited
Dell Publishing Co., Inc.
United States Environmental Protection Agency
Trace Analytical Laboratories, Inc.
Eastman Kodak Company
Symantec Corporation
UNIX System Laboratories
Hitachi, Ltd.
CompuServ, Inc.
Г. The Grand Canyon Wyoming
River Dart Kentucky
Devonshire New Jersey
North Carolina
Rhode Island
Ocean-city Grosvenor Square
Okehampton Castle

Г. Вологда
Саяны
Беловежская Пуща
Чудское озеро
Господин Великий Новгород царь Алексей Михайлович Тишайший
Александро-Невская Лавра
Киевская Русь
Сергий Радонежский
Кижский Погост
Троицкий мост



SEMINAR 4
LEXICAL AND SEMANTIC ASPECTS OF TRANSLATION

The main elements of semantic structure of a message.
Semantic redundancy and successful transmission of information.
Lexical aspects of translation and the difficulties for a translator.
Subject field words (terms). Basic ways of rendering subject field lexical items.



Practical part
Translate the given passage from «Юридичний вісник» into the English language taking into consideration different ways of rendering subject field words.
Analyze the translation from the point of view of semantic redundancy.



Literature
Комиссаров В.Н. Теория перевода (лингвистические аспекты): Учеб. пос. для ин-тов и ф-тов ин. яз. / В.Н. Комиссаров. М. : Высш. шк., 1990. С. 201-208.
Комиссаров В.Н., Коралова А.Л. Практикум по переводу с английского языка на русский: Учеб. пос. для ин-тов и ф-тов ин. яз. М. : Высш. шк., 1990. С. 71-89.
Корунець І.В. Теорія і практика перекладу (аспектний переклад): Підручник / І.В. Корунець. Вінниця : Нова книга, 2000. С. 91-140.
Федоров А.В. Основы общей теории перевода (лингвистические проблемы): Учеб. пос. для ин-тов и ф-тов ин. яз. / А.В. Федоров. М. : Высш. шк., 1983. С. 132-170.


Чи не найпоширеніша приповідка нашого часу стверджує: дозволено все, що не заборонено законом. Принцип цей розповсюджується і на підприємницьку діяльність. Згідно з нині чинним законодавством, дозволяються всі види підприємницької діяльності, окрім кількох винятків. Скажімо, виготовлення військової техніки, зброї та боєприпасів до неї, вибухових речовин, наркотичних засобів, охорона об'єктів державної власності, якою можуть займатися лише державні організації. До порушників цих заборон застосовуються досить жорсткі покарання: штрафи від 100 до 300 мінімальних зарплат з позбавленням права посідати конкретні посади чи займатися певною діяльністю терміном до трьох років, навіть з конфіскацією майна.
Замислюючи свої бізнесові плани, варто пам'ятати, що є такі види підприємницької діяльності, на проведення яких потрібен спеціальний дозвіл – ліцензія. Це документ, який видається підприємцю компетентними державними органами – міністерством чи відомством. Він дає право на здійснення окремих видів підприємницької діяльності. Для того, щоб отримати ліцензію, юридична особа, або ж громадянин, після проходження державної реєстрації підприємства, має звернутися з заявою до відповідного ліцензійного органу. До заяви необхідно додати пакет документів. Якщо звертається підприємець – юридична особа – нотаріально завірені копії статутних документів. Якщо фізична особа – громадянин – копії документів про освіту і кваліфікацію, необхідних для заняття певним видом діяльності, і копії реєстраційних документів.



ЗАВДАННЯ З САМОСТІЙНОЇ РОБОТИ

Завдання 3: Перекладіть текст. Складіть двомовний термінологічний словник для даного тексту.
Science often means different things to different people. To many it means bodies of knowledge about the physical world grouped under different subjects; to some it means research or the pursuit of truth; to some it means the development of technology intended to benefit mankind; and to others it means finding out, experimenting, measuring. These are all different aspects of science, as the knowledge, experimenting, technology, etc., have all been produced by what could be called the "processes of science". Environmental problems are just one aspect of life to which science can be applied, but they are quite urgently in need of solution. Some science concepts are particularly relevant in the solving of environmental issues. Among them are
1. Energy (types of energy, law of conservation of energy, and law of energy degradation);
2. Ecosystem (energy flow in ecosystems, law of conservation of matter, nutrient cycling in ecosystems, evolution of ecosystems); f
3. Resources (the nature of resources: inexhaustible, renewable, irreplaceable);
4. Food (production, nutrition, energy use);
5. Pollution (pollutant, threshold, synergy, persistence, biological magnification);
6. Human population (growth and control, birth rate, death rate, fertility rate, marriage age, density, and distribution).

Термін виконання: семінарське заняття 4
Очікуваний результат: вдосконалені компетентності щодо складання термінологічного словника, сформовані вміння практичного застосування знань про труднощі перекладу термінів.




LECTURE 6
GRAMMATICAL ASPECTS OF TRANSLATION

Grammatical difficulties typical for translation.
Difficulties in rendering English articles, tense forms of the verb, forms expressing unreality.
Syntactic transformations in translation.
Pragmatic problems of translation.
Different Aspects of Stylistic Problems.
Translation etiquette.

1. Grammatical difficulties typical for translation.
Every word in the text is used in a particular grammatical form and all the words are arranged in sentences in a particular syntactic order. Grammatical forms also convey some information which is part of its total contents. They reveal the semantic relationships between the words, clauses and sentences in the text (Komissarov, Koralova). The semantic role of grammatical forms and structures should not be overlooked by the translator.
Grammatical forms and syntactical constructions cannot be isolated from the lexical units they consist of. Most translation transformations are complex and include both lexical and grammatical components. In practice interpretation begins only after the interpreter has comprehended the SL message, i.e. perceived meanings of the words and unpacked grammatical structures. Researchers have observed that failures to translate messages correctly are seldom cuased by grammatical factors, especially if the languges involved belong to the European family. In simaltaneous interpretation certain problems may be caused by the difference in the SL and TL syntactic structures, first of all, in the word order. Interpreters may also have problems with rendering English articles, Perfect tense forms of the verb and forms expressing unreality (oblique moods), affirmative and negative constructions. Interpreters have to be aware of certain potential threats listed below.
Difficulties in rendering English articles, tense forms of the verb, forms expressing unreality.
The article, both definite and indefinite, is a functional word. In some word-combinations they may acquire some peculiar grammatical, functional and lexical meaning, may be lexicalized. Their lexical meaning becomes inseparable from their functional meaning (Korunets). The occurrence of lexically meaningful articles is not accidental, foe it is predetermined by context. Whatever their quantity, none of the lexically meaningful articles should be ignored or overlooked by translators. The translator has to keep it in mind that some contextual meanings of the definite article may seem similar to those of the definite article and vice versa. The translator should also be attentive to the style of the TL message.
Ways of rendering lexically charged definite articles:
as the demonstrative pronoun цей (ця, це, ці)
as the demonstrative pronouns такий, той самий, такий самий
as the possessive pronoun її, їхні, свій
as the identifying pronoun весь, вся, все
as the relative pronoun який (яка, яке, які)
as the indefinite pronoun якийсь, певний
as the identifying attributive pronoun сам, інший
as an adjective (according to the contextual meaning)
as a particle emphasizing the attributive pronoun or numeral
Ways of rendering lexically charged indefinite articles:
by the cardinal numeral один
by the indefinite pronoun якийсь
by the demonstrative pronoun цей
as one of the possessive pronouns
as a negative pronoun жоден
as the relative adjective цілий
by different relative adjectives in context (справжній)
by different adverbs in context (навіть, зовсім)
by emphatic or modal particles (чи не…, такий собі…)
Every student of English has been challenged by the difference between English and Russian/Ukrainian tense and aspect categories. English and Russian/Ukrainian forms are not parallel, though some regularities might be observed between them. English Simple tenses denoting regular, permanent actions, progressive tenses, denoting temporary continuous actions, correspond to the Russian/Ukrainian imperfective aspect. English Perfect forms, when expressing a completed action, correspond to Russian/Ukrainian perfective verbs. Lexical compensation is often a way out in contrasting tense and aspect forms: «Почему ты не знаешь правила?» – «Я учил.» – «Учил, да не выучил.» "Why don't you know the rule?" – "I learnt it." - "You tried to, but failed."
In both English and Russian/Ukrainian the Subjunctive Mood expresses a hypothetical, unreal action. In Russian/Ukrainian, there is only one form: the past form of the verb + the particle бы/б: Я хотел бы пойти туда. Чайку бы! In English there are many verb forms to express the subjunctive mood: synthetic forms be/do, were/did; analytical forms should/would, do/have done, might/could do/have done, may/can do, had done, which is a challenge for a translator. It is not infrequent that English and Russian/Ukrainian sentences differ in degree of certainty or uncertainty expressed by the mood construction. An English sentence shows more vividly the speaker's attitude to the situation, whether s/he considers the situation real or unreal. Cf. It looks as if he were sick. (I am not sure). – It looks as if he is sick. (He really is but I wouldn't like to sound categorical.) In Russian/Ukrainian this subtle difference in meaning is lost: Кажется, он болен.

Syntactic transformations in translation.
The sentence communicative structure is different in English and in Russian/Ukrainian. In Russian/Ukrainian it is more rigid, which compensates a loose word order of the sentence. English fixed word order, on the other hand, is compensated by a free, to some extent, functional sentence perspective. In Russian/Ukrainian neutral style, the theme precedes the rheme, which means that a logically stressed part of the sentence is in the final position. In English, the rheme can be interrupted by the theme or even precede the theme: There is an unknown word in the text. (T-R-T) – В тексте есть незнакомое слово. (T-R).
This transformation is evident in comparing the structures with the subjects introduced by the definite and indefinite articles. A sentence that has the definite article with the subject has the same word order: The woman entered the house. – Женщина вошла в дом. On the other hand, a word order change takes place in a similar sentence if its subject is determined by the indefinite article: A woman entered the house. – В дом вошла женщина.
Sentence partitioning means substituting a complex or compound sentence with several simple ones, or a simple sentence with a complex one, containing some clauses. Sentence integration is the opposite transformation – substituting several simple sentences with a complex/compound one, or a complex sentence with a simple one.
For example, there are some special constructions in English that do not exist in Russian. They are translated by a complex sentence (the Complex Object, Complex Subject, Absolute constructions, etc.). I want you to speak English fluently. – Я хочу, чтобы вы бегло говорили по-английски.
Sentence integration is necessary when the English sentence starts with the conjunctions or, nor, but, for, since the beginning of this type is alien to Russian written speech: Man is the only animal that blushes. Or needs to. (Shaw) – Человек – единственное существо, которое краснеет или которому надо бы краснеть.

Pragmatic problems of translation.
Each utterance in a speech act is aimed at somebody. When speaking, an addresser has a communicative intention, or purpose of the speech act. An utterance has a communicative effect on the receptor: it can inform a receptor of something, or cause some feelings, etc. The potential effect of the utterance is its functional force. Communicative intention does not always coincide with the communicative effect.
In terms of linguistic pragmatics, developed by J. Austen, three types of relations are locution (reference and the utterance sense), illocution (communicative intention and functional force), and perlocution (communicative effect).
The adequate translation is the one whose communicative effect is close to that of the source text; at best, its communicative effect coincides with the author's communicative intention. Regarding this principle, P. Newmark introduced two types of translation – communicative translation, which attempts to produce on its receptors an effect as close as possible to that produced on the readers of the original, and semantic translation, which attempts to render, as closely as the semantic and syntactic structures of the second language allow, the exact contextual meaning of the original. Taking these concepts into consideration, the sentence Beware of the dog! could be rendered as Осторожно, злая собака! (communicative translation) or Опасайтесь собаки! (semantic translation).
In summary, translation pragmatics is a multi-aspect approach. Its analysis requires discussing the role of each of the translation situation components.
The communicative effect of the source and target text upon the receptor should be similar. A lot depends on the functional style (register), genre, language and speech norms. Neither of them can be changed in translation because, ultimately, they make up the functional force of the text, so important from the point of view of pragmatics.
Disregard of the style or register produces a strange impact upon the receptor. Imagine a person declaring love in a businesslike manner – he will not be esteemed in the proper way.
Very often genre requirements of the text are so strict that they cannot but be met in translation, or the target text may be spoiled. For instance, when translating patents, one should observe all the elements of the structure and the necessary formulas and set phrases.
Shifting a set of language units leads to changes in text perception. For example, a scientific text is characterized by impersonal constructions, such as passive voice and indefinite structures. If a text is abundant in personal pronouns, interjections and other expressive means, it will never be considered as belonging to the scientific register.
Incorrect choice of words may result in comic consequences contrary to the expectations of the text author.
A translator should be aware of the author's purpose of introducing this or that element into the text. Some problems are associated with this requirement:
Rendering regional dialect;
Rendering social dialect;
Rendering foreigners' speech;
Rendering substandard speech.
A target text should convey the same information as the source text and produce the same impact on the receptor as does the source text. To get full information from the text, the receptor must have adequate background knowledge. This knowledge may not be enough if the receptor is not well acquainted with the source language culture. New realia, habits and customs are usually commented upon by a translator. Sometimes a translator uses commentary notes in the text, but they are inconvenient, as they distract the reader's attention. It is also possible to place a commentary in the footnote. But most typically, explication is given after the text or, more rarely, before it.
Besides extended commentaries, a translator can use a technique of explicatory translation: вчера мы купили коробку «Птичьего молока». – We bought a box of candies "Bird Milk" yesterday. Irrelevant information can be reduced from the text or generalized, if its explanation distracts the reader's attention: "I'm very busy," Ollie answered as he sat in a worn Naugahyde chair. (Grisham) – «Я очень занят», - ответил Олли, сидя в потрепанном дерматиновом кресле.
In the attempt to make a good translation, a translator, nevertheless bears the influence of cultural and literary trends typical of the time, which affect his/her outlook and have a certain impact on the translation. These days it is considered necessary for a translator to follow only the source language author, sometimes at the expense of his/her own artistic work.
Nevertheless, there is no doubt that the quality of translation is dependent on translator's personal knowledge, intuitions and artistic competence.

Different Aspects of Stylistic Problems.
Stylistic problems of translation may be approached from several angles: styles of language, their peculiarities, their goals and their interrelation; stylistic meaning of words; stylistic devices, their nature and structure, their expressive function; foregrounding of linguistic means for stylistic purposes and its attention-compelling function.
The translation of texts belonging to different functional styles of the language presents a vast comprehensive problem.
A style of language is dependent upon the sphere of communication and the aim of communication which determine the peculiar choice of language means. Texts belonging to different styles of language possess distinctive stylistic features and thus are easily recognizable although they may to some extent vary from language to language. These features can be classified as leading or subordinate, obligatory or optional. The leading or dominant features form a common core in the S and T languages. They are reflected in the composition of each text, in its syntactic structure, in the choice of linguistic means and stylistic devices. The same means naturally occur in different styles but their use and functions are different.
In translation we are following not one but two sets of unwritten rules, and they do not always overlap. To take just one example: a circular letter addressed to residents of a housing complex might contain (in English) expressions such as: 'Kindly use the plastic bags provided for rubbish disposal' or 'It would be appreciated if residents would not park in the entrance road.' In another language, it might be natural to use 'blunter' language in a similar context, for example: 'You must use ...' and 'Parking is forbidden ...'. The context is the same, but not the register (style). If context is the what, where, and to whom, then register is the how.
Official style is a sub-system of the language, a form of communication functioning in the sphere of official relations. The aim of communication in this style is to reach agreement between two or more contracting parties. The term of such agreements must be formulated clearly and unambiguously in order to exclude any possibility of misinterpretation. Consequently this style is characterized by the use of words in their direct referential meaning and by the absence of words of emotive meaning. Another outstanding feature of this style is the abundance of special terms, clichés and set expressions of a special nature which make this style distinct from other styles and easily recognizable. Some of them have their counterparts in the target language are to be used by the translator. In accordance with the aim of communication the translation of official documents requires utmost precision. Equivalence in the rendering of form is to a considerable extent ensured by the existence of correlated SL and TL patterns.
The requirements of equivalence in the translation of emotive prose differ considerably from these in other styles where form merely serves to convey the content of the utterance and do not fulfill any expressive and aesthetic function. In these styles stylistic means and devices are merely used as their indispensable markers. But in the Belles-Lettres style form and content are inseparable whole; their common goal is to affect the reader emotionally, to appeal to his feelings and to stir his imagination, to arouse his sense of values both ethical and aesthetic. The approach to the problems of equivalence is broader and more flexible in this style. Losses may be greater here but so are the possibilities of compensation because the object in view is to produce as forceful a stylistic effect as that produced by the original. While in the translation of official, scientific and newspaper texts the losses are grammatical or lexical, in the translation of Belles-Lettres texts the losses are also stylistic affecting the expressive value of the translated text.
The stylistic system of a language like its phonetic, grammatical and lexical systems bear a distinct national character.
Stylistic devices in different languages are, in the main similar but their functioning in each language, their specific weight and the frequency of their use are widely different. This fact accounts for the necessity of stylistic transformations – substitution and compensation. By means of lexical and grammatical transformations the translator achieves an equivalent rendering of the lexical and grammatical meaning of a word or a form. The same principle is valid when rendering the stylistic meaning of the message, that is, reproducing a similar effect in the TL text, arousing a similar response on the part of the TL reader. The translator, however, is often compelled to achieve the intended effect by a different device.
"… a blockbuster of a novel. Each chapter leaves the reader banging and eager for more".
Сногсшибательный роман! После каждой главы читатель напряженно ждет продолжения.
Many stylistic devices are polyfunctional: one and the same device may fulfill a variety of functions and produce diverse effects. These functions are sometimes not identical and do not coincide in English and in Russian/Ukrainian. The same stylistic devices in two languages reveal complete concurrence, partial concurrence and no concurrence at all.
A translator should be fully aware of the degree of expressiveness of stylistic devices used in the text. A line of distinction must be drawn between what is stylistically trite and what is stylistically original. It especially refers to lexical stylistic devices: deliberate mixing of words belonging to different layers of the vocabulary, metaphors, metonymies, epithets, similes, etc. stylistic equivalence is a fundamental requirement.

Translation etiquette.
The word 'etiquette' is very close to the term protocol, meaning the forms of ceremony observed by diplomats, heads of state and other high-ranking officials.
While ethics is a translator's strategy, etiquette is his/her tactics, and protocol is the way the tactics are employed.
No need to say that a translator should be fully aware of the basics of international protocol. On the one hand, it will help him to behave correctly in any situation. On the other, a translator is often vested with the protocol function because his/her boss supposes that s/he should know not only of a foreign language, but also customs and traditions of the target culture. So a translator's task is not only to provide communication but also to arrange negotiations and other ceremonies.
One of the first principles of translators' behavior is objectivity and impartiality. A translator, or rather an interpreter, is a mediator of communication but not its active participant. He cannot take part in the discussion he translates. A translator is generally expected not to side with either party. If a speaker's arguments seem weak to him, he must translate them as convincingly (or not) as does the speaker. The interpreter cannot correct the speaker even if he knows that the latter is evidently mistaken. In order to "wash his hands" of the wrong statement, the interpreter can stress that it is the speaker's point of view: Как говорит оратор… Neither vocal, nor facial expression should betray the interpreter's thoughts and feelings. Generally speaking, interpreting involves a high level of neutrality and detachment.
The interpreter's speech must be clear and distinct. He must not mumble and stumble. No matter what and how a speaker might be talking, the interpreter must be logical and grammatically correct. A sentence begun must be completed. There is a stereotype that well-respected participants speak according to the standard norms. Thus mistakes in translating will inevitably be attributed to the interpreter and not to the speaker.

Literature
Бурак А.Л. Translating culture. Перевод и межкультурная коммуникация. Этап 1: уровень слова / А.Л. Бурак. – М. : «Р.Валент», 2002. – 152 с.
2. Комиссаров В.Н. Теория перевода (лингвистические аспекты): Учеб. пос. для ин-тов и ф-тов ин. яз. / В.Н. Комиссаров. М. : Высш. шк., 1990. С. 79-93.
Комиссаров В.Н., Коралова А.Л. Практикум по переводу с английского языка на русский: Учеб. пос. для ин-тов и ф-тов ин. яз. М. : Высш. шк., 1990. С. 71-97.
Корунець І.В. Теорія і практика перекладу (аспектний переклад): підручник / І.В. Корунець. Вінниця : Нова книга, 2000. С. 91-198.
Максимов С.Є. Усний двосторонній переклад (англійська та українська мови) / С.Є. Максимов. – Київ : Видавничий центр КНЛУ, 2002. – С. 39-58.
Чужакин А., Палажченко П. Мир перевода, или Вечный поиск взаимопонимания. – М. : Валент, 1997. – С. 85.



ISSUES FOR DISCUSSION

Changing grammatical forms of the words, its reasons.
Difference between languages that cause grammar difficulties in translation.
Morphological aspects of translation.
Syntactic aspects of translation.
What are the professional requirements and responsibilities of a translator?



ВПРАВИ ДЛЯ САМОСТІЙНОГО ОПРАЦЮВАННЯ

ВПРАВА 9: Перекладіть уривки на рідну мову звертаючи увагу на необхідність граматичних трансформацій.
1. Не was in the hospital with the pain in his liver.
2. The men fell out for the parades early each Sunday afternoon and groped their way into ranks of twelve.
3. One day he felt that he could endure his loneliness no longer.
4. Soon it dawned upon him that they had recognized him.
5. There was no hope left.
6. Each time the fall of a city like Naples, Rome - or Florence seemed imminent, Major Coverely would pack his bag, commandeer an airplane and a pilot, and have himself flown away.
7. Williams reached out instinctively for balance and then launched himself forward in a prodigious dive.
8. He sank back into his chair and turned his head away.
9. There was no taxi in sight and he started to walk in the direction of the Park.
10. She was a hard, mercenary little thing.

ВПРАВА 10: Перекладіть уривки на рідну мову з допомогою антонімічного перекладу.
1. I have just said to myself if it were possible to write, those white sheets would be the very thing, not too large or too small, but I do not wish to write, except as an irritant.
2. Of all things coming home from a holiday is undoubtedly the most damned.
3. Freedom which now she found made it quite easy for her to refuse Sybil's invitations, to take life much more strongly and steadily.
4. It is a decaying village, which loses its boys to the towns where not a boy of them, said the Rev. Mr Hawkesford, is being taught to plough.
5. To look at, he is like some aged bird; a little, small-featured face, with heavily lidded smoky bright eyes; his complexion still ruddy; but his beard is like an unweeded garden.
6. We went to Amberley yesterday and thought of buying a house there.
7. Angelica was so mature and composed; all grey and silver; such an epitome of all womanliness; and such an unopened bud of sense and sensibility wearing a grey wig and a seacoloured dress.
8. The world is swinging round again and bringing its green and blue close to one's eyes.
9. I see Chartres in particular, the snail, with its head straight, marching across the flat country, the most distinguished of all churches.
10. This was the last day of August and like almost all of them of extraordinary beauty when each day is fine enough and hot enough for sitting out.



SEMINAR 5
LEVELS OF TRANSLATION EQUIVALENCE

Equivalence at the level of Communicative-Pragmatic Purport.
Equivalence at the level of Situational Identification.
Equivalence at the level of Semantic Components.
Equivalence at the level of Syntactic Invariant.
Equivalence at the level of Full Semantic Proximity.


Practical part
Translate the given passage from «Юридичний вісник» into the English language taking into consideration different ways of rendering subject field words.
Analyze the translation from the point of view of levels of equivalence.



Literature
Комиссаров В.Н. Теория перевода (лингвистические аспекты): Учеб. пос. для ин-тов и ф-тов ин. яз. / В.Н. Комиссаров. М. : Высш. шк., 1990. С. 135-157.
Комиссаров В.Н., Коралова А.Л. Практикум по переводу с английского языка на русский: Учеб. пос. для ин-тов и ф-тов ин. яз. М. : Высш. шк., 1990. С. 10-30.
Корунець І.В. Теорія і практика перекладу (аспектний переклад): Підручник / І.В. Корунець. Вінниця : Нова книга, 2000. С. 391-418.
Федоров А.В. Основы общей теории перевода (лингвистические проблемы): Учеб. пос. для ин-тов и ф-тов ин. яз. / А.В. Федоров. М. : Высш. шк., 1983. С. 132-170.



В статуті має бути вказано вид діяльності, яка ліцензується. Рішення про надання ліцензії чи відмову в її надані підприємець повинен отримати не пізніше, ніж через 30 днів з часу подання заяви та супровідних документів. При отриманні ліцензії необхідно сплатити ліцензійний збір. Дозвіл на заняття якимось видом діяльності, як і відмова у його наданні, мають бути у письмової формі, причому відмова також повинна надійти у тридцяти денний термін.
У ліцензії має вказуватися: назва органу, що її видав, прізвище, м.'я та по-батькові, місце проживання громадянина або ж назва і адреса юридичної особи, вид діяльності, на який видається ліцензія, місце та особливі умови і правила здійснення ліцензованої діяльності, номер реєстрації і дата видачі дозволу,а також строк її дії. Ліцензія підписується відповідною посадовою особою і завіряється печаткою. Термін дії ліцензії визначається органом, що її видав, але він не може перевищувати трьох років.
Продовження терміну дії ліцензії здійснюється у тому ж порядку, який встановлено для її отримання. У випадку припинення підприємницької діяльності, ліцензія втрачає свою силу. Якщо ж підприємцем порушуються вказані у ліцензії особливі умови заняття певним видом діяльності, орган, який видав дозвіл, може вимагати усунення порушень і навіть призупинити дію ліцензії, а то й анулювати її, якщо порушення повторюватимуться.
Усі суперечки про відмову у видачі ліцензії, призупинення її дії, чи анулювання розглядаються у судовому порядку.


ЗАВДАННЯ З САМОСТІЙНОЇ РОБОТИ

Завдання 4: Перекладіть текст. Підкресліть слова та словосполучення, які потребують калькування.
For a while the hobbits continued to talk and think of the past journey and of the perils that lay ahead; but such was the virtue of the land of Rivendell that soon all fear and anxiety was lifted from their minds. The future, good or ill, was not forgotten, but ceased to have any power over the present. Health and hope grew strong in them, and they were content with each good day as it came, taking pleasure in every meal, and in every word and song.
So the days slipped away, as each morning dawned bright and fair, each evening followed cool and clear. But autumn was waning fast; slowly the golden light faded to pale silver, and the lingering leaves fell from the naked trees. A wind began to blow chill from the Misty Mountains to the east. The Hunter's Moon waxed round in the night sky, and put to flight all the lesser stars. But low in the South one star shone red. Every night, as the Moon waned again, it shone brighter and brighter. Frodo could see it from his window, deep in the heavens, burning like a watchful eye that glared above the trees on the brink of the valley.

Термін виконання: семінарське заняття 5
Очікуваний результат: сформовані навички перекладу з аналізом фонетичних і лексичних труднощів, вдосконалені мета когнітивні стратегічні компетентності.


SEMINAR 7
LEXICAL ASPECT OF TRANSLATION

1. Set phrases (clichés) and phraseological units (idioms): definition of clichés and idioms. Their similarities and differences.
2. Ways of rendering set phrases (clichés) and phraseological units (idioms). Give your own examples.
Other trouble-making lexical items: numerals, proper names, specific items of national lexicon.
Ways of rendering abbreviations and acronyms. Give your own examples of rendering abbreviations via transliteration, ordinary translation, descriptive and loan translation.


Practical part
Translate the given extracts into your native language taking into consideration ways of rendering set phrases and phraseological units.
Analyze the translation from the point of view of levels of equivalence.




Literature
Комиссаров В.Н. Теория перевода (лингвистические аспекты): Учеб. пос. для ин-тов и ф-тов ин. яз. / В.Н. Комиссаров. М. : Высш. шк., 1990. С. 187-208.
Комиссаров В.Н., Коралова А.Л. Практикум по переводу с английского языка на русский: Учеб. пос. для ин-тов и ф-тов ин. яз. М. : Высш. шк., 1990. С. 93-97, 71-75.
Корунець І.В. Теорія і практика перекладу (аспектний переклад): Підручник / І.В. Корунець. Вінниця : Нова книга, 2000. С. 91-198.
Федоров А.В. Основы общей теории перевода (лингвистические проблемы): Учеб. пос. для ин-тов и ф-тов ин. яз. / А.В. Федоров. М. : Высш. шк., 1983. С. 159-170.

A little bird told me
A rolling stone gathers no moss
Barking up the wrong tree
Be all ears
Case in point
Cat got your tongue?
Catch someone red-handed
Change horses in midstream
Chickenfeed
can of worms
burn the candle at both ends
call it a day
all his geese are swans
get cold feet
mad as a hatter
make blood boil
make your ears burn
pack of lies
packed like sardines
pay over the odds
square peg in round hole
get the sack / be sacked
rub salt into wound
tail wagging the dog
take your courage in both hands
wait for the cat to jump
your wish is my command


ВПРАВИ ДЛЯ САМОСТІЙНОГО ОПРАЦЮВАННЯ

ВПРАВА 11: Встановіть повну версію ідіоматичних одиниць у наданих уривках. Перекладіть уривки на рідну мову зберігаючи ідіоматичність змісту.
1. Не had been a rolling stone too long to sit down in one place, breed cattle and wait for them to grow.
2. One look showed Swithin his condition. Drank again. This was the last straw.
3. He seized with avidity upon the subject, which had for him all the charm of forbidden fruit.
4. I wouldn't be surprised if he understood Hedda better than anybody does. I think they're birds of a feather.
5. Politicians look on the cliche as a friend in need.
6. Come on, you know where the proof of the pudding is!
7. My uncle was a rich man - in other words, he paid the piper!
8. His father was a happy-go-lucky man, you might call him Jack of all trades.
9. Don't worry, Bob! We are two brave men with hands, brains and spine. So let the morn come!


ЗАВДАННЯ З САМОСТІЙНОЇ РОБОТИ

Завдання 5: Перекладіть текст. Знайдіть перекладацькі відповідності щодо звуження значення лексичної одиниці.
1. There we are likely to see an inhospitable land of rocks and crazily precipitous crags and mountains under a big sky.
2. The tree also is sitting quietly, doing nothing; actually all parts of the cosmos are doing the same thing - being.
3. The millennia pass and the big round eyes of fish stare at the various shapes in this corner of the subaqueous universe.
4. When we, human beings, can stop using language or when we can use it to cope purely and only with the present moment, we find that the quality of our living is changed.
5. When we sit quietly with the same unselfconscious concentration, we also generate organismal joy.
6. Eight hundred years ago Toba, a Japanese artist, painted a long scroll with many scenes of apes and frogs and rabbits and deer frolicking; in this scroll, for example, a frog sits cross-legged in a 'sacred' place, as if he were the Buddha or a Buddhist abbot.
7. Many of us tend to think of life as a parade, something planned to be a triumph of artifice over nature.
8. True insight does not issue from specialized knowledge but comes from the preconscious intuitions of one's whole being, from one's own code.

Термін виконання: семінарське заняття 7
Очікуваний результат: розвинуті вміння практичного застосування знань про лексичні труднощі перекладу, аналіз перекладацьких відповідностей (трансформацій), вдосконалені професійні компетентності.




SEMINAR 8
GRAMMATICAL ASPECTS OF TRANSLATION

Difference between languages that cause grammar difficulties in translation.
Changing grammatical forms of the words, its reasons.
Translating finite verb forms (tense and aspect, passive voice, subjunctive mood forms).
Translating non-finite verb forms (infinitive, gerund, participle, absolute constructions).
Translating causative constructions.



Practical part
1. Translate the given passage from The Daily Telegraph into your native language taking into consideration change of grammatical forms.
Analyze the translation from the point of view of levels of equivalence.



Literature
Комиссаров В.Н., Коралова А.Л. Практикум по переводу с английского языка на русский: Учеб. пос. для ин-тов и ф-тов ин. яз. М. : Высш. шк., 1990. С. 97-112.
Корунець І.В. Теорія і практика перекладу (аспектний переклад): Підручник / І.В. Корунець. Вінниця : Нова книга, 2000. С. 253-301.
Максимов С.Є. Усний двосторонній переклад (англійська та українська мови): Курс лекцій та мат-ли до семінарських занять / С.Є. Максимов. – К. : Видавничий центр КНЛУ, 2002. – С. 100-104.
Федоров А.В. Основы общей теории перевода (лингвистические проблемы): Учеб. пос. для ин-тов и ф-тов ин. яз. / А.В. Федоров. М. : Высш. шк., 1983. С. 170-197.



The White House rejected as inadequate last night a Taliban call for Osama bin Laden to leave Afghanistan of his own accord.
It insisted that the prime suspect in last week's terror attacks on America be surrended immediately. With American troops on the move, the Pentagon said it was preparing for "sustained land combat operations".
An eddict, or fatwa, issued by a council of Afghan clerics said that bin Laden should be "persuaded to leave whenever possible". But pointedly it did not order his expultion.
"This does not meet America's requirements", said Ari Fleishcher, President Bush's spokesman. "This is about much more than one man being allowed to leave voluntarily, presumably, from one safe harbour to another one".
He added: "The president has demanded that key figures of the al-Qaeda terrorist organization, including bin Laden, be turned over to responsible authorities and that Taliban close terrorist camps in Afghanistan".
Tony Blair was due to fly from New York tp Washington for talks with Mr Bush before the president addressed both houses of Congress about the attacks. The number of people missing at the World Trade Centre is now put at 6333, with 241 confirmes dead.
Against the backdrop of American mobilisation, Mr Blair gave the strongest signal yet that he was ready to send British forces into action against bin Laden's network.
He said that bin Laden must be handed over and that other groups in Afghanistan had to be crushed.
Speaking in Paris earlier after meeting President Chirac, Mr Blair said that support for America was gathering.
"One of the most important and significant aspects of what has happened in the days following those terrible attacks in the United States has been the strength – indeed, I would say the growing strength – of the coalition right around the world against terrorism".


ВПРАВИ ДЛЯ САМОСТІЙНОГО ОПРАЦЮВАННЯ

ВПРАВА 12: Перекладіть уривок на рідну мову зберігаючи стилістичні функції граматичної форми виділених сполучень.
No country's history has been more closely bound to immigration than that of the United States. The Founding Fathers, especially Thomas Jefferson, were ambivalent over whether or not the United States ought to welcome arrivals from every comer of the globe. The author of America's Declaration of Independence wondered whether democracy could ever rest safely in the hands of men from countries that revered monarchs or replaced royalty with mob rule. However, few supported closing the gates to newcomers in a country desperate for labour.
By the mid-1840s millions of immigrants made their way to America as a result of a potato blight in Ireland and continual revolution in the German homelands. Meanwhile, a trickle of Chinese immigrants began to approach the American West Coast. Almost 19 million people arrived in the United States between 1880 and 1921, the year Congress first passed severe restrictions. Most of these immigrants were from Italy, Russia, Poland, Greece and the Balkans. Non-Europeans came, too: east from Japan, south from Canada and north from Mexico.


ЗАВДАННЯ З САМОСТІЙНОЇ РОБОТИ

Завдання 6: Перекладіть текст беручи до уваги культурні відмінності.
1. In many parts of Great Britain, the custom of First-footing in the early hours of January 1st is kept with great vigour. The First Foot comes as soon as possible after midnight has struck. The First Foot is traditionally supposed to influence fortunes of the householders in the following twelve months.
2. The Old and unusual game known as the Hood Game, or Throwing the Hood, is played every year on Old Christmas Day, January 6th at Haxey in north Lincolnshire. The ceremonies of Haxey Hood begin in the early afternoon with the procession of the. Fool and his twelve Boggans up the village street to a small green place outside the parish church. The Boggans are the official team and play against all comers. Chief among them is the King Boggan, or Lord of the Hood, who carries a wand, or roll of thirteen willows as a badge of office. He and all his team should wear scarlet flannel coats and hats wreathed with red flowers. The "hoods" used in the game bear no resemblance to the headgear from which they are supposed to take their name. The main hood, or Leather Hood, is a two-foot length of thick rope encased in stout leather. The lesser 'hoods' are tightly-rolled pieces of canvas, tied with ribbons.
3. Jack-in-the-Green is that very ancient figure who represents the Summer. As Green George, or the Wild Man, his counterparts exist all over Europe.
In England, he takes the form of a man encased in a high wickerwork cage which completely covers him and is in its turn entirely smothered in green branches, leaves and flowers. Only his eyes are visible, loоking through the hole cut in the cage, and his feet below the level of the wicke-work. Sometimes he goes about alone, sometimes with only a few attendants, and a musician or two.
4. Egg-shackling takes place on Easter Monday, or Ducking Monday, as it is often called in Eastern Europe. Young men splash unmarried girls vigorously with water. The girls are, of course, expected to submit with good grace, and even, in some areas, to pay for the privilege with gifts of painted eggs, or glasses of brandy.

Термін виконання: семінар ьке заняття 8
Очікуваний результат: вдосконалені навички перекладу з культурологічним аналізом



SEMINAR 9
GRAMMATICAL ASPECTS OF TRANSLATION. SYNTAX

1. Difficulties in translating pronouns.
Difficulties in rendering English articles.
Syntactic aspects of translation.
Communicative structure of the sentence.
Word order change due to the functional sentence perspective.


Practical part
1. Suggest your translation of the given fragments from newspapers «День», «Сільські вісті» focusing on the grammatical difficulties.
2. Analyze the translation from the point of view of levels of equivalence.




Literature
Комиссаров В.Н. Теория перевода (лингвистические аспекты): Учеб. пос. для ин-тов и ф-тов ин. яз. / В.Н. Комиссаров. М. : Высш. шк., 1990. С.178-186.
Комиссаров В.Н., Коралова А.Л. Практикум по переводу с английского языка на русский: Учеб. пос. для ин-тов и ф-тов ин. яз. М. : Высш. шк., 1990. С. 97-112.
Корунець І.В. Теорія і практика перекладу (аспектний переклад): Підручник / І.В. Корунець. Вінниця : Нова книга, 2000. С. 208-242.
Федоров А.В. Основы общей теории перевода (лингвистические проблемы): Учеб. пос. для ин-тов и ф-тов ин. яз. / А.В. Федоров. М. : Высш. шк., 1983. С. 170-197.



Значного прогресу у розв'язанні цього складного питання було досягнуто завдяки зусиллям нашої робочої групи.

Велику роботу було проведено Міністерством охорони здоров'я разом з міжнародними організаціями з метою профілактики розповсюдження ВІЛ-інфекції та СНІДу в Україні.

Результати нашої складної роботи ми можемо відчувати кожного дня.

Які, на ваш погляд, найбільш істотні недоліки нашої судової системи?
Зараз у нас суддю на перші п'ять років призначає Президент – це як випробувальний термін, а потім кандидатури суддів подаються на довічне затвердження у парламент. І ведеться суперечка – добре чи поганою У ідеалі це дуже добре, але все залежить від того, який суддя. Адже часто через п'ять років «довічними» суддями стають такі люди, яким не місце у судовій владі.
Завершилася восьма сесія, передостання в нинішньому скликанні парламенту.

Вчора в Токіо відкрилася дводенна міжнародна конференція стосовно економічної допомоги Афганістану.

Але якщо теперішня тенденція не зміниться, уряду на бюджетну добавку від дивідендів не слід би особливо розраховувати. Саме 17 січня приємна статистична новина про те, що Україна у 2001 році збільшила промислове виробництво на 14,2%, була доповнена іншою не дуже приємною і цілком незрозумілою.

Заступник держсекретаря Мінекономіки Ігор Шумило повідомив, що він вважає ситуацію з надходженням дивідендів до бюджету «дуже скорботною». Народний депутат Сергій Терьохін стверджує, що органи, які представляють інтереси держави, зокрема, Фонд державного майна, а також компанії, яким передані в управління держпакети акцій, недостатньо активно ведуть дивидендну політику.


ВПРАВИ ДЛЯ САМОСТІЙНОГО ОПРАЦЮВАННЯ

ВПРАВА 13: Перекладіть уривок на рідну мову і проаналізуйте можливість синтаксичних трансформацій у взаємозв'язку з лексико-семантичним складом одиниць перекладу.

Although Salinger was publishing stories as early as 1940, serious interest in his work was slight until The Catcher in the Rye (1951) occasioned a belated deluge of critical comment. In 1963 the "Salinger industry" (the term is George Steiner's) reached its high-water mark, with almost 40 percent of the volume of the Faulkner's industry - big business indeed. But a reaction had already set in. In that year the first book-length study of Salinger turned out to be disappointing in its critical judgment and strangely hostile toward Salinger himself. Many other critics had begun to scold him for an increasing social irresponsibility, obfuscation, and obsession with Eastern philosophy and religion, and for the narrow exclusiveness of his view of life - in short, for his failure to develop in directions which the critics could approve of. And the word used more and more to describe Salinger's talent and achievement was "minor." But the fact is that Salinger is not minor.


ЗАВДАННЯ З САМОСТІЙНОЇ РОБОТИ

Завдання 7: Перекладіть текст. Визначте фрагменти, які потребують коментарів перекладача.
Kingstone is one of the oldest summer cottages left standing in Newport, a reminder of the pre- Civil War days when wealthy Southern families continued the 18th century practice of spending their summers in the cool climate of the City-by-the-Sea. With its modest dimensions and gentle architecture, it is also a symbol of a less competitive time when houses were built more for comfort than for show.
The cottage, later to be called Kingstone, was built in 1839 for George Noble Jones, a well-to-do plantation owner from Savannah, Georgia. It is difficult to imagine today the importance that Victorians attached to the powers of nature in preserving health. George Jones liked to entertain people in his estate. Afternoon dinner and informal suppers were the rule. Horsеback riding and swimming were popular pastimes. Bathing took place at Easton Beach frequently. Women were permitted to use the beach mornings, under protection of a white flag. At noon, women were expected to leave, presumably to be spared the sight of gentlemen in their bathing costumes.
The conflict that took shape in the 1790s between the Federalists and the Antifederalists exercised a profound impact on American history. The Federalists, led by Alexander Hamilton, who had married into the wealthy family, represented the urban mercantile interests of the seaports; the Antifederalists, led by Thomas Jefferson, spoke for the rural and southern interests. Hamilton feared anarchy and thought in terms of order; Jefferson feared tyranny and thought in terms of freedom. Washington and the Congress accepted Hamilton's view - and an important precedent for an expansive interpretation of the federal government's authority.
Муромца выбивал копытом источники ключевой воды, нередко ставились часовни во имя Ильи-пророка. Соловей-разбойник гнездится на двенадцати дубах; в некоторых сказаниях Соловья заменяет двенадцатиголовый Змей Горыныч. Эти сближения убедительно свидетельствуют, что в образе Соловья-разбойника народная фантазия олицетворяла демона бурной, грозовой тучи, связанного с верховным богом ветров Стрибогом. Муромца с Соловьем-разбойником являет собой образную картину грозы с ее тучами, буйным ветром, громом и молниями.

Термін виконання: семінарське заняття 9
Очікуваний результат: розвинуті культурологічні перекладацькі компетентності, навички перекладу з коментарем, сформована комунікативна компетентність.








SEMINAR 10
PRAGMATIC ASPECT OF TRANSLATION

1. Pragmatic problems of translation.
2. Text pragmatics.
3. Author's communicative intention.
4. Translator's impact. Give your own examples.
5. Types of Adaptive Transcoding (retelling, summarising, presise making, reviewing). The basic procedures of text information processing in Adaptive Transcoding.



Practical part
1. Translate the given passage from "Fairy Tales" by Pavlovskaya into English taking into consideration pragmatic aspect of translation.
2. Analyze the translation from the point of view of levels of equivalence.


Literature
Комиссаров В.Н. Теория перевода (лингвистические аспекты): Учеб. пос. для ин-тов и ф-тов ин. яз. / В.Н. Комиссаров. М. : Высш. шк., 1990. С. 209-215.
Комиссаров В.Н., Коралова А.Л. Практикум по переводу с английского языка на русский: Учеб. пос. для ин-тов и ф-тов ин. яз. М. : Высш. шк., 1990. С. 43-47.



Сказки
А.В.Павловская
Очень много о национальном характере народа говорят его сказки. С них начинается формирование представлений о мире, о добре и зле, о нравственных ценностях. Интересно, что в России любимым героем сказок является Иван-дурак. Внешне неприметный, совершающий на первый взгляд глупые и ненужные поступки, не стремящийся ни к богатству, ни к славе, он в конце сказки получает в награду прекрасную королевну, а иногда и полцарства в придачу. В то же время его старшие братья – умницы и прагматики – оказываются в дураках. Сила Ивана-дурака, и в этом выразился своеобразный народный идеал, в его простоте, в его искренности, в отсутствии в его характере меркантильности и прагматизма. Он отдаёт голодной зайчихе последний ломоть хлеба, поступок бессмысленный с точки зрения здравого смысла, а в трудный момент именно она приносит ему яйцо, в котором Кащеева смерть. Так милосердие награждается. Никто не воспринимает Ивана всерьёз, и в этом тоже его сила. Он наивен, жалостлив, непрактичен и немногословен, поэтому «умники» считают его дураком, а народ – своим героем. А русские дети, слушая сказку, учатся: думай не только о себе, о своих удобствах (как этого требует пресловутый здравый смысл), будь деликатен, внимателен к людям, старайся не обременять их, а заодно не суди сразу и резко по одежде, виду и поведению: неказистый дурачок может оказаться настоящим героем в отличие от здравомыслящего супермена.


ВПРАВИ ДЛЯ САМОСТІЙНОГО ОПРАЦЮВАННЯ

ВПРАВА 14: Перекладіть уривок на рідну мову зберігаючи комунікативну інтенцію автора при перекладі метафоричних одиниць.

Work Suspended
With the first false alarm of the air-raid sirens in 1939 started the second World War, and an epoch, my epoch, came to an end. Beavers bred in captivity, inhabiting a concrete pool, will, if given the timber, fatuously go through all the motions of damming and ancestral stream. So I and my friends busied ourselves with our privacies and intimacies. The new life came. Neither book - the last of my old life, the first of my new - was ever finished. My friends were dispersed. Lucy moved back to her aunt's. Roger rose from department to department in the office of Political Warfare. Basil sought and found a series of irregular adventures.
I met Atwater several times in the course of the war - the Good-scout of the officer's club, the Underdog in the transit camp, the Dreamer lecturing troops about post-war conditions. He was reunited, it seemed, with all his legendary lost friends, he prospered and the Good-scout predominated. Today, I believe, he holds sway over a large area of Germany. No one of my close acquaintances was killed, but all our lives, as we constructed them, quietly came to an end. Our story, like my novel, remained unfinished - a heap of neglected foolscap at the back of a drawer.


ЗАВДАННЯ З САМОСТІЙНОЇ РОБОТИ

Завдання 8: Перекладіть текст, беручи до уваги особливості перекладу фразеологізмів.
1. Не had to keep a sharp eye on his sister for the sake of her good.
2. The woman obviously had the gift of second sight, whatever it might be.
3. It was still not unheard of for an angry parent to cut off his son with a shilling.
4. If you haven't been born under a lucky star you just have to work all the harder to get what you want.
5. Oh, by the way, if you want a bath, take one. There ain't a Peeping Tom on the place.
6. The mere sound of that execrable, ugly name made his blood run cold and his breath come in laboured gasps.
7. He would stand second to none in his devotion to the custom.
8. I can't make out how you stand London society when it has gone to the dogs, a lot of damned nobodies talking about nothing.
9. According to Michael, they must take it by the short hairs,'or they might as well put up the shutters.
10. He knew how the land lay between his hopes and the number of missions Colonel Cathcart was constantly increasing.
11. I thought it my duty to warn you, but I'm prepared to take the rough and the smooth.
12. The most depressing rumours are about here as to the next… production - Julius Caesar or some such obsolete rubbish… Will nothing persuade him that Queen Anne is dead!
13. I could not let him talk to me like some Dutch uncle.
14. She offered me a choice between French and Russian dressing, and I chose the latter, and she brought something red in a small sauper.
15. He replied that The Star-Spangled Banner was the greatest piece of music ever composed.
16. They couldn't touch him because he was Tarzan, Cain and the Flying Dutchman.
17. Aunt Ursula knew Oswald well enough to be a little suspicious of his Greek gifts, but could not help being flattered by his attention.
18. This is a Trust Fund. Anything that it supports must be Caesar's wife.
19. In short, gentlemen, I come to you bearing an olive branch.
20. At last he would return, like the prodigal son, gloomy, worn out, and disgusted with himself.
21. They motored up, taking Michael Mont, who, being in his seventh heaven, was found by Winifred 'very amusing'.

Термін виконання: семінарське заняття 10
Очікуваний результат: розвинуті навички складання словника фразеологізмів



SEMINAR 11
PRAGMATIC ASPECT OF TRANSLATION. EXTRALINGUISTIC FACTORS

1. The notion of pragmatic potential of the text.
2. Sociolinguistic factors and pragmatics.
3. Pragmatic adaptation in translation.
4. Extratranslatory factors in pragmatics.


Practical part
Translate the given passage from "Fairy Tales" by Pavlovskaya into English taking into consideration pragmatic aspect of translation.
Analyze the translation from the point of view of levels of equivalence.



Literature
1. Комиссаров В.Н. Теория перевода (лингвистические аспекты): Учеб. пос. для ин-тов и ф-тов ин. яз. / В.Н. Комиссаров. М. : Высш. шк., 1990. С. 209-226.
2. Комиссаров В.Н., Коралова А.Л. Практикум по переводу с английского языка на русский: Учеб. пос. для ин-тов и ф-тов ин. яз. М. : Высш. шк., 1990. С. 112-120.
Корунець І.В. Теорія і практика перекладу (аспектний переклад): Підручник / І.В. Корунець. Вінниця : Нова книга, 2000. С. 405-418.
Федоров А.В. Основы общей теории перевода (лингвистические проблемы): Учеб. пос. для ин-тов и ф-тов ин. яз. / А.В. Федоров. М. : Высш. шк., 1983. С. 274-300.



Сказки
А.В.Павловская

Русский характер, как и любой другой, был преимущественно сформирован временем и пространством. История и географическое положение наложили на него свой неизгладимый отпечаток. История вообще объясняет и оправдывает многое, к сожалению, мало кто её знает. Века постоянной военной опасности породили особый патриотизм русских и их стремление к сильной централизованной власти; суровые климатические условия вызвали необходимость жить и работать сообща; бескрайние просторы – особый российский размах. При всей условности подобного рода обобщений в характере русских можно выделить ряд закономерностей и общих черт.


ВПРАВИ ДЛЯ САМОСТІЙНОГО ОПРАЦЮВАННЯ

ВПРАВА 15: Перекладіть уривки на рідну мову зберігаючи іронію автора. Зверніть увагу на екстралінгвальні фактори при перекладі.

1. Their only hope was that it would never stop raining, and they had no hope because they all knew it would.
2. Late that night Hungry Joe dreamed that Huple's cat was sleeping on his face, suffocating him, and when he woke up, Huple's cat was sleeping on his face.
3. At the end of ten days, a new group of doctors came to Yossarian with bad news: he was in perfect health and had to get out of the hospital.
4. After that, Colonel Cathcart did not trust any other colonel in the Squadron. The only good colonel, he decided, was a dead colonel, except for himself.
5. Nately had lived for almost twenty years without trauma, tension, hate, or neurosis, which was proof to Yossarian of just how crazy he really was.
6. It was already some time since the chaplain had first begun wondering what everything was all about. Was there a God? How could he be sure? Being an Anabaptist minister in the American Army was difficult enough.
 
 ВПРАВА 16: Перекладіть уривки на рідну мову і проаналізуйте ступень значущості власних імен в іронічному контексті.
1. Philbrick sat at the next table at the Maison Basque eating the bitter little strawberries which are so cheap in Provence and so very expensive in Dover Street.
2. One by one the girls were shown in. 'Name?' said Margot. 'Pompilia de la Conradine.' Margot wrote it down. 'Real name?' 'Bessy Brown.'
3. Margot and Paul went up to London to make arrangements for the wedding, which, contrary to all reasonable expectation, Margot decided was to take place in church with all the barbaric concomitants of bridesmaids, Mendelssohn and mummery.
4. Is Oxford worth while? As far as I can judge from my own experience and that of my friends it is certainly not. Of my classmates only one is earning "real money"; he is a film star at Hollywood; incidentally he was sent down for failing to pass his preliminary schools.
5. Hollywood has made its business the business of half of the world. Yet the great pachyderms of the film trade have no suspicion that in most of America and in the whole of Europe the word "Hollywood" is pejorative.
6. Another new arrival that caused us a certain amount of trouble, one way or another, was Delilah. She was a large female African crested porcupine, and she arrived up at the airport in a crate that looked suitable for a couple of rhinoceros.
7. In the England of the first half of the century there was published a series of architectural designs for the use of provincial builders and private patrons, displaying buildings of different sizes from gate lodges to mansions, decorated in various "styles", Palladian, Greek, Gothic, even Chinese.


ЗАВДАННЯ З САМОСТІЙНОЇ РОБОТИ

Завдання 9: Перекладіть текст, беручи до уваги особливості перекладу культуронімів.
1. I just want to get the hell out of this black hole of Calcutta.
2. Spring has been playing Box and Cox with winter for months past.
3. Perhaps in a society that needs to cling to some remnants of faith, the preachers dwindling and political leaders in goal, the union man must be Simon Pure.
4. If we wish to be reminded why Ireland continues to hold John Bull in such loathing, we should listen.
5. Our Austin is a bit of a Jekyll and Hyde, and Dorina is afraid of him.
6. And there were three young couples in camp, also a Darby and John.
7. Apparently he did not even trouble to acknowledge a very gracious epistle from Richard giving him the Hobson's choice of going to the Egypt expedition as second-in-command or returning to Mysore.
8. You can't stay an Uncle Tom when your people are fighting for their rights.
9. It looks like we have got another John Doe in this case.
10. But I refuse to condemn others for the mote in their eye when there is a beam in my own.
11. В чужом-то глазу и соломинка бревном глядится.
12. They condemned her unanimously, and each and every crowded forward to cast the first stone, lest it might be thought that there was even one among them not without sin.
13. Я не знаю, все бросают в меня каменьями. Пусть! Я бы все-таки не променяла своего несчастия на их счастие, нет!
14. Ah, Robbie, you asked them for bread, and they have given you a stone.
15. Ваша помощь для меня - что камень вместо хлеба.
16. The teacher searched his heart trying to decide if he had been unfair in failing Tom.
17. Лишь стало по-спокойнее и лучше, какой-то скорбный, мучительный голос звал меня заглянуть в свое сердце, и я не узнал себя.
18. But to worship the molten calf for eighteen shillings a week? Oh, pitiful, pitiful!
20. Слабые люди ноне пошли, нет поборников, нет подвижников! Забыв Бога, златому тельцу поклоняются.

Термін виконання: семінарське заняття 11
Очікуваний результат: розвинуті вміння практичного застосування знань про труднощі перекладу культуронімів, вдосконалені соціокультурні компетентності.











ДОДАТКИ

1. Порівняйте два уривки з метою визначення перекладацьких трансформацій певних синтаксичних структур. Запропонуйте свій варіант перекладу.


BOUNDING THE LAND

То take advantage of their land's diversity, Indian villages had to be mobile. This was not difficult as long as a family owned nothing that could not be either stored or transported on a man's or - more often - a woman's back. Clothing, baskets, fishing equipment, a few tools, mats for wigwams, some corn, beans, and smoked meat: these constituted most of the possessions that individual Indian families maintained during their seasonal migrations. Even in the south, where agriculture created larger accumulations of food than existed among the hunter-gatherer peoples of the north, much of the harvest was stored in underground pits to await later visits and was not transported in large quantities. The need for diversity and mobility led Indians to avoid acquiring much surplus property, confident as they were that their mobility and skill would supply any need that arose. The first English visitors to America thought it a paradox that Indians seemed to live like paupers in a landscape of great natural wealth. It was only much later that some understood: 'Indians only seemed impoverished, since they were in fact supplied with all manner of needful things, for the maintenance of life and livelihood. First English visitors had European notions of wealth. Perhaps they just did not know true riches when they saw them. But then the whole history of Northern America would have developed in some other direction.

РАЗМЕЖЕВАНИЕ

Индейцам приходилось вести кочевой образ жизни, чтобы иметь возможность пользоваться природными ресурсами. Такое кочевье было возможно только в том случае, если все имущество семьи сводилось к тому, что мог перенести на своих плечах мужчина или - что случалось гораздо чаще - женщина. Одежда, корзины, рыболовные принадлежности, инструменты, щиты для постройки вигвамов, небольшой запас кукурузы, бобов и копченого мяса - вот почти все, чем владела индейская семья, совершая сезонные кочевья. Даже на юге, где благодаря сельскому хозяйству население имело более солидные запасы пищи, чем северные охотники-собиратели, большую часть урожая содержали на месте в подземных хранилищах. Кочевали на юге тоже налегке, время от времени наведываясь к подземным хранилищам за пополнением припасов. Таким образом, необходимость вести кочевой образ жизни вынуждала индейцев к тому, чтобы избегать имущественных излишков и больше полагаться на свое умение добывать все необходимое в пути. Первые английские поселенцы в Америке воспринимали как парадокс то, что индейцы живут в такой, с их точки зрения, нищете, тогда как земля изобиловала богатейшими природными ресурсами. И только гораздо позднее и очень немногие поняли, что "индейцы только кажутся нищими, поскольку на самом деле у них было все, что им требовалось для поддержания жизни". Видимо, у первопоселенцев были европейские представления о богатстве, и они оказались не в состоянии распознать истинные ценности с первого взгляда. В противном случае вся история Соединенных Штатов могла сложиться совсем иначе.


2. Порівняйте два уривки з метою визначення розбіжностей або схожісті у стилі при перекладі певних сполучень. Запропонуйте свій варіант перекладу.



БАРЫШНЯ-КРЕСТЬЯНКА

Таковы были сношения между сими двумя владельцами, когда сын Берестова приехал к нему в деревню. Алексей был в самом деле молодец. Он был воспитан в университете и намеревался вступить в военную службу, но отец на то не соглашался. К статской службе молодой человек чувствовал себя совершенно неспособным. Они друг другу не уступали, и молодой Алексей стал жить покамест барином, отпустив усы на всякий случай.
Легко вообразить, какое впечатление Алексей должен был произвести в кругу наших барышень. Он первый перед ними явился мрачным и разочарованным, говорил им об утраченных радостях и об увядшей своей юности. Барышни сходили по нем с ума.
Но всех более занята была им дочь англомана моего, Лиза (или Бетси, как звал ее обыкновенно Григорий Иванович). Отцы друг ко другу не ездили, она Алексея еще не видала, между тем как все молодые соседки только об нем и говорили. Ей было семнадцать лет. Черные глаза оживляли ее смуглое и очень приятное лицо. Она была единственное и, следственно, балованное дитя.

LADY INTO LASSIE

Such were the relations between these two proprietors when Berestov's son came to visit him. Alexei was indeed a fine young fellow. Educated at the university, he intended to go into the army, but his father would not give his consent to this. The young man felt himself completely unfitted for government service. Neither would give in, and in the meantime the youthful Alexei lived the life of a gentleman at large, cultivating a moustache so as to be ready for any exigency.
It is easy to conceive the impression bound to be made on our young ladies by Alexei. He was the first gloomy, disillusioned being they had met, the first to speak to them of spent pleasures and blighted youth. All this was quite new to the province. All the girls were frantic about him.
But none of them devoted so much thought to him as the daughter of the Anglomaniac, Lisa (or Betsy, as her father usually called her). The fathers did not visit each other's houses, so that she had not yet seen Alexei, whereas all the young women of the neighbourhood talked of nothing but him. Lisa was seventeen years old. Her attractive, olive-skinned countenance was lit up by a pair of black eyes. Being an only child, she was, of course, spoilt and petted.


3. Порівняйте два уривки з метою визначення одиниць перекладу і необхідності перекладацьких трансформацій. Запропонуйте свій варіант перекладу враховуючі такі трансформації.


Without turning her head she said, 'Are you going to stay to supper?' He was not, he answered, waking suddenly. She did not rise with him, did not turn her head, and he let himself out the front door and into the late spring twilight, where was already a faint star above the windless trees. On the drive just without the garage, Harry's new car stood. At the moment he was doing something to the engine of it while the house-yard-stable boy held a patent trouble-lamp above the beetling crag of his head, and his daughter and Rachel, holding tools or detached sections of the car's vitals, leaned their intent dissimilar faces across his bent back and into the soft bluish glare of the light. Horace went on homeward. Twilight, evening, came swiftly. Before he reached the corner where he turned, the street lamps sputtered and failed, then glared above the intersections, beneath the arching trees.
He повернув головы, она сказала: "Вы собираетесь остаться на ужин?" Она не поднялась вместе с ним, не повернула головы, и он сам вышел через переднюю дверь и в поздние весенние сумерки, а там уже светила тусклая звезда над деревьями, и не было ветра. На подъездной дороге перед гаражом стояла новая машина Гарри. В этот момент он что-то делал с мотором, пока мальчик, работавший дома, в конюшне и в поле, держал патентованную аварийную лампу над лохматой головой, а его дочь и Рэчел, держа в руках инструменты и разрозненные детали от внутренностей машины, склонили свои сосредоточенные непохожие лица по ту сторону его склоненной спины в мягком синеватом свете. Хо-рейс пошел в направлении дома. Сумерки, точнее, вечер, наступал стремительно. Еще до того, как он достиг угла, где он поворачивал, уличные фонари затрещали и стихли, а затем засияли над перекрестком, под сводами деревьев.


4. Проаналізуйте надані терміни у фінансовій та юридичній сфері. Визначте метафоричну основу таких термінів і перекладіть їх на рідну мову.


1. Grandfather Clause - Положение какого-либо юридического документа, разрешающее странам, присоединяющимся к этому документу, сохранять в силе те свои внутренние законы, которые не соответствуют положениям данного документа, но имеют важное национально-историческое значение для данной страны.
2. Infant Industry Argument - Временная финансово-налоговая защита какой-либо новой отрасли промышленности или нового предприятия в конкретной стране посредством установления тарифных и иных барьеров для импорта с целью помочь этой отрасли или предприятию встать на ноги и добиться конкурентоспособности на мировом рынке.
3. Turnkey Contract - Договор, по которому подрядчик принимает на себя обязательства перед заказчиком по строительству производственных объектов и обеспечению их эффективной работы перед сдачей заказчику. Обязательства подрядчика заканчиваются со сдачей им заказчику законченного объекта.
4. Grey Area Measures - Неформальные соглашения, ограничивающие торговлю между странами и направленные на сокращение "честного" импорта, например установление произвольных ограничений на экспорт, заключение договоренностей об упорядочивании сбыта и т. п.


5. Порівняйте два уривки з метою визначення значущих позатекстових факторів. Запропонуйте свій варіант перекладу, додайте коментар перекладача, якщо вважаєте такий за важливе.


Long, long ago, when the world was young and people had not come out yet, the animals and the birds were the people of this country. They talked to each other just as we do. And they married, too.
Coyote was the most powerful of the animal people to the west of the Big Shining Mountains, for he had been given a special power by the Spirit Chief. For one thing, he changed the course of the Big River, leaving Dry Falls behind. In some stories, he was an animal; in others he was a man, sometimes a handsome young man. In that long ago time before this time, when all the people and all the animals spoke the same language, Coyote made one of his frequent trips along Great River. He stopped when he came to the place where the water flowed under the Great Bridge that joined the mountains on one side of the river with the mountains on the other side. There he changed himself into a handsome young hunter.

Давным-давно, когда мир был еще юн, а люди еще не вышли на свет, звери и птицы были людьми. Они разговаривали друг с другом, как мы, женились и выходили замуж.
Койот был самым могущественным среди звериного народа, так как Верховный Дух наделил его особым даром. Например, именно Койот изменил русло Большой Реки, проведя его за Сухим Водопадом. По некоторым сведениям, он был животным; кто говорит, что он был человеком, иногда даже красивым юношей. В те давние времена, когда нынешнее время еще не наступило, а люди и звери говорили на одном языке, Койот предпринял одно из своих обычных странствий вдоль Великой Реки. Он устроил стоянку, когда добрался до того места, где вода уходит под Великий Мост, соединяющий горы по обеим сторонам реки. Там Койот превратился в красивого молодого охотника.


6. Порівняйте два уривки з метою сегментації тексту і визначення одиниць перекладу. Зробіть необхідні перекладацькі трансформації. Запропонуйте свій варіант перекладу враховуючі такі трансформації.


"Юрайя Хип" становились совершенным организмом. Если тогдашний, затмевающий роскошью других "звезд", образ жизни хипов и накладывал отпечаток на их облик и поведение вне сцены, то музыка была как раз тем контрастом стилю жизни, который служил творческому развитию группы. "Юрайя Хип" стремились иметь образ. Сейчас же они сама индивидуальность," - писал журнал "Melody Maker" в 1973 году. - "Сейчас это нечто большее, чем просто образ, это - характер." Хип, несомненно, имели характер, но это была именно коллективная индивидуальность, даже большая, чем сумма их личностных особенностей.
 В январе 1973 года, после гастрольной феерии предыдущего года, на концерте в Бирмингеме записывается зальный альбом "Uriah Heep Live"- двойной диск, запечатлевший живой характер группы и каждого ее участника. Именно в зале проверяется слаженность организма группы - инженеры здесь не помогут, тут-то и нужно чувствовать локоть партнера. Хипы в совершенстве владели искусством гигантских шоу, чувствуя малейшие нюансы в поведении друг друга на сцене во время многочасовых выступлений нескончаемых турне. Особенно тяжелая нагрузка ложилась на вокалиста - недаром спустя два года Байрон жаловался новому басисту Веттону, что за пять лет "беспрерывного орания на стадионах" его голосовые связки напрочь сели.

Uriah Heep were building the perfect beast. If their lifestyle at the time, surpassing the luxury of the other stars, had some effect on their characters offstage, their music made that necessary contrast with their lifestyle that contributed into their creative development. 'Uriah Heep used to have an image, now they have personality,' wrote Melody Maker in 1973. 'A new image has developed, but now it is more than an image, it is a character." And Heep undoubtedly had a character. But it was not just a collective personality, more even than the sum of individual personalities.
In January 1973, after the fairy-like tours of the past year, a live album URIAH HEEP LIVE was recorded at the concert in Birmingham. It was a double album and a living testimony to the band's character (and personality) at the time. It is at a concert that the real harmony of the group body reveals itself; no engineers can help you at the moment but the feeling of comradeship. Heep were perfect at gigantic shows, feeling the least nuances in the stage behaviour of each other, which could last for hours in the endless tours. Their vocalist was particularly overloaded; it was not without reason that, two years later, Byron complained to their new bassist Wetton that he had nearly lost his vocal cords for five years of 'continuous yelling on the arenas'.


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