COURSE: ECD 711 (SUSTAINABILITY MANAGEMENT) NO GROUP NAME MATRIC NO 1 MOHD RIDUAN BIN ABDUL WAHAB 2014616918 2 NIK ANIS ADLIN BIN ZAFRI 2014441944 3 FAIZULAZHAR BIN MADZLAN 2014674768 4 MOHD RIDZUAN BIN MOHD TAHIR 2014218774 5 NUR HUSSEIN BIN AZIZ 2014895194 TITLE : ASSIGNMENT NO 1 (WATER RATIONING IN SELANGOR 2014) DATE : 30TH SEPTEMBER 2014 LECTURER : PROF SR.IR.DR. SUHAIMI ABDUL TALIB 3 2.8 5..1 SPAN (National Water Services Commission)………………………………3 2. Bhd)……………………….0 Recommendation of three significant measures/changes for the State and Federal Government incorporating technical.0 4.16 . ..14 5.8 4.2 Roles and Responsibilities ………………………………………………………….0 PAGE Alternative water supplies/resources………………………………………….0 5.... environment and financial sustainability……..2 LUAS (Selangor Water Management Authority)…………………………..4 3...3 Use a groundwater as alternative water supply in Selangor……………………11 Recommendation of KPI to measure the effectiveness of three significant measure For the State and Federal Government incorporating technical ..1 2.1 Proposed of new dam to sustain the water supply in Selangor ……………….14 References…………………………………………………………………………….3 2.1 Construction of a new dam………………………………………………………13 5.0 Factors that contributed to the episode of water rationing……………………………5 4..2 Proposed of utilizing the Wetland as an alternative main water supply in Selangor…………………………………………………………………………8 4.3 Groundwater ……………………………………………………………………..CONTENT 1.3 SYABAS (Syarikat Bekalan Air Selangor Sdn.1 1..2 Utilization of Wetland …………………………………………………………. environment and financial sustainability …………………………………………………………….0 Water Supply Industry ……………………………………………………………… .13 6. Thus only less than 1% of available water resources is used for drinking water supply. Therefore we can see that water security can be affected by quantity and quality as well as the increase in demand for domestic. a country with a population of 29 million. Figure 1: Sungai Selangor River Basin However.5 km3. is blessed with average annual rainfall. or less than 3 percent of available resources. 11 percent for municipal water supply and 13 percent for industries. In 1995. Sungai Selangor and Sungai Langat were contaminated by effluent discharge from factories.0 Water Supply Industry Malaysia. Water resources in Malaysia are abundant and available throughout the year. industrial and agriculture uses. In recent case.000 cubic meters per capita and year. indicates of drought have been experienced in several states including Selangor. They are estimated at 580 km3/year (average 1977-2001). 1 . equivalent to more than 3. total water withdrawal was estimated at 12.1. 76 percent of water was used for agriculture. Water shortage may also be due to the pollution of river that supply fresh water. alternative water resources such as ground water and wetlands shall be implemented. The authorities should also give greater focus to water resources integrity by giving priority to the protection of resources and catchment areas and strongly emphasizes that the security and sustainability of water resources shall be made a State Government priority. To ensure there will be enough water for Selangor. Factor that contribute to this increase in demand include population rise. to ensure adequate and safe water for all. carried out by the Department of Irrigation and Drainage Malaysia in 2011.1. 2 . urbanization and economic growth. dams. ponds and lakes with the remaining 3% from ground water. It is time to plan for an increased exploitation of alternative water resources. Currently. 97% of water supply comes from surface water collected in rivers. A critical factor has to be tackled is the high water use per capita of 240 Liters per Person per Day (L/P/D) compared to Singapore’s 140 L/P/D.1 Alternatives Water Supplies/Resources A review of the National Water Resources Study (2000-2050). indicates there will be a marked increase of more than 75% in water demand in the domestic and industrial sector. Klang River and Bernam River. As the water level at Sg Selangor Dam and other dams are tremendous declined into critical stage. there are several official bodies in both public and private sectors that responsible for the supply of drinking water in Selangor. Their responsible is to ensure long term availability and sustainability of water supply including the conservation of water in Selangor especially at the main dam.1 SPAN (National Water Services Commission) SPAN is the authority to provide a sustainable.0 Roles and Responsibilities The issue on water crisis in Selangor had recently caused a serious impact in terms of productivity and lifestyle of consumers. Langat River. They are also responsible to find the solution and to prevent the water crisis from recurring. Most of the drinking water sources from four main rivers that are Selangor River. In addition. SPAN functions to regulate the water services industry through fair. Selangor and approve the water rationing plan for benefit of the consumer.2. Besides. 3 . the consumers in Selangor have options to abstract water source direct from the surface water and groundwater which needs approval from LUAS because they are responsible in control on water source. lakes and coastal area is protected. These functions and responsibilities are executed through Integrated River Basin Management (IRBM) and Integrated Coastal Management (ICM) approaches.2 LUAS (Selangor Water Management Authority) Selangor Water Management Authority (LUAS) started from the Cabinet Minister’s order in July 1997 which directed the Agricultural Ministry and thereafter the Selangor State Government to set up an agency responsible in managing river and water sources in an integrated manner to ensure the state’s water resources including river basin. The decision on the water rationing plan has been approved to ensure long term availability and sustainability of water supply during the crisis. effective and transparent implementation of Water Services Industry Act. SPAN has the authority to increase the water supply in Sg. Besides. To overcome the issue to be prolonged. Sg. at the same time to regulate the safety and security of water supply and sewerage systems. Selangor Dam. SPAN is responsible to promote the protection and preservation of water courses and water catchments. society and economy have been maintained. 2. groundwater and surface water. The official bodies are responsible to ensure the problems occurred during water crisis have been taken care of and on the same time the sustainability incorporated with environment. Their roles and responsible are as following: 2. reliable and affordable water services for the country. Kuala Lumpur. Shah Alam. Klang. Their commitment has shown during water crisis in Selangor that created inconvenience the society and industry. Kuala Langat and USJ with proposed schedule of two days of water supply and two days without water supply. commercial and industrial building in state of Selangor and the Federal Territories of Kuala Lumpur and Putrajaya of which 85% are from the domestic consumers and 15% are commercial consumers. commercial and industrial consumers to ensure better quality of life for all. Kuala Selangor. SYABAS is committed to supplying uninterrupted quality clean water to domestic. Putrajaya.2. Bhd) SYABAS is an entity specifically incorporated for use as an implementation vehicle in respect to the privatization of the water supply and distribution systems in Selangor and Federal Territories of Kuala Lumpur and Putrajaya.3 SYABAS (Syarikat Bekalan Air Selangor Sdn. poor water quality standard and inconsistent supply of treated water. Hulu Selangor. SYABAS has continuously invest in improving the facilities and services at the highest of standard while ensure the quality of environment is preserved. This plan is to ensure the consumers have enough storage of water supply daily. ineffective management.8 million people via over 1. Petaling.9 million consumer accounts that include domestic consumers. SYABAS has came out with water rationing plan based on observation of water capacity at the dams as decided by Selangor Water Management Authority (LUAS) and approved by the National Water Services Commission (SPAN). 4 . SYABAS is responsible for the distribution of water services to over 7. Besides. factories . SYABAS was appointed by the State and Federal Government as the concession company to upgrade and enhance the water supply system and services in the State of Selangor under the privatization concept in view of the previous management’s financial constraint.The water rationing plan has been divided into six zones including Gombak. This make situation more worsen when the existing water treatment plant design capacity already meet their maximum current capacity design and some of that are forced to run exceeding their capacity. In the overloaded system. Klang Gates Dam. Klang Valley have encountered water crisis in February when the three reservoir dams in Klang Valley.3. In 1998. clearing of land for agriculture. The climate changes make some places receive little rainfall due to long period of drought. attitude of water consumers and several more. This directly affected the water level reservoir dam until it reach below their normal capacity despite cloud-seeding and rain. Batu Dam and Semenyih Dam suffered a substantial drop in water level following the El Nino phenomenon. there are many rules already being implemented but due to the poor in implementation of enforcement by relevant authorities making this problem worst and expected will be repeated in the coming years. economy. These factors could be global. In the next paragraph we will look and discuss in details the real causes of this problem that actually also faced by many others countries. climate changes. open burning (haze) are some of the good examples of global factor that are trans-border in nature whilst industrialization. Occurrence from system damage in Wangsa Maju pump house resulting in a number of areas in Ulu 5 . Although. Global warming. The government should take this responsible when they allowing uncontrolled development when the environmental aspects not considered properly at most development planning. There are many reasons related to water rationing in Selangor. national and localized factors. But the major cause of the drought is the collapse of our water catchment system due to logging and highland development. encroachment of fragile ecosystem are examples of national and localized causal factors. It can be divided into several categorizes that is politics Issues.0 Factors that contributed to the episode of water rationing Recently Selangor State implementing water rationing due to shortages of treated water. This situation bring one of the worsen water crisis at that time and until 2014 the scenario appeared again where it’s lead to water shortage following by water rationing in Selangor State. Climate changes are one of the factors involve in water crisis in Selangor. the pump house that serves to channel water from the central water treatment plant to the tank or pond and tank services balance has also been deployed day and night to meet the demand. There are many factors identified to cause and influence climate change. Many of these factors occurred in combination of each other’s. There are seven dams supplying raw water to Klang Valley are affected by the drought. Non-Revenue Water (NRW) is indication of the loss of treated water in water supply distribution network system. The reserve of water in several dams can be assume more than enough if us taking precaution in the early time by changing our habits. loss of treated water. From this point of view. The statement from S. The purposed of Langat 2 project is to treat raw water resource from Pahang and later the treated water to be supply to 6 . this could add 12.Kelang and Ampang uninterrupted supply of raw water a few months ago as a result of this problem. the effects of water shortages can be minimize. The way of consumers handling treated water still in poor manner and unethical way. As mentioned above. they should take an action by consuming less treated water in other word only use for the important things. This can be done in many ways for example in preferring to use the machineries that applying technology that less use of water but the efficiency still same. If this situation can be handled properly by doing a proper construction and maintenance. The issue started when the Selangor State under The Pakatan Rakyat continues to delay land approval for the Langat 2 treatment plant to be built. This is a common problem to the local authorities that involving so much public money to overcome this kind of problem where at the same time reducing the supply capacity to final costumers. As we can see. the political issue between Selangor State and Federal Government also contributing to prolong the water rationing in Selangor. According to Citing Statistics from National Water Services Commission (SPAN). Piarapakaran. This type of mind set or attitude is a major reason contributing to the water shortage and increasing the water demand every year. most of Malaysian’s people not learned from that 1998 crisis. one of the worst water shortages already occurred in 1998 where everyone had to rush for water every day and even today many consumers still worried whenever there was a water supply disruption even only a short period of time. Instead of blaming others parties especially government. the national NRW for 2012 was about 36. consumption of treated water and reuse of waste water. Others than above factors.4%.1% of treated water to consumers without needing to build a new water treatment plant. The wastage could be divided into four categories that is management of water resources. The water rationing can be avoided even at that time are drought season. Another factor is that Malaysians consumers’ attitude on their way in consuming water also contributes to this kind of situation.6% of treated water reached consumer and generated revenue. president of the Association of Water and Energy Research Malaysia (AWER) said that if the NRW can be reduce by one-third of the current rate in the next five years. we can see that our country NRW indication value is very high and we need to review our construction work quality and water management model and system. meaning only 63. The effects of water can be minimize if the dispute can be settled earlier. The former Selangor Menteri Besar also argued on the price of Langat 2 which cost about RM 9 Billion compare to its operation service where the drinking water will supply only 15 years to meet that year current demand. 7 .Selangor. the understanding agreement had finally signed by both parties to proceed the construction of Langat 2 project. This is very important to bring a warning to the government either federal or state if they ignored all the sign or expertise view. Tan Sri Khalid Ibrahim said. Eventually the last few months ago. there is no need to rush to construct the Langat 2 due to information from his consultant experts said there was enough water supply until 2019. KL: MB Khalid. problem will arise and bring harm not only to our society but directly to our economy GDP due to most of industry dependent on water supply to run their production. The former Selangor Menteri Besar. The Star. 20 July 2010). (Source: Enough water f or all in Selangor. Kuala Lumpur and Putrajaya until 2025. The final factors is our expertise especially in engineering field either from private sector or government sector should stand firm to make them voice to be heard by politician. environment and financial sustainability There are three significant measures/changes are recommend to State and Federal Government to ensure the recurrence water crisis in Selangor. While it can be difficult to calculate the economic value provided by a 8 . site supervisor. flood control. Environment – Even it will be affected to the flora and fauna due to large capacity of dams. the proper guidelines by Department of Environment (DOE) shall be followed to ensure the flora and fauna are being kept. Dams provide a range of economic. Selangor. c. environment and commercial. Technical – Construction of new dams are able to increase the storage of water capacity and will be benefit for the future. Wetlands contribute to the national and local economies by producing resources. water supply. 4. and social benefits. This may cause the generation of new living species in dam. contractors and also to the surround community. almost two-thirds of treated water is consumed by the domestic sector. waste management.2 Proposed of utilizing the Wetland as an alternative main water supply in Selangor Secondly. construction of new dams can be classifies as below: a. such as pollution control and flood protection.0 Recommend three significant measures/changes for the State and Federal Government incorporating technical. 4. Selangor have seven (7) numbers of dams to distribute to Selangor and Putrajaya where 17% distribute to domestic. wetland in Selangor is located at Kuala Selangor. It is enhanced empower on the economic.1 Proposed a new dam to sustain the water supply in Selangor As record in. including recreation. Commercial – Constructions of new dam also provide employment opportunities both to engineer. As record. This is mainly because many industries and agricultural activities draw water directly from nature for their use. environmental. river navigation and wildlife habitat. consultant.4. Constructions of more dams are suggested where technically it is storing water to cater the water demand during dry season. However. enabling recreational activities and providing other benefits. Temperature of water. Incorporating to the technical. salt and oxygen distribution may change vertically as a consequence of reservoir formation. b. it is suggested to fully utilize the Wetland. 21% to industry (including commercial) and 62% to agriculture. it slows down and moves around wetland plants. Technical Flood Control Wetlands can play a role in reducing the frequency and intensity of floods by acting as natural buffers. They are often less expensive to build than traditional wastewater and stormwater treatment options. and thus have considerable value as filters for future drinking water. engineers and scientists construct systems that replicate some of the functions of natural wetlands. excess nutrients can cause algae growth that’s harmful to fish and other aquatic life. and protecting downstream residents from flooding. or one million gallons.single wetland. These constructed treatment wetlands use natural processes involving wetland vegetation. about three-quarters the size of a football field. An acre-foot is one acre of land. Incorporating to the technical. reducing property damage downstream or inland. have low operating and maintenance expenses and can handle fluctuating water levels. Wetlands improve water quality in nearby rivers and streams. Plant roots and microorganisms on plant stems and in the soil absorb excess nutrients in the water from fertilizers. When water enters a wetland. Three acre-feet describes the same area of land covered by three feet of water. A preliminary study suggested that a constructed wetland system would sufficiently clean the discharge water while supporting high-quality wetland habitat for birds. environment and commercial. 9 . wetlands slowly release the stored waters. it is possible to evaluate the range of services provided by all wetlands and assign a valuable asset. All these benefits would be achieved at a lower cost than retrofitting the existing treatment plant. A wetland’s natural filtration process can remove excess nutrients before water leaves a wetland. Coastal wetlands serve as storm surge protectors when hurricanes or tropical storms come ashore. the utilization of wetlands as an alternative water resource can be classifies as below: a. including endangered species. covered one foot deep in water. While a certain level of nutrients is necessary in water ecosystems. swimming and supporting plants and animals. After peak flood flows have passed. manure. A wetland can typically store about three-acre feet of water. soaking up and storing a significant amount of floodwater. Cleaning the Water Because natural wetlands are so effective at removing pollutants from water that flows through them. Much of the suspended sediment drops out and settles to the wetland floor. soils and their associated microbial life to improve water quality. leaking septic tanks and municipal sewage. making it healthier for drinking. Part of this economic value lies in the variety of commercial products they provide.Fisheries Wetlands provide an essential link in the life cycle of 75 percent of the fish and shellfish commercially harvested and up to 90 percent of the recreational fish catch. Commercial Many industries. insects. comparable to tropical rain forests or coral reefs in the number and variety of species they support. fishing. specialty food and cosmetic industries. b. the appeal of wetlands and the diversity of plant and animal life they attract contribute to or support many businesses. As noted. Wetlands provide a consistent food supply. plants. Environments – Wildlife Habitat Diverse species of mammals. including such positions as surveyor or park ranger. Some wetland plant species. such as wild rice and various seeds can be harvested for or used to produce specialty foods. medicines. c. birds and fish rely on wetlands for food. bird watching. In many coastal and river delta wetlands. shelter and nursery grounds for both marine and freshwater species. Some species must have a wetland in order to reproduce. Migrating waterfowl rely on wetlands for resting. Wetlands also provide employment opportunities. and the same area can serve as a wildlife habitat for the rest of the year. photography and hunting. in addition to the fishing industry. 10 . reptiles. haying of wetland vegetation is important to livestock producers. amphibians. eating and breeding areas. cosmetics and decorative items. Wetlands are some of the most biologically productive natural ecosystems in the world. derive benefits or produce products dependent on wetlands. The production of raw materials from wetlands provides jobs to those employed in the commercial fishing. habitat or shelter. Recreation Wetlands are often inviting places for popular recreational activities including hiking. Rice can be grown in a wetland during part of the year. leading to increased populations. such as food and energy sources. 3 Use a groundwater as an alternative water supply in Selangor Groundwater is the water found underground in the cracks and spaces in soil. Therefore. or fractured rock. Excessive of pumping groundwater may lead to depletion of groundwater storage. Water can move through these materials because they have large connected spaces that make them permeable. nor is it completely renewable in the same manner and time frame as solar energy. Aquifers can be a valuable water resource as they store water that infiltrates through the ground surface. sustainability management of groundwater should be apply incorporating technical. The speed at which groundwater flow is depends on the size of the spaces in the soil or rock and how well the spaces are connected. Figure 2: Groundwater beneath the earth surface Groundwater can be collected by pumping it from aquifer. making it a valuable water supply. land subsidence.4. It can be use for garden. sand and rock. Groundwater makes up around 23% of the earth’s fresh water. sandstone. and changes in ground-water quality. It is because groundwater is not a nonrenewable resource. such as a mineral or petroleum deposit. sand. Groundwater is often cheaper. estuaries and coastal vegetation. reductions in stream flow. 11 . Groundwater flows beneath the earth surface through layers of permeable rock or also known as aquifers. Figure 2 show the groundwater beneath the earth surface. Aquifers are typically made up of gravel. filter it and stores it in underground tanks. irrigation and also can be used as drinking water as well as for storage and other purpose. it is commonly used for public water supplies. potential loss of wetland. Use of groundwater needs to be carefully managed as aquifers not only store water but supply water to sensitive ecosystems such as wetlands. more convenient and less vulnerable to pollution than surface water. saltwater intrusion. like limestone. environmental and financial. Even though groundwater is one of the alternative to prevent water rationing. swamps. 12 . computer simulations model can be use for analyzing inflow and outflow of groundwater systems in the evaluation of alternative approaches to groundwater development and management. To measure. To avoid of increasing of discharge. High capacity wells is easy to construct and less of maintenance. high capacity well can be introduce to ensure that groundwater levels in the system are maintained high enough to allow for pumping. Figure 3: Diagram show illustrating that inflow is equal to outflow. The amount of water entering or recharging the system of groundwater is approximately equal to the amount of water leaving or discharging from the system (as illustrated in Figure 3).Groundwater system is equal. Simulations also can aid to estimating water availability and the effects of extracting water on the groundwater system. To achieve. utilization of wetland and groundwater) that should be taken to prevent water rationing from recurring.5 < pH < 9. There will be changes on water quality in the dams due to human activities etc.1 Construction of a new dam As cleared in Item 4. identify the progress and determine the percentage of changes. the level of water storage to be maintained at least 80% at all times to ensure the recurrence of water crisis. The importance of KPI is to provide feedback on the important areas of operations.5 < pH < 9. The recommend Key Performance Indicators (KPI) in summary to measure the effectiveness on the new constructions of dams are tabulated as below. The guideline as Department of Environment (DOE) authority shall be followed and proper Environment Impact Assessment (EIA) to be prepared. The maintenance and proper safeguard are to determine to prevent any pollution to water storage. As such with the construction new dam.5 Minimal impact to flora and fauna Table 1: KPI for construction of new dams 13 . The minimal impact to flora and fauna will give better key performance indicator in constructions of dams.0. due to un-circumstances such a dry season.5 are ensure the water quality are standard and safe. there are few steps to determine KPI such as identifying the expected result. 5. environment and financial sustainability Key Performance Indicators (KPI) is functionally measured the effectiveness of measure/changes (construction a new dam. the dams are function to storage the water at all times. The water quality at least between 6. definitely the level of water will be decrease. Construction of new dams will give impact in all aspects especially to the environment. Criteria KPI i) Dams function as raw water supply ii) Water Quality iii) Construction of Dams KPI Achieved Level of storage capacity 6.5. However.0 Recommend KPI to measure the effectiveness of three significant measures/changes for the State and Federal Government incorporating technical. There will be changes on water quality in the dams due to human activities etc. The maintenance and proper safeguard are to determine to prevent any pollution to water storage. Criteria KPI i) Wetland function as raw water supply Catchment area of water ii) Wetland water quality 6. The water quality at least between 6. The catchment area of water to storage and maintained at all times will be affected to the performance of the wetland. The maintenance to reduce any pollution and to make sure any impact of flora and fauna will be give better performance to the wetland as water storage. As such with utilization of wetland as water storage before it is treated at water treatment plant have to be maintained at least 80% at all times to ensure the recurrence of water crisis.5 < pH < 9. The recommend Key Performance Indicators (KPI) in summary to measure the effectiveness on wetland are tabulated as below. There will be changes on water quality in the dams due to human activities etc. With the depletion less than 5% at any times.5<pH<9.3 Groundwater As discussed in Item No. The water quality at least between 6. With introducing a high capacity of well the groundwater performance will give better indicator as water storage. the groundwater shall be considered as water sources. 14 . 4.5 are ensure the water quality are standard and safe.5 iii) Wetland Pollution Minimal impact of flora and fauna KPI Achieved Table 2: KPI for fully utilized of wetland 5.5 are ensure the water quality are standard and safe.5 < pH < 9.5. Wetland might also be able to be used for recreation and other human activities.2 Utilization of Wetland Wetland is functionally an alternative to storage the water. The maintenance and proper safeguard are to determine to prevent any pollution to water storage. The amount of water entering or recharging the system of groundwater is approximately equal to the amount of water leaving or discharging from the system. system of groundwater is equal. The recommended Key Performance Indicators (KPI) in summary to intend the measure of effectiveness on groundwater is tabulated as below.5 iii) Water Depletion KPI Achieved less than 5% Table 3: KPI of groundwater 15 .5 < pH < 9. Criteria KPI i) Groundwater system inflow=outflow ii) Water Quality 6. luas. Sustainability of ground-water resources. William M.gov.html 8.my/ 3. http://www.6. http://groundwater. and O.groundwater. Lehn Frank. Thomas E.gov.waverley. http://says.com. http://www.org/get-informed/groundwater/contamination. Reilly. http://www.span.au/environment/water_and_coast/our_projects/waverley_a nd_barracluff_park_groundwater_harvesting_system 7.html#yield 16 . 1999.sdsu.my/ 2.com/my/news/selangor-to-go-on-water-rationing-due-to-dry-weatherfebruary-2014 5. http://www. Alley.nsw. 6. U. http://www.syabas.edu/groundwater_utilization_and_sustainability.gov.0 References 1.my/ 4. Geological Survey Circular.S..
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