'on Heroes, Hero-Worship, And the Heroic' in Environmental History

March 25, 2018 | Author: volodeaTis | Category: Environmental History, Environmentalism, Ecology, Narrative, Peat



'On Heroes, Hero-Worship, and the Heroic' in Environmental HistoryAuthor(s): GRAEME WYNN Source: Environment and History, Vol. 10, No. 2, The Nature of G.P. Marsh: Tradition and Historical Judgement (May 2004), pp. 133-151 Published by: White Horse Press Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/20723481 Accessed: 14-08-2015 09:45 UTC REFERENCES Linked references are available on JSTOR for this article: http://www.jstor.org/stable/20723481?seq=1&cid=pdf-reference#references_tab_contents You may need to log in to JSTOR to access the linked references. Your use of the JSTOR archive indicates your acceptance of the Terms & Conditions of Use, available at http://www.jstor.org/page/ info/about/policies/terms.jsp JSTOR is a not-for-profit service that helps scholars, researchers, and students discover, use, and build upon a wide range of content in a trusted digital archive. We use information technology and tools to increase productivity and facilitate new forms of scholarship. For more information about JSTOR, please contact [email protected] White Horse Press is collaborating with JSTOR to digitize, preserve and extend access to Environment and History. http://www.jstor.org This content downloaded from on Fri, 14 Aug 2015 09:45:58 UTC All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions On Heroes, Hero-Worship, and theHeroic' in EnvironmentalHistory GRAEMEWYNN Department ofGeography University of British Columbia 1984 WestMall Vancouver, BC, Canada V6T1Z2 Email: [email protected] ABSTRACT George PerkinsMarsh is both thehero and thefoil of thispaper. His well-known book,Man and Nature, and his reputation as thefountainhead of theconservation movement lie at the very centre of the storyoffered here. But this account also casts some doubt upon theprecedence generally attributed to some ofMarsh's ecological claims, and questions thewisdom of placingMarsh and otherhistorical figures on pedestals thatelevate them too readily and toomarkedly above their peers. It does this by probing the reception ofMarsh's ideas inNew Zealand in the 1870s, by considering the ideas of largely-forgottenTitus Smith about human impacts upon the vegetation of Nova Scotia in the nineteenth century, and by wondering about the implications of these tales of environmental un derstanding from two colonial realms for the practice of environmental history in the twenty-firstcentury.This is thus both an engagement with Marsh and a storyabout stories, about how they are constructed, about how they travel and about how they influence theways speak to the future. inwhich historians present the past and KEYWORDS George PerkinsMarsh, Titus Smith,Nova Scotia, New Zealand, Historiography, Origins of Conservation This is a story about stories, about how they are constructed, about how they travel, and about how they influence theways inwhich historians present the past and speak to the future. It is, like all stories, partial and personal. At one level it is littlemore than a reflection upon my own contingent, serendipitous, even implausible academic progress. At another, it seeks to connect personal EnvironmentandHistory 10 (2004): 133-51 ? 2004 TheWhite Horse Press This content downloaded from on Fri, 14 Aug 2015 09:45:58 UTC All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions Because George PerkinsMarsh . the editor of theNew Zealand Geographer soon asked me to review Thomas Simpson's Kauri toRadiata.134 GRAEMEWYNN experience with questions of some importance to understanding the roots of current environmental discourse. rendering them. Considered alone. the latter in the Radcliffe Science Library inOxford. inhand.New Zealand had passed legislation to establish State forests and to check heedless use of timber.The first sighting occurred a quarter-century ago. To my mind.vaguely curious. and several years ofwork on theNew Brunswick forest behind me. a history of theNew Zealand forest industry. inpart. at least in outline. Beyond this. juxtaposed and compared..D. by suggesting that theways inwhich historical stories are constructed can play a powerful role in shaping contemporary attitudes and actions in popular and political arenas. and seeking new contribu tors to his journal. it invites rumination upon the implications of some of the narratives so assembled. and each puttingme inmind of George Perkins Marsh. itoffers a springboard for think ing about how information is presented. But brought together. and about how fragments of historical evidence are given shape by contexts and cultural assumptions. to confront thefirstofmy ghosts. possibilities. England.198 on Fri. I joined theDepartment of Geography in theUniversity of Canterbury.1 Two research ventures form the heart of this account.1 learned. 14 Aug 2015 09:45:58 UTC All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .is in one way and another at the very centre of this discussion. as ghost stories. The former took place on the old 'town site' of theUniversity of Canterbury.perhaps even disturbing. theyassume amore disconcerting mien. New Zealand. even as theyare assembled into narratives about theworld. PROPHETIC GLIMPSES Newly-minted Ph. In an attempt to pro voke questions and encourage reflection.Occurring less than thirty-fiveyears after the official establishment of This content downloaded from 83. quickly. Mildly arresting. though the second was tantalisinglymore elusive than the first. who claimed (as David Lowenthal pointed out in his recent life ofMarsh) that 'History is .211. 'the fountainhead of the conservation movement' . these are the coins by which each in its particular settingmight be described. neither apparition seemed (or seems) especially shocking. The wraiths that haunted me then (and now). I adapt my titleunabashedly (but notwithout some sense of irony).. at least. Both pointed to incorporeal connections and influences.In thepages of thisbook. I found a passing reference thatbrought me. locally interesting. from Thomas Carlyle. widely separated in space and time. Finally. each evocative of a 'dead-white male'. as a couple of spectral encounters. In 1874. in Christchurch. by Lewis Mumford's account. the second in the late 1990s. and each proved difficult to grasp and interrogate. I present them. they rouse intriguing. are configurations of words.137. the biography of greatmen'. Recognising the limits ofmy expertise.one of the great figures of nineteenth-century American lettersand. '. theauthors of these remarks claimed that the impacts of human disturbance on the local environment were both evident and worrisome. Echoing South Island naturalist Thomas Potts.. once among 'the fairest and fruitfulestprovinces of the Roman Empire. was it also going to be converted from a land ofmilk and honey into a 'howling desola tion'? A few years laterCharles O'Neill.in countries improvidently derived of theirwoods. suggested thathistorians would conclude thatNew Zealanders had 'received a fertile country. offered a fine example of4 the equilibrium arrived at [by nature being] disturbed with more or less violence when man appears as an actor in the scene. and returns in deluges of rain. The road to theForests Bill of 1874 had been paved.theyseemed eerily familiar.' were not new. transmitted to posterity a desert.whichwash away thedried soil intowhich theaccumulatedmass ofmould has been converted. who had used themuch-noted increase in flooding in theH?tt valley nearWellington as a reason to rail at the 'mischievous' and widespread results of wholesale land-clearing in the colony. speeches in theNew Zealand House ofRepresentatives and elsewhere.' was 'completely exhausted of its fertility.211.. since 1868.T. Travers told his listeners in 1870.2 Indeed itwas.137. Had I not read. New Zealand.'4 Many of these finephrases trippedfromAntipodean tongueswithout specific attribution. Together. also.. but by criminal want of foresight. even exuberant... he said... by a series of impassioned.198 on Fri..135 ON HEROES the colony.As I read them. The countrywas embarked on the same course as Asia Minor. show signs of thatmelancholy dilapidation which is now driving somany of thepeasantry of Europe from theirnative hearths'? Surely New Zealand arguments for 'the increased violence of river inundations. Travers argued that large riv ers thatonce ran placidly through the countryside had been turned into raging torrentsby the destruction of forests: moisture . Greece and parts of Alpine Europe.3 The colony.5 This content downloaded from 83.was 'fast becoming an unfit home for itsnoblest inhabitant'. I had learned that a part of Europe. [the forest] mould long stored up in is evaporated. The water and the country which converted courses become had previously into bald hills and dessicated choked presented and encumbered an appearance with the debris.Years before. of rich vegetation is (sic) plains. and barely a quarter century after the beginnings of organised set tlement there. this struckme as a prescient and unusual action.. and the devastations of torrents... North Africa.. thatmany areas first troddenby thehomo sapiens Europae within the last two centuries.or so diminished in productiveness' by themid-nineteenth century that itwas 'no longer capable of ' affording sustenance tocivilized man'.L Travers lecturedmembers of theNew Zealand Institute almost interminablyOn the changes effected in theNatural Features of a New Country by the Introduc tion of Civilized Races'. So lawyer and parliamentarian W. and one worthy of furtherinvestigation. 14 Aug 2015 09:45:58 UTC All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . parliamentary representative of the environmentally-ravaged goldfields districtofThames. it seemed all too obvi ous thatacquaintance withMan and Nature (published in 1864) had allowed at least a small cadre of educated New Zealanders to see theirenvironment with sharp new eyes. he was an 'American writer on physical geography as modified by human action'.. Smith had come toNova Scotia as a youth. A prodigious child . In exploring theapparent paradox posed by recently-settledNew Zealand's unusual commitment to forest conservation.Smith has been largely forgottenby latergenerations. in the company of his parents. secretary to theCentral Board ofAgriculture) on the outskirts of Halifax. He was George PerkinsMarsh.capacitates itspossessor to figure prominently in theworld's history. In the 1830s and 1840s he was active in theHalifax Mechanics Institute (ofwhich he was a founder) and in the 1840s he contributed articles to several Nova Scotia newspapers. the impetus thathad carriedMan and Nature along the slopes of theHindu Kush had brought it. ithad induced a virtual paradigmatic shift in theway that some colonists regarded theirenvironment. in the so-called Antipodes of the library inwhich I then sat. an address delivered before theMechanics Institute and published in theLondon Magazine ofNatural History. toNew Zealand where. By 1828.137.7 This content downloaded from 83.. recalled his brother.6 PHILOSOPHICAL SHADES While conducting research on nineteenth-centuryNova Scotia in 1998.Titus Smith spentmost of his life as a farmer and occasional minor office holder (overseer of roads. prepared on thebasis of some 150 days of arduous travel through the littleknown interiorof the colony in 1801 and 1802.136 GRAEMEWYNN Itwas not difficult to identify the source of these echoes.who left theThirteen Colonies forHalifax after theAmerican War of Independence. Something of an oracle among his contemporaries one obituary suggested thathe possessed 'one of those giant intellectswhich. he was known locally as 'theRural Philosopher of theDutch Village [the settlement in which he lived from 1796]'. years before.he 'could translate themost difficultLatin authors and had also made good progress inGreek' . By my reckoning. riveted my attention and revived memories of the ghost that I had encountered. Known toa small band of regional historians as the author of amanuscript map and accompanying reporton the resources of thecolony. Some speakers provided firm clues by which to identify the revenant inmy mind: he was an 'American author of great research and intelligence'. the irresistibleweight of his conclusions and the sweep of his geographical insights.'while recognising thatcircumstances inNova Scotia had dealt him 'a different lot' in life. .' Iwrote in 1979. 'The cogency ofMarsh's illustrations. 14 Aug 2015 09:45:58 UTC All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . But ' one among his publications. in short order.at twelve.211. underpinned the arguments of thosewho brought the forests question to atten tion in earlyNew Zealand.198 on Fri.1 thought toexplore thework ofTitus Smith Jr. andmosses took hold again. Smith sought to explore the inter-relationsamong soils and plants. then putrefaction quickened. 'treesoverthrown by. the understory died away and covered the surfacewith various kinds of drymoss.This large quantity of dead vegetable matter was thenchanged intomould 'by theoperations of the Fungi.137 ON HEROES Marshalling his thoughts under themost cumbersome and unpromising of titles.Within thirtyor fortyyears.which exposed the turf to sun and rain. which This content downloaded from 83. and onMan in general.. have of the earth. which. even on barren upland.But thisprodigious flowering was short-lived. Year upon year the cycle was repeated. insects. like a strainer retains everything thatcan form turf.Falling leaves.. in elaboration of several of his earlier field observations. by contrast. But itwas no mere co-incidence. In an undisturbed evergreen forest. but thoroughly leavened his belief inProvidential wisdom with his botanical learning. They were thenovertopped in turnby alder. blueberries.Smith began his analysis from a position inNatural Theology. to the dead and decaying matter on the surface.. he ob served thatdeciduous hardwood treesand succulent shrubswere typically found on fertile soils.. and themould built up to form a soil enriched by themovement of nutrients from 'the greatest depth towhich the roots of a tree can reach' through the vegetation.. As the forest thickened.or dying of age'.198 on Fri. insisted Smith.'Conclusions on theResults on theVegetation of Nova Scotia.his practical experience as a colonial farmer. French willow and elderberry.8 Noting the existence of two great vegetation zones inNova Scotia. 14 Aug 2015 09:45:58 UTC All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . evergreen treesand shrubswith tough scaly bark grew relatively slowly. They low banks.' Fire induced othermodifications. In an essay significantly different from his earlier writings. Fires rarely disrupted the process.' The brooks perceived on this soil. of certainNatural and Artificial causes deemed to actuate and affect them' . however to wear away rapid any portion they may be. Mayflower. the surface was entirely covered 'with a fleece of dry moss. and his years spent in close observation of theflora (and fauna) ofNova Scotia. and dead twigs and branches accumulated on the forestfloor. and on Vegetation in general. This was something thatalmost any attentive settlerknew. followed by firsmixed with white birch and poplars. and long-dormant seeds of a dozen species germinated.Within a few years the land became hard and cold. Even where spruce grew so thickly as to suffocate shrubs and perennial plants. and to sketch the intricatemechanisms thatbound biotic communities together. These forestswere very susceptible to fire. the thickethad 'resume[d] nearly its former appearance. and other species formed a new understory. New species seized the ground. autumnal storms. On barren soils. Suddenly the face of the country was transformed by raspberries. and the succeeding process of putrefaction'. Soil and vegetation shaped each other.137. therewas little superficial erosion. run on beds and are hardly of stones.The vegetable matter thataccumulated beneath themwas strongly resistant to decay.211. The resultwas remarkable. to renew growth. now Chamaedaphne calyculata] took root.137. French willows and other plants regenerated in the ash. this time deliberately. al ders and firswould soon grow from thedamp sward. ThmAndromeda calyculata [Round-leaved Andromeda. Burn the forest and expose the ground to rain.Within this dynamic complex. These were the 'quaking bogs' so common inmany parts of the interior of theprovince. By his account. In other words.. these small bodies of water gradually filled up. until after three or four years it lost its initial luxuriance.' All of thismaterial. Then itwas burned again. carryingwith it 'considerable quantities of charcoal.138 GRAEMEW YNN are themselves prevented from attrition by the water moss and byssus which cover them. water lilies and other plants that grew in lakes and ponds. the combustible matter being consumed. Clearing fires ran out of control.. that itproduces only a growth of heathy shrubs.spruce cones. this either floated on water or rested on mud. the ground becomes somuch exhausted.destruction of theforestby burning. each plant had a niche to fill and a part to play. In less than 22 pages he anticipated thework ofmany prominent. until themud was nearly bare ina dry season. who flooded intoNova Scotia in the early 1780s. Smith also argued. When tough-rooted cotton grasses and sedges moved in. New settlementswere established. Here he strategically ignored theeffectsof earlier settlement to argue thatthe region's indigenous inhabitants trod lightlyupon the land. and that thenatural processes of forest regenerationwere 'favoured by thehabits of the Indians. Smith's disquisition on 'TheNatural History ofNova Scotia' brims with ecological understanding and is full of insight into thepatterns and processes of vegetation development. a strong turfformed.. Smith made itplain. As storm followed storm.'All of thiswas disturbed by the great influx ofLoyal Refugees from theAmerican Revolution. where they remained wet and marsh-like. Dead trees fell to ground. Cattle were thenpastured on the rich herbiage that sprang up. Inferior raspberries. human imprintsupon theflora (and fauna) of the colony were slightbefore 1783. accumulated amid thewater grasses. itwas not long before wood This content downloaded from 83. pieces of the outer bark of trees and shrubs and other light substances. ecologists and foresters. and the cutting of trees fordomestic fuel. fragments of turf. furnishedmore fuel for successive fires 'rekindled every dry season by design or negligence. twentieth-centurybotanists.9 This was not all. and other bog plants. 14 Aug 2015 09:45:58 UTC All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . theirroots loosened by the sinkingof theexposed turf. that the settlement ofNova Scotia had produced serious ecological consequences. peat formed in some quantity. depending upon the wetness (or otherwise) of the season. Extensive tractsof forestwere destroyed. Where theydried sufficiently to become naturalmeadows.198 on Fri. with the exception of thatportion which iswashed by rains into the swamps. forcefully.' Through a combination of clearing foragriculture. and themud inwhich it was borne.With heavy rainswater rushed over the surface.211. and those thathad survived thefires ere long tumbled All of this before thewind. to be followed by bog moss. and all this changed. who carefully avoided setting thewoods on fire. till. 137.198 on Fri. its tone not unlike thatdiscerned. 14 Aug 2015 09:45:58 UTC All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . within these ravaged districts. 'The plains of Jericho and Hauran'. Smith looked to thedesiccated landscapes of theeasternMediter ranean towarn his North American compatriots of the potentially deleterious consequences of their spendthriftattitudes toward the environment. wrote Smith. we might be tempted to espy This content downloaded from 83. and prospects fornatural regenerationwere undermined. that. At the same time. Then swamp-forests (those seed-beds so important to the re-vegetation of adjoining areas in Smith's view of vegetation succession) were attacked by settlers' axes. we might presume to guess at itsprovenance. he continued the foot of man has not passed A few fishermen's over what was huts are all that remain once the kingdom of ancient Tyre. In time they too were reduced tonaught.' PHANTOMCLAIMS This tunebegins to resonate. impoverished some of the finest countries on earth'.139 ON HEROES became scarce in the immediate vicinity of settlements. with only theiruniformed torsos visible because their formerpaths now lie a metre below the ground. Comparisons of new world landswithAsia Minor. itwould be almost impossible to credit the accounts that historians have given of theirpopulation in formerages. the argument for care and caution was only strengthened by the continued existence. once thicklyinhabited. Contemplating Titus Smith's largely unnoticed essay. itsmelody easily recalled. Indeed. portents of desiccation and disaster. were itnot for themagnificent ruins that Ancient Syria and the neighbouring present such an appearance remain. but. There was a clear lesson in all of this: 'whenever man neglects the dictates of nature. These actions had consequences and Smith considered them serious. earlier. There was no doubt.of small areas thatcontinued to exhibit the fertilityof formerdays. farmers controverted nature's design by maintaining a por tion of theircleared land in fallow. countries. by mismanagement. all reverberate through these environmental jeremiads from Australasia and eastern North America. To drive home thispoint he drew a telling comparison between his newly-settled territoryand some of the longest-inhabited parts of theold world.presentan appearancewhich seems to say. still produced 'an hundred fold'. large districts. theywill be cultivated no more. in thewords of those urging forest conservation inNew Zealand. Its tempo is recognisable. he wrote. Like thosewho claim to know the regiment of the ghostly subalterns who are said tomarch the streets of Halifax. we are informed by modern travellers.211. 'thatman has. indictmentsof human mischie vousness and mismanagement. and of Idumea for ages. he is sure to be the sufferer. of sterility. . Far from beating time in thecelebrated global march ofGeorge PerkinsMarsh's ecological insights towhich my New Zealand musings added substance Titus Smith's lonely refrainoffers a haunting challenge to thosewho would deifyMarsh.' By my reckoning.Smith's ecological perspective.' and 'cautioning against the risks of careless growth'.. David Lowenthal has already mustered a defence against such pre-emption claims. his recognition of the anthropogenic origin of heathland. ofMarsh's proclaimed primacy being pre-empted by the hitherto overlooked work of a somewhat retiringcolonial scholar raised in the unprepossessing town ofHalifax? Such an argumentmight be made. Ifnothing else it surelybegs qualification of theclaim that was a lonely prophet.211. His work and ideas lay buried for better than a century.10 What tomake of this? Is it simply a case of new evidence undermining old understandings. the prophet of conservation.11 Besides.had scant impact upon others. This phantom is not so easily classified. But history bids us pause before we do so. Man and Nature exercised a powerful and indubitable influenceupon latenineteenth-century attitudes toward forests. 14 Aug 2015 09:45:58 UTC All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Titus Smith substantially adumbrated many of the insights and images employed in now well-known ways by George Perkins Marsh thirtyyears later.198 on Fri. almost threefulldecades before Scribner's releasedMan and Nature. disappeared with the cultivators' surely calls into question David Lowenthal's assertion that ' [a]nyone with a hoe or an ax knows what he is doing. for the unique and extraordinary clarity of his vision.137. and today stands ranked with Aldo Leopold's Sand County Almanac and Rachel Carson's Silent Spring as one of themost influentialAmerican contributions to 'the struggle to build more responsible human relations with the natural world'.' was delivered before ' his localMechanics Institute in January 1835 and published inLondon later that year. But thiswould likely be the end of it.140 GRAEMEWYNN its author's 'Man and Nature' epaulettes. proclaim Nova Scotia the 'cradle of ecological understanding' inNorth America. This content downloaded from 83. and enjoin people to share a moment in recollection of a man who. But what would it serve? Those who promote tourism inAtlantic Canada might seize upon Smith's prescience as an opportunity to attractvisitors to the area. and place him firmly in thebattalion ofMarsh followers. far ahead of his time. This is Marsh disconcerting.What more could be said? Smith .More than this. 'by a kindly disposition manifested to those around him gained the good will of all'. take itupon themselves to spruce up his gravesite 'overlooking the calm waters of Bedford Basin'.and here the contrastwith Marsh is stark. Smith's lecture on the 'NaturalHistory ofNova Scotia. but beforeMarsh no one had seen the total effects of all axes and hoes. essentially ignored until brought to notice briefly in the 1950s. The ground upon which he stands is neither as firm nor as easily mapped as thebedrock beneath theNova Scotia capital. in 'rethinking] the long sweep of human history. Concluding his new and impressive biography ofMarsh. Meanwhile. and his insistence that 'a long period of cultivation' inattentive to the 'natural tenants' of the earthmeant 'the fertilityof the soil . 'as a direct response to the destructive social and ecological conditions of colonial rule' in smallAtlantic islands and in subtropical India and Africa. inNorth America. By 1800.When..There is after all no question thatTitus Smith is 'unsung'.ismentioned nowhere else'. 14 Aug 2015 09:45:58 UTC All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . in Europe. and that 'modern environmentalism emerged' long before 1864.' In thisview.') his allegorical intentwas apparent. Similar assertions proclaiming the stunning originality and uniqueness ofMarsh's insights are surely equally transparent rhetorical flourishes. and no doubt that he lived on themainstream's margins.the crux ofMarsh's .211. By maintaining thatSmith's 1835 reflections present a haunting chal lenge toLowenthal's claims (contra Judd) that 'only themost scanty ecological awareness antedatesMarsh's own writings'.13 There was a good deal of reflection upon the 'action and reaction between humanity and thematerial world around it.12 When Alexander Pope wrote his epitaph for Sir Isaac Newton ('Nature and Nature's laws lay hid in night: /God said. deformity follows his steps'.. The vicar of Selborne. 'theworld could no longer be regarded as having been made forman alone'. Here Lo wenthal is taking issue.137. 'It has become fashionable to dismiss Marsh in favor . he over-reaches.' in Britain. recent years have ' seen the appearance of a number of 'Marsh put-down[s] by authorswho would diminish the reputation of 'the prophet of conservation' by suggesting thathe has received toomuch credit and was derivative rather than original. of unsung hoi polloi on themainstream's margins.with Richard Judd and Richard Grove. Let Newton be! and all was light. Keith Thomas's survey of changing attitudes to nature in England between 1500 and 1800 nonetheless convincingly reveals that 'the confident anthropomorphism of Tudor England' had been undermined by the end of the eighteenth century.198 on Fri. Indeed.When David Lowenthal declares that 'Realisation of human impact on Earth stems fromMarsh's Man and Nature'. and (contraGroves' view thatearly foresters and colonial administrators possessed ecological insight) that 'the importance of tree cover in retainingmoisture and preventing excessive runoff . Both a growing body of evidence and common sense make all such claims suspect. US Secretary of the Interior Stewart Udall declared Man and Nature 'thebeginning of landwisdom in this country.ON HEROES 141 he observes that. for example. This took numerous forms. I would insist that a war of words over claims to primacy in these debates ismisconceived and largely irrelevant. William Gilpin may have had his eye on the aesthetic rather than the ecological when he wrote that 'whereverman appears with his tools.' he wrote as a politician not a historian.most directly. I am clearly at cognition some risk of being counted a detractor. may not have divined the scientific intricacies of This content downloaded from 83. for theirarguments that 'ordinary rural folk' in northernNew England 'anticipated and nourishedMarsh's insights'. But I am not inclined to join battle on this ground. and not all have borne the test of time and evolv ing understanding. Gilbert White. and inAustralia in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. Thomas writes. theFrench engi neer JeanAntoine Fabr? published his investigations into river torrents in the Departement du Var and other parts of the lower Rhone./ Is needful to thewhole as well as he. and which theblackbirdsused to feed on. they once thought blackbirds forts to destroy them. curiosity and new ideas about the human rela tionshipwith nature abounded. likewise. debate over the relations between humans and nature was equally vigorous. Richard Judd details many of these elsewhere in this issue. Benjamin Franklin's comment.198 on Fri. Immanuel Kant's 'Physische Geographie' had insisted thathumankind be included among the natural phenomena producing environmental change. tomodify her.16 This content downloaded from 83. to fither to our needs and our desires. 14 Aug 2015 09:45:58 UTC All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . and have much more influence in theoeconomy ofNature. were attributable to the removal of woods frommountain slopes. than the incurious are aware of. he concluded. where Bonyhady has shown European set tlement after 1788 constituted 'a form of colonialism alive to the importance of environmental protection and planning'. each crawling worm we see.And in 1797.137. although by and largehis references to ithave been overlooked as theuniqueness of his contribution has been proclaimed.precursors to both the conception and reception of later arguments over 'whetherman is of nature or above her'.142 GRAEMEWYNN biological interdependencies when he observed that even 'themost insignifi cant insects and reptiles are ofmuch more consequence. They made the blackbirds were diminished.A Discourse of Forest-Trees (1664) has been seen (with theFrench Forest Ordinance of 1669) by one authority as marking 'thebeginning of amore reserved attitude to themodification of nature byman in the history ofWestern thought'. he wrote. from 1753. These. inDes Epoques de laNature. they wished again for their blackbirds. In this context. JohnEvelyn's Silva: or. so suffice it to note but a single example.' Such ideas as thesewere. to the com. . Indeed.'15 In theAmericas.We have learned to temper her. ef but a kind ofworm which devoured theirgrass.as Tim And so too inAustralia. consequence and mischievous was. Indeed. as Clarence Glacken recounted inhis Traces on theRhodian Shore. InNew England.Marsh was well aware ofmuch of thiswork. increasedprodigiously. As the text ofMan and Nature makes clear. long beforeMarsh. it isworth recall that theComte de Buffon wrote. (volume 5 of his Histoire Naturelle. The useless. surely. Montesquieu held that the physical environments of Europe and China had been transformedby human industry. upon human disturbance of 'nature's harmonies'. and growing enthusiasm for natural history 'brought the activity of man into bold relief. G?n?rale etParticuli?re) that 'the state in which we see nature today is as much our work as it is hers.211. But poet Henry Baker certainly aimed to 'Restrain the Pride ofMan' when he wrote: 'Each hated toad.14 InEurope. thenfindingtheirloss in grassmuch greater than their savings in corn. who plagiarised Marsh word forword.Wright who aptly named such behaviour) committed 'foolrushery' in 1975.itwas a simple matter to shout 'eureka' and todeclare thedisplacement ofMarsh's ideas toNew Zealand the reason for rising concern about environmental disturbance in that colony. had 'come with the force of a revelation'.' 143 By the same token. His arguments. HISTORIES AND POPPIES In the end. I discern several tantalising fragments of evidence worthy of further investigation. on publication of the second edition ofMan and Nature in 1874. coherence and satisfaction in this tale of diffusion. and barely paused towonder whether theremight be other shades in the frame. however. I have to consider myself fortunate that this is so. who influenced the thinking of those important nineteenth-century scientists Elis?e Reclus and Charles Lyell. debates over primacy are less important than the recognition that the central place accorded George Perkins Marsh in conservation discourse has shaped and has the potential to shape interpretationsof the past. Itwas Marsh. I have begun towonder whether I gave Marsh too much credit. I found allure. In considering thispossibility. promotion. not The Natural History ofSelborne or 'Conclusions on theResults on theVegeta tion of Nova Scotia.18 In recent years.211. Whether by accident of timing. members of theWellington Philosophical This content downloaded from 83. on grounds other thanMarsh. itwas Man and Nature. and in some cases provided clear clues as to the attribution of their ideas . Although the fundamental tenetsofmy New Zealand arguments remain unchallenged. connection.. Consider theNew Zealand and Oxford/Nova Scotia stories outlined above.K.ON HEROES . Fully familiar with Man and Nature and David Lowenthal's Versatile Vermonter. It was Marsh's formulation of the idea that 'Man' is a 'Disturber ofNature's Har monies'.Whether his ideas were derivative or no. claimed a writer in theNation.. that caught the public imagination and most significantly influenced later environmental politics.and early twentieth-century environmental thought should neither be denied nor dimin ished. Thanks toNew Zealand speakers on the forest question . As debate on the forest question unfolded through the early 1870s. did I recognise that I had (with due deference to theAmerican geographer J.198 on Fri.17 OF HEROES.however. orwhether thoseNew Zealanders might have built theirunderstanding. and on Man in general.137.Marsh's impact upon late nineteenth. at least in part. Only with hindsight sharpened by my discoveries in theRadcliffe Science Library. and on Vegetation in general. of certain Natural and Artificial causes deemed to actuate and affect them' that Gifford Pinchot described as 'epoch-making' in his Breaking New Ground. good fortune or whatever. 14 Aug 2015 09:45:58 UTC All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . not Titus Smith or the settlers ofNew SouthWales and Northern New England. he clearly put them together in a more cogent and compelling manner thanmost of his contemporaries. itmay obscure as much as it reveals. then. geolo gist and explorer JuliusVon Haast. In 1871. Wojeikof.Provincial Engineer A. Put simply. towhom orators appealed in an effort to impart shape and significance to somewhat inchoate lay understandings? I.' At much the same time. Hooker were the sources informationon thesematters. D. as in everyday life. Graphic descriptions of desiccation in littoral also furthered the Prime Minister's arguments. but drew more fully on local understanding of the processes involved. Colonial Governors.Yet there is a largerpoint tobe drawn from all of this.137. A. the climate. and suggestions forProtection and Prevention. and deny life to other histories? Robust and useful answers to such questions must depend upon furtherresearch in the records Did of nineteenth-century New Zealand (and theremight well be vigorous debate about interpretationsnew and old). and Ceylon (which Richard Grove might incline to call tropical island Edens).211. which he regarded (perhaps with work on theVar inmind) as mountain torrents.Even more intriguingly. Prime Minister JuliusVogel spoke eloquently of 'themischief already done' to the landscapes and livelihoods. and botanist J. but thesewere drawn in substantial part from debates in theFrench Chambre des D?put?s in the 1850s. Was Man and Nature.D.4Dr. various West Indian Islands. and distort as much as itclarifies. it is thathero-worship has itsdangers. In addition.was Marsh no more than a convenient 'authority'. thework of his German-trained brother-in-law. as a catalyst of pre-suppositions? Might its rhetorical prominence owe less to its originality than to its utility. itmay lead the eye and themind This content downloaded from 83.198 on Fri. Dobson spoke before theNelson Association for thePromotion of Science and Industry 'on theDestruction of Land by Shingle-bearing Rivers.and debate resolved -1 can only fretover thepos sibility thatevidence and interpretationfell too neatly and easily into place in my account of the roles of pioneers and politicians in the conservation ofNew Zealand forests. author thirtyyears later of 'De l'influence de l'homme sur la terre'.really the source of colonial New Zealanders' awareness ofVogel's theMediterranean of the power of humans to change the face of the earth?Might the book have served simply. By providing a ready framework for the organisation of disparate information. and his own experience as an engineer and surveyor.regardless of theways inwhich understandings ofmid-nineteenth-century New Zealand developments evolve. short-circuit the possibilities of other narrative forms.' He alluded toMan and Nature in his address. In the writing of (environmental) history.144 GRAEMEWYNN Society heard a paper forwarded to Colonial Secretary James Hector by its author.were incorporated intohis reflections on the role of natural vegetation in shaping the detritus load of South Island rivers. as reported by the Scottish forester James Brown. 14 Aug 2015 09:45:58 UTC All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .' This was presumably Alexander Ivanovich Woiekof.19 Until thatwork is done . albeit effectively. to the soils. his focus was less sweeping and confined to 'The Results of thedestruction of Forests upon theRiver Wolga atAstracan. and the hydrology ofMauritius. inmaking Marsh the hero of my piece. theEnglish Secretary of State for theColonies. as . In these new lands.with time. inNew Zealand. There are fewmore powerful declensionist narratives.Whether adopted as an explicit coda as byCarlyle . capitalistic newcomers displaced indigenous peoples (who are often. Struggling to survive. Heroes certainlyhave theiruses. Consider by way of illustration how Marsh's disdain for the 'improvident habits' ofAmerican backwoodsmen. Reduced to itsessence.they realised and accepted the error of theirways and moved tomitigate theworst effects of their actions.ifnot entirely attributable to them. InAustralia. and make themproductive they chopped and burned and clubbed and shot and ploughed and drained with abandon. rejoicing in theircapacity to decimate nature. They distil particular conceptions of theworld and of those in it. unveil possibilities. They map the possibilities of living in theworld. and there are pitfalls .of our representations of the past.a standard narrative has come todominate theenvironmental histories of new world societies. Heroes are. and the insightsderived froma handful ofmid-nineteenth-century thinkers. tame. Sustained by the conviction thatresources were superabundant.20 Hero-worship may also distort the shape.in . 'larger-than-life'.in too-ready mistaking the essence for the substance or themap for theworld acceptance of theirinfluence. Terrified by theunknown.to subdue. much literature insists. inCanada and theUnited States. In parallel with these judgements . and elaborated. They capture imaginations.137. exploited its resources. when they draw the inquiring gaze to themselves and leave others tobe ignored. in these accounts.198 on Fri. Insofar as itdoes this. alienated from all about them and eager to turn these territoriesto new uses . to 'theenormous condescension of posterity'.until. Time and again the storyhas been repeated. and of condemning them. emerging prosperity. almost by definition. they transcend themundane and deflect attention from the ordinary and the everyday. theycan also stand in theway of full and clear understanding.or taken up as a subliminal assumption perhaps inmy early foray into the heroic mode bears the risk of deflecting attention from the New Zealand actions of ordinary people acting in accord with common understandings. andmoved on to repeat the process on another frontier. itnarrows the scope of environmental histories. and the 'slovenly husbandry' of frontiersettlershas helped sustain a particular view of colonisation. and rally sympathies. But when the brilliance of their aura blinds observers to their context. settlers lived for themoment and paid no heed to themorrow . it is thatearly settlerswere plunder ers. aggressive.They are complicated simplifications.By offering formand focus to the scholarly narrative. 14 Aug 2015 09:45:58 UTC All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .at least untilMarsh's stentorianwarning that This content downloaded from 83. possessed of an 'ecological' land ethic). settlersdestroyed new-found Edens. They inspire. the heroic mode holds the allure of coherence and intelligibility as it conspires to erase the complexities of character and circumstance in the past. They chart routes through the difficulties of existence.211. and ultimately the utility. individualistic.ON HEROES 145 to alight on those pieces of thepuzzle thatfit the heroic story. lefthavoc in theirwake. ravaged the land. significance.and to pass over thosewith thepotential to subvert it.collectively. therewas no sense of limits. state. Of course. remind us. and if people in general lacked thewisdom tomoderate their impacts on thenatural world. the struggle against ignorance and self-interest is long and hard. Even there.198 on Fri. the landmark achievement of the 1874 Forests Bill was quickly undermined.for example. thank you. By the same token. It is time for more judicious behaviour (and the introduction of regulatory incentives and strictures as necessary).We cannot be wise too soon. but fragile. Present day activists .Karl Jacoby has argued recently.21 Political capital has been made from this story. every day. the rise of the conservation This content downloaded from 83. Marsh was not everywhere a prophet in his lifetime. regulations and controls on human use of the earth could be justified by thepressing need forwise stewardship. then restric tions. only thendid they appreciate that itwas past time for caution and good sense in theiruse of the earth. if 'theharmonies of nature' were 'turned to discords' wherever humans set foot. nineteenth-centuryNew Zealand was an exception. but at itsmost fundamental level theirmessage is the same as thatpromulgated byMarsh and others in thenine teenth century. but an anomaly nonetheless. implemented in response to heightened nineteenth-century concerns. Voracious resource appetites have led people to pillage the earth.theheroes of the twenty-first-century environmentalist story. that turn of-the-twentieth-centuryconservationists in theUnited States gained purchase for theirmovement. 14 Aug 2015 09:45:58 UTC All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .and political purpose may have helped to shape it. Ratify the Kyoto protocol? Not The media today inNorth America. If.His effortswere farmore effective in opening the eyes of his fel low Americans to the consequences of their actions thanwere policy reforms. by insisting thatsettlershad a negative impact on theearth. By and large. Itwill take time to turn the tide.137.Only thendid wisdom dawn. Still.211.speak and write of the need for 'sustainability' rather than of wainscoting burned to seethe pottage.22 To be sure.asMarsh maintained. such initiatives as theKyoto accord run counter to a long history of societal disregard of environmental values. that anxiety and expert entreaties translate with only difficulty into policy and action. untouched nature existed in a stable. the back-story here has reprised the standard account of nineteenth-century colonial development. rising environmental concern (in the developed world. Looked at in the long view. Of course themagnitude and complexities of current environmental concerns are vastly differentfrom those thatprevailed a hundred and fiftyyears ago.146 GRAEMEWYNN 'we are breaking up thefloor and wainscoting and doors and window frames of our dwelling. and for an authoritarian approach to landmanagement. those concerned about environ mental sustainability tell themselves. and worry about. in ar resting the ransacking ofAmerican resources. in particular) during the last decades of the twentieth century has brought an increasing number of citizens to recognise. an inspiring example of what was and is possible. only then did new world settlersbegin to realise thatprudence was a virtue. human impacts on nature. for fuel towarm our bodies and seethe our pottage' met the reality of timber shortages and shrinking opportunities for a new start. 198 on Fri. when ignorance is banished and people have achieved a modicum ofmaterial comfort. Once it is acknowledged thatclaims for the protection of fish This content downloaded from 83.aesthetic.ON HEROES 147 movement a century or so ago suggests reasons forhope today.What. wanton destruction by efforts at protection. as well as a range of other species?24 The past prefigured by such a question is a lotmore complicated than that implied by stories built on the capacity of prescient figures to increase public awareness of theircircumstances. the commonweal can take precedence over individual interest.places. inAustralia. in a great range of settings. then. The symmetry is compelling and sustaining.'. ifSmith andMarsh and others were in some fundamental (and ultimately unsurprising) sense. By these accounts. ecological and sentimental. and even George Perkins Marsh himself . Just as 'Marsh urged theNew World to heed evils endured so themodern day environmentalists might 'from the learn from history. close attention to the historical record reveals that abhorrence at forbidding wilderness was matched by enjoyment of its sublimity. and so on.that 'country people fashioned a variety of arrangements designed to safe guard the ecological bases of theirway of life' and that thesewere eventually over-ridden by expanding state and bureaucratic authority. Travers.Titus Smith. Thomas Potts. L. Work on theAdirondacks. when the need formanagement and restraint is acknowledged. Yellowstone and theGrand Canyon.23 The shadows who have flittered through this essay . When knowledge and circumstances are brought intoproper alignment. than a babel of conflicting views of. between those embracing a broad spectrum of environmental ideals and those opposed to them.211.the echoes of Pope's epitaph forNewton found in heroic histories of environmental thought sound less convincing. so to speak. the long view can succeed the short.The battle can be won.were certainly unusual inmaking intellectual connections and articulating far-reaching arguments as effectively as they did. thenatural world? In locale after locale. products of theirtimes. the abyss of heedless consumption. The history being revealed here is less a tale of wisdom imparted by visionary individuals. and on a range of Canadian sources suggests as much. In the present as in the past. and attitudes toward. than a record of continuing contestation and conflict. But were they sui generis? Perhaps we honour tomislead in thinkingof them as oases of visionary insight in a desert of environmental concern .Once it is recognised thatmany settler societies developed their own 'moral ecologies' .. alienation by attachment. JuliusVogel.W. triumphs and setbacks of thosewho ravished and later sought to restore nature. the long history of European engagement with new world territorieswas less a long dark night of disregard for the environment.. thewords of theprophets will bring us back from and reforms instituted in theOld'. than tall poppies in fields supporting less spectacular examples of the genus Papaver. delight in destruction by concern about degradation.137. It fits illwithin the heroic frame. and societies? What if theywere really no more extraordinary. innorthernNew England.T. 14 Aug 2015 09:45:58 UTC All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . itbecomes harder to accept theoptimism implied by the claim thatmodern day environmentalists will lead society to a sustainable nirvana by heightening awareness.137. 2000). So might we consider ordering thewraiths and spectres and fragments fromwhich our stories about the past and the future are composed. Thomas Carlyle's phrase isnoted inDavid Lowenthal. xxi (see also 430).His quoted comment is inThe BrownDecades: A Studyof the Arts inAmerica. Lewis is credited Mumford with bringingMarsh.211. as Lowenthal pointsout it is inscribedon thewest corridorof thegreathall of It can also be found in 'The Hero the US Library of Congress. But if it serves to shift the focus of contemporary calls to action away from a dependence on heroic leadership toward recognition of the importance of peoples' everyday concerns. then. 1865-1895 (New York: Dover. and to acknowledge the recurrentfailure of ear lier environmentally-minded individuals towin significant. 78. and for the preservation of areas of particular natural beauty were not infrequent in new settled territoriesin the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. in the end.George PerkinsMarsh: Prophet of Conservation (Seattle and London: University ofWashington Press. in short. 14 Aug 2015 09:45:58 UTC All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . lasting victories is not only to be faithful to thehistorical record.To recognise thatboth advocacy for the environment and resistance to such claims have long existed side-by-side. University in Carlyle's of California This content downloaded from 83.26 NOTES 1 me to participate in a session on George Marcus Hall sparked thispaper by inviting PerkinsMarsh at theAmerican Society forEnvironmentalHistorymeetings inDurham. struggles and efforts as theymake theirways in theworld. 1955. on the importof theexperi NorthCarolina inMarch 2001 . and thatall of these efforts yielded relatively few hard-won gains.148 GRAEMEWYNN habitat. In looking back to see forward. 1864).we do Marsh himself found 'the cumulative lives of thehumble well to remember that more revealing' than the exploits of greatmen. to foster rather thanhinder change. I have since reflectedfurther ences that were the focus of my brief conference remarks. that arguments against degradation had theirpassionate supporters in these times and places. or Physical Geography as Modified byHuman Action (New York: Charles Scribner. originallypublished 1931). (Berkeley: Press.25 To move from theheroic mode is. itmay serve. toopen space fornew stories. for the creation of parks and reserves. authorofMan and Nature. This may dampen facile hopes of a swift and radical transformation in society's attitudes toward the environment. back intopublic consciousness in the 1920s and 1930s. Hero-Worship. inHistory & theHeroic On Heroes. inwhich opposition to environmental ideals has often won the day. It is also to point to the prospect of seeing currentdebates about the desirability or otherwise of environmental protection more clearly forwhat they are the latestmanifestations of a con tinuing struggle. stories thatwork simultaneously to re-present thepast and to re-imagine the future.198 on Fri. 1997). 26. as Divinity'. and Politicians 'Pioneers. Transactions I . 1768-1850 (Halifax: 1938).'.'.. quotes at 326 and. 11 (1977). 'Smith. major 11 The and inDavid Lowenthal. Common People: The Origins ofConservation inNorthernNew England (Cambridge. 188-9. Journal '. He 'Foreword. Man and Nature. 4 (1868). 3 W. subsequentlypublished inmuch revised formas TimberColony: A Historical Geography ofEarly NineteenthCenturyNew Brunswick (Toronto:UniversityofTorontoPress. 291-314.Kauri toRadiata: Origin and Expansion of theTimberIndustry inNew Zealand (1973).641-62. are from Smith. the changes effected. the first comprise in North America'. . This content downloaded from 83.Journal ofHistorical Geography. 'Some account of the lifeofTitus Smith'.New Zealand ofHistory. 'Some Ac 'kindly disposition' quotations the 'cradle of ecological ismy own coinage. The that follow are all derived quotations dated term for 'filamentous fungoid 9 Some be found from this article. a pioneer of plant ecology inNorth America'. Charles inNew O'Neill Zealand ParliamentaryDebates.L. Geology andMeteorology.4 1866). Obituary inAcadian Recorder (Halifax).Nova Scotia Instituteof Natural Science. 419-22. here with Richard W. The Magazine deemed ofNatural History & Journal of Zool ogy. of certain Natural and Artificial Causes Vegetation to actuate and affect them'. contribution 'Bedford to plant ecology Basin' count of the Life'. 15 (1873). 1981).149 ON HEROES 2Thomas E. Punch.Mineralogy. 12 January1850. (1870).William Smith..'. On of civilized introduction (1869).Titus'. on Smith's grasp of the ecological matters he discusses here can commentary in Eville Gorham.198 on Fri. 'Titus Smith. My New work was: Brunswick The Assault on the New Brunswick Forest. Transactions Travers. understanding' Man andNature is rankedalongsideRachel Carson.Annals of theAssociation ofAmerican Geographers. Wynn. and on Man in general. 328. 306-30 (and continued in and . 171-88 century New Zealand in Early New .T. 2 races'. 'TheDutch Village Philosopher/pioneer naturalistofNova Scotia. review inNew Zealand Geographer. UniversityofToronto. dis sertation. that the 1835 paper xxvii. Thomas Potts inNew Zealand ParliamentaryDebates. 1988). 44 (1954). Gorham. 1545. 121 argues and 149-50.211. 116-23 10 The and 'rethinking' and 'cautioning' to Look Forward'. raphyVII 1836-1850 (Toronto:UniversityofTorontoPress. 92-3. A Sand County 12 Lowenthal. of Forests the Conservation 5. 'may well respectively.2(1979). 5 These 6 Graeme are from Marsh. Perkins Marsh: Prophet ofConservation (London and Seattle:UniversityofWashington Press.46..Botany.137. New Zealand Institute. Dictionary ofCanadian Biog H. Simpson. 49-65 7On Titus Smith see:TerrenceM. 1974. see also Graeme Wynn. 'Titus Smith.NZI. 4 On Travers. 326-36). 149-52. Zealand '. are inWilliam George Cronon. 'Introduction'. . 'Byssus' was a somewhat already growths'.. Almanac Marsh. Silent Spring andAldo Leopold. Titus Smith. in general. ' and Society in late nineteenth Conservation 325 10. Scotia. 31 (1975). 327 ofVol 3. quotations Man and Nature. Harry Piers. the changes effected in the natural features of a new country by the and Proceedings.and thegeographyofNova Scotia in 1801 and 1802'..xii-xiii. PhD 1780-1850. Common Lands. 3 (1870). 36(1955).VIII (December 1835). 814-16 Andrew Clark. Ecology. ix Judd. Marsh. 8 Titus on the Results on the Vegetation of Nova and on 'Conclusions Smith. 2000). engages in Lowenthal.. 'TitusSmithJunior. in Cronon. 'Foreword: Look Back 'hoe and inDavid ax' claims Lowenthal. 14 Aug 2015 09:45:58 UTC All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . 211.: GRAEMEWYNN Harvard 1997) and Richard Press.150 Mass. 1777.285. There mented on thedisheveled appearance of the landscape. 13 21 Marsh. H-25. sur la terre'. 1967). Man 18 inHuman J. Jackson. noting 'everywherethefirecompleting thework begun by theaxe' and want 'The whole thing waste. A.' Nature UniversityPress.4 (1871). Debates.4 (A \2001). Rinehart& Winston. 79-94. Tropical IslandEdens and theOrigins ofEnvironmentalism(Cambridge: CambridgeUniversityPress. want of knowledge lamenting: of foresight. Keith Thomas. Green. The Quiet Crisis (New York: Holt.' Intended 'Epitaph Bartlett's Familiar Quota tions 16thEdition (Boston. 'the greater haste This content downloaded from 83. Oceana or England for their territories. University H.137. Selbome. P. 5 17 and Nature. is from the preface toE. Institute. settlers carving just now. and Her Colonies So for example (London: Longmans. Man andNature. for Sir Isaac Newton.Toronto. 1992). A. H-5B. 'On theDestruction ofLand Rivers by Shingle-bearing and for Protection Suggestions and Prevention'. 372-3 (note8). 'De 50(1901).Writings. 40 14 Marsh. Thompson. Udall. 658-9. StewartL. 1968).' in New Zealand. Traces. 1963). Franklin toR. Tim Bonyhady. David 'Environmental Lowenthal. 666.New Zealand Institute. 242 judged colonial societiesdevoid of environmentalsentiment'because sentiment Similarly. Green Colo Imperialism: nialExpansion. inFranklin.The Colonial Earth (Melbourne:The Miegunyah Press. Verily.198 on Fri. Many are of course many and various founda visitors to new world territories com European that settlers had little concern and Nature. 1995) 13 Alexander Pope.5May 1753. George Perkins Marsh.) The Natural History and Antiquities of Selbome 3rd edition. and belongs James Inglis. A. in John (ed. 133 cited inDavid Versatile Vermonter (New York: Columbia Univer sityPress. 1984). 193-215. Abstract Astracan'. Harvard at of Forests upon the River Wolga New Zealand and Proceedings. 10 19 Dr. 465. Parliamentary to the Journals H-5. want of proper labour. 1958).' From Genesis History: History Today 51. 568-75. GilbertWhite. Mid dlesex: PenguinBooks. House 16 (1874). 485 15 Glacken.1961) 20 The 'condescension of posterity' phrase. the Rhodian Shore: Nature and Culture inWestern Thought from AncientTimes to theEnd of theEighteenthCentury (Berkeley:UniversityofCalifornia Press. and facilities formarketing. Vogel inNew Zealand and New Zealand General Assembly. waste! Want of capital. 698-702 16 B. 97-114 and 51 (1901). 257. Dobson. 14 Aug 2015 09:45:58 UTC All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Man narrative. Transac tionsand Proceedings. Annales l'influence de l'homme de Geographie. Appendices The Forester (Edinburgh. the incidenceof burning and so on and concluded James Anthony Froude. 2000).Brown andCompany. Grove. 'The Results of the Destruction in Transactions I. Lowenthal.' homes 'out of the primeval bush. perhaps his most famous. 374-6. James Brown. 153-7. 'LetterXXXV. tions to this standard pp 233. (1813). D.169. to Apocalypse. 303: 17.Woiekof. of Representatives. 1886).'Introduction. to leisure. May 20. 1966).K. on seeing in the colonies. inGeography MA: (Cambridge. Middlesex: Penguin Books. Clarence on Traces Glacken.Man and theNatural World. 4 (1871). 82. TheMaking of theEnglish WorkingClass (Harmondsworth. they have none of either.III. White 301.London: Little. xxii Lowenthal. Changing Attitudes inEngland 1500-1800 (Harmondsworth. H-5A. Wojeikof.Wright. NSW: Allen andUnwin. New See Zealand's Assembly...Ecology and History ina New Zealand Landscape (Wellington:VictoriaUniversityPress.). 25 the arguments The 'country people' quote is from Jacoby.211. 103-4. Earth. 1995) 22 Karl Jacoby. . The Future Eaters. Appendices D. For (1979).. 1998).. 193. but it echoes in Judd. Poachers. Inches Captain Forests (Wellington. Taming theGreat SouthLand. 'The Exporting 1850-1980'.." Our New Zealand Cousins (London: Sampson. See for example. 14 Aug 2015 09:45:58 UTC All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions our .These arguments might be comparedwith thatinRoderick as a Commodity. also L... Crimes Against Nature: of Forests inNew Zealand Squatters.. of theAustralasian Lands and Peoples(Chatswood: Reed. Common Jacoby.137. Low. and other works. History. Or as Helen Ingram has it in 'Place Humanists K. Thieves.' Labour/La Travail. Work and Bony Lands. McKinnon. 1991) and note also theforewordbyDavid Suzuki. XLIII (Spring 1999)... Common Lands..1966) Campbell-Walker. Crimes. and theHidden History ofAmerican Conservation (Berkeley:University of California Press. and Importing of Nature: Nature-Appreciation some examples XII in American 517-60. Marsh. 'The Moral Economy of theCommons: Ecology and Equity in theNewfoundland Cod Fishery.. 'Foreword' in Hal the sub-title ofWil 'looking back to see forward'. Brown First House and A. Perspectives of declensionist narratives see: Tim Flannery. 2001). Conservator of 23 406.. 9-42 26 Lowenthal. 1994). Rothman (ed.William Lines. Crimes. andGeoff Park's otherwiseremarkableand arresting Nga Uruora: The Groves ofLife... AHistory of theConquest ofNature inAustralia (North Sydney.is determined policy... by the dominant models and associated images that organize thinking'. Marsh.198 on Fri. he was mistaken. 156: 'Theway inwhich nature is treatedinpublic . General 1877.. C-3..430. Lowenthal. Marston... echoes to this volume. among others. An Ecological History Nash. Inglis did continuehis to reflect that perhaps musings. andRivington. 24 found in. This content downloaded from 83.. liam Cronon's at the Headgates'. Colonial hady. Judd. Re-opening the American West (Tucson: UniversityofArizona Press. that perhaps 'the game' might be4 worth thecandle in the long run'.151 ON HEROES which in the endmay prove the lesser speed. of Representatives. 1815-1855. First Conservator to the Journals. 1887). Searle.see New Zealand. Sean Cadigan. The final sentenceof thisparagraphwas used byCaptain InchesCampbellWalker.
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