Patachitra: A gift from lord JagannathParthasarathi Bal Bachelor of Fashion Designing KIIT School of Fashion Technology KIIT University 2 Patachitra: A gift from lord Jagannath Parthasarathi Bal Bachelor of Fashion Designing KIIT School of Fashion Technology KIIT University 3 B.07. KIIT school of fashion technology.CERTIFICATE This is to certify & declare that I.2010 Date: 27. Biswanath swain Sri Parthasarathi Bal Place: Raghurajpur Place: Bhubaneswar Date: 27.2010 4 .F. The document is authentic recording of the 21 day pre-preparation and field study.D.07. the undersigned Parthasarathi Bal.research in Patachitra of Odisha from 24th may to 13th June 2010 as an academic requirement under the exercise CRAFT DOCUMENTATION. Mr. where ever the support of external data has been made. the same has been dully acknowledged. have undergone an independent craft survey. wood turning and other forms of wood working. historically.PROLOGUE A craft is a skill. known as Gotipua. in its paradisiacal setting. For example. glass. and metal. The term is often used as part of a longer word (and also in the plural). The selected craft of patachitra is a very delicate and complex form of art evolved from the craft village of Raghurajpur of puri. is perhaps the only one of its kinds in India. glass blowing. occupies a prominent position in the cultural map of India. was born in this village and had his early trainings in Gotipua tradition here. Odisha. the earlier form of Odissi. a small village in Orissa. It may refer to a trade or particular art. a guild of workers in the same trade. Apart from producing fine handicrafts. especially involving practical arts. 5 . "Ring craft" is part of a boxer's skill. a maestro of Odissi dance. weaving. Raghurajpur. Folk art follows craft traditions. Both Freemasonry and Wicca are known as 'The Craft' by their adherents. and glass art. The village. metal work. Guru Kelu Charan Mohapatra. Crafts practiced by independent artists working alone or in small groups are often referred to as studio craft. in contrast to fine art or "high art". The varied and rich traditions of Oriya arts and crafts have been vibrantly kept alive by the skilled villagers. where each family is engaged in one craft or the other. Studio craft includes studio pottery. clay. a craft-brother is a fellow worker in a particular trade and a craft-guild is. textiles. The term is often used to describe the family of artistic practices within the decorative arts that traditionally are defined by their relationship to functional or utilitarian products (such as sculptural forms in the vessel tradition) or by their use of such natural media as wood. Raghurajpur is also the home to a living tradition of performing arts. Professor of fashion designing. sincere and ceaseless efforts during my project work. who is my source of inspiration and encouragement. under whose sincere guidance I have completed my project.Acknowledgement I am thankful to Parampara (NGO) for the hearty cooperation and helping me in this project work. Bhasker Mitra Asso. My special thanks to my friend Bishnu Kinkar Mahapatra for his loveable cooperation. I am also indebted all the villagers of the Raghurajpur village. My deep sense of reverence goes to Mr. who have rendered immense help during the field work. PARTHASARATHI BAL Researcher 6 . .artisan making-practicing the craft…………………………………… 31 Chapter 5 THE MEDIUM...19 Chapter 3 SOCIO-ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE.Chapter 1 THE CRAFT-Yesterday. 55 Chapter 7 DESIGN INTERVENTION & GROWTH OPPORTUNITIES……………………….57 EPILOGUE…………………………………………………………………………………………………… GLOSSARY…………………………………………………………………………………………………… BIBLIOGRAPHY…………………………………………………………………………………………………..39 Chapter 6 THE COST. Itee-THANK YOU…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 7 ...8 Chapter 2 CRAFT & IT‘S PLACE OF ORIGIN. About the RESEARCHER………………………………………………………………………………………….past.essential parameters required for generating the craft…………. present & times to come………………..RELEVENCE OF THE CRAFT…………….factors influencing the cost of making the craft……………………. today & tomorrow…………………………………………….27 Chapter 4 THE DOER. 8 . (B) Religious significance of the craft in anthropogenic evolution of the craft & associated culture-practices-ceremonies of the craft. (C) Utilitarian aspects revolving around the craft.CHAPTER -1 THE CRAFT-Yesterday. today & tomorrow:(A) Historical relevance of the craft & other associated folklores with the origin-birth of the craft. 9 . the holy land of Lord Jagannath has many names. Sati. In some records pertaining to the British rule.PURI RAGHURAJPUR Puri. The word "puri" in Sanskrit means 'town'. It is the only shrine in India. Purusottama Puri and Jagannath Puri. Purusottama Kshetra. Neeladri. the word 'Jagannath' was used for Puri. May be. Parvati. Neelachala. Shankhakshetra. also known as Jagannath. where Radha. or 'city'. Shakti abodes with Krishna. Puri is a shortened name for Jagannath Puri or Purusottama Puri. It is mentioned in Puranas as Srikshetra. also referred to as Durga. Purusottama Dhama. However. by the Bay of Bengal. 10 .birth of the craft: The patachitra was originated in Raghurajpur of Puri district.Chapter 1: THE CRAFT-Yesterday. Some think it to be paintings done on 'Pata' or wood. Udaygiri. which was built by the Choda-GangaDeva. apart from fragmentary evidence of cave paintings in Khandagiri. some women artists have also taken up this artform.The origin of the Patachitra paintings can be traced back to the 8th century AD and it is considered as one of the earliest forms of indigenous paintings. This iconic art form of folk significance is unique in the history of Indian as well as European paintings. Nevertheless.These paintings were traditionally done only by males. and Sitabhinji.this painting has been developed by the ancient chitrakars to portray the story of Lord Vishnu regarding his Dasavatara and many other festivals of Orissa. The patachitras are generally located as the earliest indigenous paintings in the state of Orissa. in recent times. (b)Religious significance of the craft in anthropogenic evolution & associated culturepractices-ceremonies of the craft: Patachitra paintings are linked with the famous Jagannath temple of Puri. these paintings are also done on 'Pata' or wooden covers of palm-leaf manuscripts. 'Patta' in Sanskrit means 'Vastra' or 'clothings'. today & tomorrow:(a)Historical relevance of craft and other associated folklores with the origin. The style was kept alive over the centuries due to the demands of millions of pilgrims who come to the shrine of Jagannath from all over India. a state of India. located on the east coast of India. Orissa or odisha. Mohanty traces the origins of Pata paintings to the eighth century AD. 11 . However. and they have also begun using a variety of non-religious themes in their paintings. this has not reduced the creation of patachitras based on Jagannath icons and traditional religious themes and these still remain the core of the pictorial content of patachitra paintings. The patachitra ―chitrakars‖ (painters) are temple functionaries who live in and around the temple town of Puri.The history of patachitra painting is linked inextricably with the history of the Jagannath cult. Now. the community of chitrakars has spread beyond Puri district.The patachitra is directly related to the Jagannath culture. Or he may be depicted as the spouse of Lakshmi. He may be identified with one of the ten incarnations of Vishnu. The background of the painting is a sort of peach color. This painting shows Jagannath in gaja uddharana vesha. 12 .Gaja uddharana vesha Sometimes Jagannath is depicted in a particular role. in which form Vishnu slew the demon Hiranyakasipu. such as the kaliya dalan episode in which Krishna subdued the snake demon Kaliya. the outer and wider border with its wavy leaf design. Beneath Jagannath is shown the scene of the crocodile seizing the elephant. Jagannath is shown as the rescuer of an elephant. This is his gaja uddharana vesha. The two-armed Subhadra wears a dark green garment. The male deities are four-armed and dressed in yellow garments. with the stylized floral design." accompanied by his two siblings. The painting has the common double border. or "elephantrescuing dress. Each of the deities is crowned and stands on a lotus pedestal. In the above Figure. The elephant prayed to Vishnu and the god came to his rescue." This vesha refers to the story in which an elephant was seized by a crocodile. the inner and narrower. The act of rescuing the elephant was performed by Vishnu. or the "elephant-rescuing dress. with whom Jagannath is here equated. such as Narasimha. Or Jagannath may be shown in one of the incidents from the life of Krishna. Kanchi avijana 13 . but he was soundly repulsed. On the road. as part of his service at the time of the festival. offers a finger ring to the girl. He prayed to the deities of the Puri temple. sometimes called Kanchi-Kaveri). was deeply insulted at the retraction of a wedding arrangement. He proceeded to Kanchi and subsequently conquered that kingdom and brought back the princess to be his bride. he was sweeping the area where the chariots were kept. they grew thirsty and chanced upon the milkmaid Manika.One of the most popular stories related to Jagannath is that of kanchi avijana (or journey to Kanchi. who gave them milk to quench their thirsts. as some of the paint has been lost. external border consists of two horizontal bands of a wavy leaf design and two vertical bands. riding a black stallion. The dark-skinned Jagannath follows behind on a white stallion. Jagannath and his brother Balabhadra. Stylized vegetation is present on the ground. He returned home and sent back word that he would certainly not give the hand of his daughter in marriage to one who performs the vile work meant for an untouchable. According to this story. This picture is somewhat worse for wear. he became enraged. The common double border is present. unknown to the Raja. The Raja of Puri. defeated. That year. The Raja of Puri returned home. Manika with a pot of milk balanced upon her head. each of which shows a stylized tree. In return. the Raja himself passed by with his army. who is extending her hand to receive it. When the Raja of Kanchi entered the temple precinct and saw this occupation of his future son-in-law. The picture has the traditional red background. he understood from seeing the ring that the two horsemen were Jagannath and Balabhadra and that the deities had answered his prayer. they gave her a ring. the Raja of Puri was a servant of Lord Jagannath and. on his part. He attacked the kingdom of Kanchi. Now. left their places in the temple and undertook a horseback journey to Kanchi. the Raja of Kanchi came to Puri to pray to the Lord in the Jagannath temple on the occasion of the annual ratha yatra (car festival). Moved by the prayer of their devotee. Both deities carry lances. The light-skinned Balabhadra. When he learned from Manika what had happened. 14 . the daughter of the Raja of Kanchi was betrothed to the Raja of Puri. The wider. Later. the God started playing raas leela with his gopis. The divine sport of Raas Leela was enjoyed by the Lord with his gopis on the banks of river Yamuna in Vrindavan. various renowned theater groups perform raas leelas. There is also a legend behind the raas leela of Shri Krishna. One of the most loved gopi of Krishna was Radhaji. the Lord was greatly loved by the gopis or devotees. It is indeed one of the most important aspects of the celebration of Krishnashtami. In Sanskrit. As soon as Janmashtami arrives. From the age of ten. They were so engrossed in Him that they forgot all their worldly chores and remained ‗magna‘ 15 . And all the popular raas leelas were performed in the city of Vrindavan. Even today. it is known as ‗kreeda‘ or activity. one of the most famous aspect the strikes us is the Raas Leela. She was closest to Him and her love for the God was complete and in its pristine form.Raas Leela was the favorite pastime or sport of Shri Krishna. According to Hindu mythology. the Lord was center staged with all the gopis surrounding Him.Such is the case with this particular pedi. Above that scene is a female drummer. 16 . includes a painted scene. These pictures are often done painted on cloth—a typical pata-chitra—and are then pasted on to the wooden surface. They all danced and sang in the glory of the Nandgopal.or engrossed with Him. or dowry box shows a larger view of this dowry box. While performing the raas leela. Their love was divine love or ‗prerna‘. For many of these dowry boxes. Govardhana. as well as each section of the pyramid-shaped cover. The facing picture is an illustration of the scene of Krishna lifting Mt. typically from the life of Krishna or Rama. This pata-chitra is attached to a pedi. each side of the box. Similarly. out of fear. a devotee is always under the shelter of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. When a child is in danger. but when he specifically sees some danger." Therefore. Certainly the advice was friendly and not false. he began to take shelter of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. he remembers the Lord very rapidly. It is quite natural for a devotee in danger to think of Krisna because he has no other shelter. 17 . he considered Vasudeva's warning that there might be some disturbance in Gokula. he takes shelter of his mother or father.putana vadha While Nanda Maharaja was returning home. So Nanda thought. "There is some truth in it. (C) Utilitarian aspects revolving around the craft. The people and the surrounding were very friendly. The atmosphere provides special thoughts to develop different conventional products like jewelry boxes, lamp shades, wall-hangings, paper mache toys, wooden trays, masks of deities and devils, wooden toys, wooden statues of deities, tussar silk painting, screen painting, ceiling painting, door painting etc. Palm leave paintings were also made by them. These are made through certain procedure. Firstly the palm leaves are collected and cut into rectangular pieces .then it is dried in the sun rays and the pieces are stitched one after another. Thirdly painting is done by carving the leave with likhani (tool). Then the kala (carbon) was rubbed on it and the background was cut out. And the painting got prepared. At least 15 to 20 days is required to complete one such painting. Other products like key ring, wooden alphabets & numeric hanging for children, coconut showpieces,Painted bottles etc are also made by them. 18 Chapter 2 CRAFT & IT‘S PLACE OF ORIGIN- past, present & times to come. (A) Observation on the region‘s suitability in the nurturing the craft. (B) Inference on the region‘s support in the growth of the craft. (C) Conclusion on the region‘s sustainable factors in promoting the craft. 19 Chapter 2: CRAFT & IT‘S PLACE OF ORIGIN- past, present & times to come. (A) Observation on the region & suitability in nurturing the craft. A Very Small Village Occupying a really rare place on the cultural canvas of India awaits you at Puri in Orissa. Famous for its Patachitras, Raghurajpur, a small village has been the residence of Oriya artisans who have mastered the skill of inscribing absolute poetry on pieces of treated cloth, dried palm leaf or paper. Carefully nestled amongst thick groves of coconut, palm, mango and jack fruit, the village is situated on the southern bank of river Bhargavi. The nearby paddy fields dotted with betel vines really serve as an idyllic setting for 20 wood carvings. Gopinath. masks. A rare and awesome art form is depicted in the patta paintings. Raghurajpur draws a number of tourist both domestic and foreigners for its unique art and craft. wooden toys and cow dung toys that are crafted by these craftsmen. Raghunath. Presenting the true picture of rural India. Raghurajpur is also special in one more way as it is the only village that is known to have each family engaged in one craft or the other craft. Laxminarayan and Gouranga being some to name. paper Mache toys. Such a unique congregation of so many arts at one place is really rarely found. palm leaf engravings. Entrance of the village 21 .Raghurajpur. Raghurajpur has rows of houses facing each other that are accompanied by a series of temples and a community meeting place of the villagers. all the major Hindu gods are revered in the village with Radha Mohan. stone carvings. Bhuasuni. Right from the local deity. Having a unique identity of its own. Approximately 311 artisans occupy a small number of just 103 houses in the village with some National Awards winners too amongst them. known for the Jagannath Temple. the village was chosen to be developed as state's first heritage village and developed as a Crafts village. the precursor to the Indian classical dance form of Odissi. sabuja panipariba (green vegetables).Raghurajpur Raghurajpur is a heritage crafts village in Puri district. piaja (onion). They often like to eat pakhala (waterrice). Some 14 km away. which takes place at pilgrimage town of Puri. cowdung and papier mache toys. chuna machha (small-fish). The most delicious item for them is sukhuaa (dry salted fish). and masks In 2000. baiganapoda (burn up brinjal). used under the throne of Lord Jagannath and on the three chariots during the annual Rath Yatra festival. it also known as the birthplace of one of finest Odissi exponents and Guru. commissioned artwork on the walls of the artists‘ homes and a rest house. Food As they are the people of rural area they like traditional foods in their diet. Orissa. alubhaja (Fried potato). after a two-year research and documentation project by INTACH. kandamula (sweet potato). stone and wood carvings. starting 1998. It also has the distinction of the only place where the traditional decoration called Patas. wooden. in the region and Gotipua dance troupes. 22 . soon the village had an interpretation centre. an art form which dates back to 5 BC. palm leaf engravings. Kelucharan Mohapatra. Apart from that the village is also home to crafts like Tussar paintings. known for its master Pattachitra painters. size. skill of mending is also measures. ratio and mythological aspects. a general artist also can‘t locate the damage. The exclusive content of the skill lies on some of the following points. proportion. to which they always pay respect to keep maintain its dignity in this world of Art. DETAILING: It has been created a remarkable identity in detailing part also. PLACEMENT: Beside this the perfect and proper placement of the art form and placing motif also indicated their skilled attitude in respect to their shape. Such as: SKILL OF LINING: From the artistic point of view skill of lining plays a pivot role to develop any type of art. The proactive initiation has been inherited from their generation to generation. Their artistic movements of the hand shows like they have born with fully equipped and each gene of the body are quite upgraded with the skill of Pattachitra. They detail very minutely to tell the sole identity of the skilled artist. Their finishing of mending can explain in such a way that. Skilled and professional artists The dexterity of these artists is their inborn quality. Such a thin and complicated drawing of lining shows the great variation of Pattachitra Artists from others. how perfectancy lies on the artist. MENDING: Out of all these skilled. 23 .Region & suitability in nurturing the craft. 24 . they always have a common set of culture such as celebration of traditional functions at a time never became a barrier in their work culture as a result the simultaneous leave structure gives a wide significance for maintaining an uniformity in their system of working. collection of raw materials stands as an important process to bring it to a complete World of Art. used in the carving and preparation of the gums respectively. 25 . The excellent representation of Pattachitra plays a major role to keep continue their culture of tradition before us. Fishermen usually collect the coloured stones from the sea . In the lower category of labourers we don‘t find any caste discrimination but from the economical point of view this category lives with bit miserable condition than that of the higher category of Brahmins.RAW MATERIALS In the art of Pattachitra.Then immediately they sell it to the shopkeeper. Shopkeeper‘s part is to crush it into the powdered form to make it in a position for selling among Pattachitra artists. Palm tree cultivation is a major part of the occupation of lower class of Brahmins. Palm trees. Their raw materials collection starts from the sea as the village is located in the coastal area. tarmind and Kaintha plant are also abundantly available in those areas. WORK CULTURE Though they are born and brought up with Brahmin families. they believe on mythological stories. (A) Inference on the region‘s support in the growth of the craft. In that they draw and render the ideas and tried to keep it in the canvas of Pattachitra. That is why it can be stored for many years without any type of chemical preservation. Establishment of NGO for advancement of the patachitra Introduction of new marketing planning Different governmental schemes Introduction of developmental projects 26 . originally they all are belongs to Brahmin family. There is no use of any chemical or unnatural elements in this painting. Perfect imagination of Hindu mythological stories Though. They very sincerely learn and understand the stories and give an imaginative figure for the respective characters.Traditional techniques of painting The entire process of preparing the patachitra painting is fully traditional. They used completely natural techniques and materials in the painting. Worship of God seems as a prime duty for them. by products. (b) Economic contribution of the craft towards the rural economy & its larger perspective in relation to the generic economic structure.Chapter 3 SOCIO-ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE.support-patronage towards the craft. encompassing the other occupations / promoting subsidiary. (a) Social role. 27 .RELEVENCE OF THE CRAFT. In 2000. (a) Social role. commissioned artwork on the walls of the artists‘ homes and a rest house Crafts Development (INTACH) 28 .RELEVENCE OF THE CRAFT.support-patronage towards the craft. the village was chosen to be developed as state's first heritage village and developed as a Crafts village. soon the village had an interpretation centre. starting 1998. after a two-year research and documentation project by INTACH.Chapter 3: SOCIO-ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE. To make the village a prominent tourist destination. the village is also known for its rich dance tradition. appliqué. palm leaf etching. wood carving. the village has an enormous tourist potential and attracts both foreign and domestic tourists. design innovation and promotion.Integrated Development of Raghurajpur (Orissa) The USP of the village is its rich crafts tradition. development. While the ultimate aim of the development plan is to upgrade and maintain living standards for the villagers. following are the major objectives that are achieved through continued interventions: Promotion and sustenance of crafts – This includes their documentation. Besides. sanitary and drainage facilities.shishya parampara as currently practised and provide better facilities in the Gurukul. coir and coconut shell products. stone carving. for a majority of the households belong to craftsmen. Promotion and sustenance of Wall paintings – This includes the support and strengthening of the ongoing project of further development of wall paintings including their maintenance programme. Because of its proximity to Puri and Bhubeneshwar. Several workshops for skill up-gradation and design development are organised to equip the artisans to be able to market their products both locally and in major urban centres. and bell metal crafts. health related services and to maintain cleanliness in the village. wall painting. Provision of infrastructure . 29 .for the enhancement of the village by providing water facilities. The crafts include patachitra. Enhancement of Gotipua dance tradition – To sustain the guru. Kolkata. trails. which was first organized in 1993 under the aegis of State Tourism Department and astern Zonal Cultural Centre. For the economic regeneration of the village through craft.Parampara Raghurajpur (Spring Festival). Provision for Visitors – Provision for their stay and encouraging interaction with the local craftsmen. Today it is also the venue of the annual Basant Utsav . held in the month of February/March and an important tourist draw. Community participation at all the levels – creation of self help groups to manage and maintain village activities. 30 . devising heritage (nature). dance and tourism. Chapter 4 THE DOER. (b) Artisans of the Past. (c) Artisans of the Present.a complete profile.a complete profile.artisan making-practicing the craft.a complete profile & other records. 31 . (d) Artisans of the Future. (a) Artisan Family History.engaged in the making of the craft since time immemorial. From generation to generation and time to time the significance of the craft was getting deeper in their heart. All the family of the village were completely devoted to the craft. They are totally economically dependent on this craft. From most remarkable. Generally each and every artist of the village normally gets training from his father-grandfather who is very skilled and experienced artists. (a) Artisan Family History.artisan making-practicing the craft. The Patachitra was became the life of these villagers.engaged in the making of the craft since time immemorial. Artist profile with family history: Artist‘s Name Age : Gopal Maharana : 58 Date of birth : 26th August 1942 Award : State level award (1979) Wife‘s Name Age : Laxmi Maharana : 46 Children : 2 sons & 2 daughters 32 . one of the artist was Gopal Maharana.Chapter 4: THE DOER. Hence became more professional in this field of expressing & ingenious art. All the boys are bound to practice patachitra to protect the running tradition. 33 . Lalita Maharana (1923-1998) Grandfather‘s Name: Late. Ari Maharana(1916-1996) Mother‘s Name : Late. All the children started practising patachitar from the age of 10 to 12. kishore Maharana The patachitra was the parampara(tradition) of the family.Elder Daughter Age : Rekha Maharana : 21 Elder son Age : Prakash Maharana : 19 Younger Daughter : Sikha Maharana Age : 17 Younger Son Age : Akash Maharana : 15 Father‘s Name : Late. Artisan‘s Name Age Gender Date of birth Father‘s Name Mother‘s Name Wife‘s Name Education Experienced No.(b) Artisans of the Past. Maguni Maharana : Subasini Maharana : 7th class : 45 years :6 : no land. of members in family Economic status Health problems Monthly income Time spent in the craft/day Working out side Odisha : Gangadhar Maharana : 65 : Male : 23 June. 1945 : Late.a complete profile & other records. Jaydev Maharana : Late. earning from patachitra : Normal : 5000 to 6000 :18 to 20 hour : Delhi 34 . 35 . Through this panting he had describe the ―art of national living” means how the entire time from morning to evening is related with lord Jagannath.One of the best creative panting of Gangadhar Maharana was selected for the national award. tender. patta painting. and life become serene. From this delightful psyche. worshipping trees. mind become tender and life become arty. rivers of rural life became vivacious and surges honey of bliss from every side. herbs. fountains. obeisance to sun. farming the field. Thus life impulses to absorb in temple worship. there nature pours nectar of blessings. In this simple. initiates temple edifice. flowers. Food regarded as ‗prasada‘. beasts. nurture self and prayer to almighty. read and discuss scriptures. serving cows. stunning natural milieu of village. With the magical touch of nature-grass. austere. rural souk and life becomes colourful with the syrupy rhythm of nature. life. farming. tired folks back to temple ground to chant the glory of Lord. Boat play during chandana Festival with music dance chanting prayer makes make life ceremonial. shows the way to vivacity. hillocks. Heart become peaceful. perform Gotipua and Odissi Dance. birds. crafting. fruits. and lamp beneath Tulsi herb symbolising light the darkness towards spiritual dome to embrace divinity. After sun set. heart. By river bathing. 36 . in taking leaves. The human life turns into divine life. emerges stream of vision. serene. Body.ART OF NATURAL LIVING (Morning to Evening) Where life intersects with nature. 1987 : Sanatana Mahapatra : Laxmipriya Mahapatra : 9th class : 13 years :5 : earning from patachitra : Normal : Rs 3000/:14 to 16 hour : No : Swimming 37 .(c) Artisans of the Present. Artisan‘s Name Age Gender Date of birth Father‘s Name Mother‘s Name Education Experienced No.a complete profile. of members in family Economic status Health problems Monthly income Time spent in the craft/day Working out side Odisha Hobby : Bishnukinkar Mahapatra : 23 : Male : 1st July. a complete profile. 1990 : Narendra Pradhan : Sushma Pradhan : 10th class : 5 years :5 : earning from patachitra : Normal : Rs 200/: 6 to 7 hour : No : Singing 38 .Artisans of the Future. Artisan‘s Name Age Gender Date of birth Father‘s Name Mother‘s Name Education Experienced No. of members in family Economic status Health problems Monthly income Time spent in the craft/day Working out side Odisha Hobby : Souvagini Pradhan : 20 : Female : 31st may. (A) Raw material.essential parameters required for generating the craft. .(D) Finishing & other post production treatments.Chapter 5 THE MEDIUM. 39 . (B) Instruments & other machineries. (C) Processes & techniques of craft making. (1) Types of Raw Material.essential parameters required for generating the craft. Natural glue made from Tamarind seeds Natural glue made from Elephant fruit tree Soft clay stone Cotton clothes Colours White.Indigo Brushes Dry coconut shells DRY COCONUT SHELL 40 .Lamp shoots SOFT CLAY STONE POWDER Yellow.Hingulal stone Blue.Chapter 5: THE MEDIUM.Haritala stone Red.Conch shell Black. (a) RAW MATERIAL. COLOURS BRUSHES ELEPHANT APPLE GUM 41 . Other colour stones are collected from the mountainous regions. Cotton clothes are available in the local shop. As this craft is totally traditionally and aesthetically created it doesn‘t support machineries.(2) Raw Material Availability. But in case of palm leave carving a very thin pointed iron pen is used which is known as ―LIKHANI‖. Traditionally collected and some are available in general stores and local markets. (3) Raw Material Procurement. Available in market. Colours:Conch Shells gives white colour is collected by the fishermen and sold to the shopkeeper. 42 . Then it is available in powder from in the general shop. The tree of ―Kaintha‖ was abundantly available in those areas. Then it is soaked in water for 3 to 5 days. Tamarind seeds is collected from the ripen tamarind after eaten. (b) INSTRUMENTS & OTHER MACHINERIES. Soft clay stone is collected from the Nilgiri Mountain by the labourers and is sold to the local shops. The entire process is naturally carried out without using any types of instrument. from which the glue is collected. Next. Then it is heated to form a paste. 43 . Then the dry crystal is get socked in the water and converted into liquid form. Kaintha Tree Preparation of elephant apple gum Procedure.They makes a cut mark on the trunk of the Kaintha (elephant apple) tree. which is traditionally called as NIRYAS KALPA. Then they filter the substance through a cloth to remove impurities. Then it has to be grinded with a pestle till it become jelly like in consistency. this ground pulp is to get mix with water in an earthen pot. from which the viscocious substances is collected within two to three days in its solid form.(c) PROCESSES & TECHNIQUES OF CRAFT MAKING. (1) Pre Production Treatment of Raw Material. Procedure – This paste is made by soaking tamarind seeds in water for about 3 days. Preparation of natural glue made up of tamarind paste. For white colour the sea shells are available in market in its powdered form.They brought it and mix with Kaintha gum to get converted into a soft ball shaped structure. It is dried and stored for later use. Then it is converted into ball like form which get dried and stored for further use. Preparation of Patta.For red and yellow the Hingulal and Haritala stones are used respectively.Preparation of colours Procedure. The lamp shoot which gives black colour undergoes the same process. 44 . This stone is grinded and mix with water up to two days to enhance its lustre. The cotton clothes are getting converted into pattas through a very complex method. Again the tamarind gum applied on both the side and left it to dry in sun light. (3) Special Techniques & other features of the production method. -The use of a standard palette of colors. yellow. This is done to enhance the lusturity of the color. green. then the second piece will be placed upon the first one. This get mix with water and get steering with figure up to half an hour before using it. and pink 45 .This prepared is again getting applied on the dried patta uniformly and is left in sun light. Thirdly the rough and smooth stones are get rubbed on the surface of the patta respectively to make it more polished and shiny in appearance.(2) Production Preparations Preparation of patta Two pieces of cotton cloth of a particular size has to be cut into rectangular shapes of same size. blue. white. Mixing of colors Different prepared ball shaped form of the color is collected in different dry coconut shells. typically including red. black. Firstly the tamarind paste gum is to be applied on one piece of cloth uniformly. Secondly the soft clay stone powder is heated and gets mix up with the tamarind gum in a ratio of 75:25. such as the following: The use of blue for Krishna's body The use of white for Balarama's body The use of yellow for Radha's body and for the bodies of other gopis (cowherd girls) The use of green for Rama's body Due to complication of pattachitra a very special process must be carried out to complete each and detailing completely. 46 . -The practice of filling in much of the background space with stylized forms Besides these common characteristics. chins jut out somewhat from the face. there are also many typical iconographic details in pata-chitras. -The inner border often uses a sort of leaf-and-scroll motif and is narrower in width than the outer border. which often uses a floral motif.-A particular style of drawing faces in which noses are extended. and the eyes are elongated -The drawing of faces in profile -The drawing of fine details in clothing -The use of red as a background colors the inclusion of a double border. Second stage ―TIPPANA‖ (sketching) The outline of the figures like human. birds. fish etc is made very finely with the help of needle lid point brush (0. animals.5) which is made up of the tail of squirrel. 47 . This is done very systematically and technically using very fine brush and ruler.First stage Scaling The rectangular space of the patta has to be divided into small squares and circles according to the required figure. 48 . Beside this they filled the natural colour of other associated trees. The background of the figure has the very special identity in the art of pattachitra. birds and animals etc.Third stage ―JAMINI‖ (Filling background) The background of the figure is to be filled with handling the brush very carefully. Fourth stage ―BARNAKA‖ (Body colouring) In this stage they colour the body of the figure with yellow in case of female. blue or black for lord Krishna and other light colour for normal figure. In most of the case they are filled red in colour which has its traditional name called ―Hingulal‖. The miniatures designing of the jewellery such as placing diamonds. pearls.Fifth stage ―GAHANA BARNAKA‖ (jewellery work) In this stage the figures are treated with jewellery. That means the floral or geometrical designing made on the cloth of the figures and other traditional motif. armlet. For example necklace. Very fine jewellery work is done in this stage. the artist usually fill attractive colour on the jewellery work. bangles. 49 . Sixth stage ―CHITTA‖ (designing the cloth) It refers to designing the textile of the figure. crowns. Etc. ―RANGALEKHA‖ (jewellery designing)Here. ghunura etc. kamar patti. stones. PAKSHI‖ (Filling empty background with living creatures) In this stage the background and fore ground of the central figure is to get filled with different types of trees. flower garden etc associated with the mythological stories of that particular painting. 50 . PASHU. Eighth stage ―GACHHA. animals.Seventh stage ―MOTAKALA‖ (Thick black out lining) Where ever thick black out lining is required is done in this stage. birds. ―SARUKALA‖ (thin black out lining) The finest and delicate slim out lining are done. grass lands. rivers. Tenth stage ―DHADI‖ (boarder) The last and ultimate stage is the detailing decorations of the boarder in the painting (4) Production Process. naga etc. floral design on palm etc are made on the female figure. surya. nail colour. Are made on the fore head of the male figures.Ninth stage ―SANKHA PATTA‖ (Religious and other white mark) In this stage the religious marks like the Religious thread on the shoulder. 51 . And other white coloured marked decoration are done. mark of Vishnu. The entire above mentioned process itself is the production process. while the bindis. hera we have to choose a particular design or style of boarder for framing the painting into a wall hanging or photo. In this method they apply a thin coat of wax to prevent it from getting contact with water making it water proof. (3) Post product treatments Following the mentioned method the entire process of patachitra was completed. As the pattachitra paintings are very valuable and expensing.(D)FINISHING & OTHER POST PRODUCTION TREATMENT (1) Finishing Methods:Generally we finish our paintings with general finishing method likewise it finishes with decorative boarder design. (2) Finishing process. But the post product treatment includes the ultimate finishing of the product. 52 . The tusser silk patachitra painting or the chitrapattas are framed. they add a preservative method to protect it from the destruction. (3) Processing. (1) Raw Material.factors influencing the cost of making the craft.Chapter 6 THE COST. 53 . (4) Finishing & other post production treatment cost.techniques of craft making. (5) Other costing parameters.Cost of Human Labour. (2) Instrument & other machineries. 54 .Chapter 6: THE COST. The iron needle which is known as LIHHANI and used for carving is Rs 40. (1) Raw Material. The entire process is naturally carried out without using any types of instrument.factors influencing the cost of making the craft. Colours powders Quantity Amount Sea shells 100 gm /- Rs 30/- Haritala Hingulal 100 gm /100 gm /- Rs 24/Rs 45/- Lamp shoot Garu Waste cotton cloth 100 gm /100 gm /12 m/- Rs 20/Rs 20/Rs 30/- Brushes Tamarind gum 1 set 100 gm /- Rs 265/Rs 20/- Stone powder 100 gm /- Rs 40/- (2) Instrument & other machineries. But if the same piece is treated with very integrated fine art work. the price and labour cost will increase as per that. then the price may be Rs 2000 to 4000. Suppose a painting is of A4 size and not so delicately drawn then the price will be Rs 200 to 300.(3) Processing. For framing the entire painting a price range between Rs 300 to 600 may charge. (4) Finishing & other post production treatment cost.If the piece is of A3 size or larger. decrease in demand and vice-versa. increases the cost up to Rs 700 to 800.Cost of Human Labour. according to the demand of customer.techniques of craft making. 55 . which means more the demand. according to the work done on it. As much as complicated and delicates work will done. In this case the economical status is against the law of demand. considering the design and quality of the frame. increase in price while the law of demand says that rise in price. According to the size of the paintings and art work composition the cost of human labour is determined. (5) Costing of the Product. 56 .Chapter 7 DESIGN INTERVENTION & GROWTH OPPORTUNITIES (a) Product Development Methodology. (1) Design Concepts (2) Product Ideas. (3) Market Survey. (4) Customer Profile. (6) Illustration of the Product. A simple definition is that design is the process of giving form to an idea. "Form" could be a plan of action or a description of a physical thing. the patachitra too very deep and difficult to draw. Due to very intricate and delicate rendering of slender lines. The chosen design concept is ‗THE DEEP‘ means the deep sea. 57 . It is possible for a set of non-negotiable constraints to be in conflict resulting in a design with no solution. Through this concept. the deepness of the painting in compare to the depth of the sea. He identifies two kinds of constraint. (1) Design Concepts "The management of constraints". Beside this the stories and the culture of Jagannath on which the art work is based on was also very hard and mysterious to understand. as a process.Chapter 7: DESIGN INTERVENTION & GROWTH OPPORTUNITIES (a) Product Development Methodology. can take many forms depending on the object being designed and the individual or individuals participating. classification and selection of constraints. The process of design then proceeds from here by manipulating design variables so as to satisfy the non-negotiable constraints and optimizing those which are negotiable. negotiable and non-negotiable. in this case the non-negotiable constraints must be revised. The first step in the design process is the identification. Design. Mood board 58 . Design Development Central theme 59 . Background 60 . Top & bottom boarder 61 . Left & right boarder 62 . Technical view of product 63 .(2) Product Ideas. Final placement illustration 64 . upper-middle class and higher class.as patachitra is a very complicated and finest art form. The costumer‘s classes are divided into lower class. Market survey is done to know the demand and placement of the product in the market. Academias also prefer to buy these paintings as it appeals to their astute natures. Tourists in Orissa find it to be an important "must have" souvenir. the product will get higher position in the international market.(3) Market Survey. Famous politicians and big screen stars also adorn their opulent homes with these paintings especially in the Indian subcontinent. Special souvenir mementos showing the utsava image including the central sanctuary of the Puri temple is painted for the tourists. These paintings. means to know which costumers are eligible to buy the particular product. This also helps to know the status of the costumer profile. A vast array of individuals have bought and re-distributed these paintings. The foreigners now likes these traditional paintings. which carry brilliant colors and extremely detailed work. demand for the table mats of patachitra will be more high in the market. Special large sized Patachitras are made by contracted artists for adorning foyers and receptions of many five star hotels in various parts of the world. 65 . The uppermiddle class and higher class costumer will pay more interest in buying these products. Generally plastic and artificial leather tables mats are available in the market . are considered to be collector's items across the globe. middle class. (4) Customer Profile. The price including raw material. labour cost. 66 . Costing of the product will be very high. The price range may vary according to the size and quality of the table mats. and packaging will be Rs 2000 to Rs 3000. finishing treatment cost. The created design is very complex and difficult.(6) Costing of the Product. Patachitra reflect the skilled work of experienced artists. If someone wants to study the art of patachitra.I enjoyed the project and learns a lot of things . They are not literate but were very through in their inborn talent.the surrounding of the craft village Raghurajpur is almost helpful and eco-friendly. The each and every design and art framing. learn swimming and plantation during the research period. influence me to know more on this particular research. The beauty of tradition and reality reflects from them.EPILOGUE. then a lot of patience and practice is required. Lifestyle of the villagers was very unique and independence. The entire research work was really . I also get an idea about the marketing and maintenance of the products. I also achieve a lot of knowledge about the Hindu mythological matters. Crafting is considered as their day to day activity. 67 . Vesha .ancient king of puri.wikipedia.com/ http://www.dowry box Gokula .a particular style or look of god.blogspot.boat festival of jagannath Kaintha .indianetzone. Kanchi avhijana .village of lord Krishna Gotipua dance .GLOSSARY Choda-Gangadeva .htm 68 .a story of Lord Jagannath Manika . Odissi patachitra (Raghunath mishra) http://en.Elephant apple (Feronia elephantum) BIBLIOGRAPHY.com/1/patachitra.early dance form of odissi Basant utsav .baby Krishna Pedi .a milkmaid Nandagopal .spring festival Chandan festival .org/wiki/Puri http://pattachitra. I was interested in entering the world of fashion.B College. 69 .M school with CBSE and +2 from B. I am thankful to all my faculty members for supporting me in doing my research work in patachitra and friends. From the beginning of the day. I got aspiration and inspirations to choose the way to fashion from my elder sister. visiting new places searching innovative ideas etc. and wish for a shining future.About my self I Parthasarathi Bal now continuing the Bachelor of Fashion Designing from Kalinga Institute of Industrial Technology had completed my schooling from B. My hobbies are watching movies. My ambition to be a designer is on the way to success. I enjoy a lot in every step of life till now. I like to communicate with new peoples.J. Orissa. Bhubaneswar.J. dancing and painting.E. THANK YOU 70 .