TEACHING ENGLISH VOCABULARIES THROUGH TOTAL PHYSICAL RESPONSE METHOD AT THE FIFTH GRADE STUDENT OF SDN RAWAMENENG KEC. BLANAKAN KAB. SUBANG Ricky Eka Setyawan Email : [email protected] No Reg : 08.22.0205 English Education Study Program Language and Art Department Sekolah Tinggi Keguruan dan Ilmu Pendidikan (STKIP) Siliwangi Bandung ABSTRACK The objective of this research entitled “Teaching English Vocabularies Through Total Physical Response At The Fifth Grade Student Of SDN Rawameneng Kec. Blanakan Kab. Subang” was to find out whether or not using Total Physical Response (TPR) method was effective in improving students’ vocabulary mastery. This research used one group pretest – posttest design and quantitative research method. The instrument of this research was a test. The population of this research was 45 of the fifth grade students of SDN Rawameneng Kec. Blanakan Kab. Subang, and the sample was 30 students selected using simple random sampling technique. The data of this research were collected by giving the pretest and posttest to students’ sample. The collected data were analyzed by using t-test formula. The results of data analysis showed that: mean score of pretest was 37, mean score of posttest was 63, the tobs was 82.05. The ttabel with degree of freedom (df) was 29 and significance level at 0.05% was 2.045. Based on the data analysis the alternative hypothesis of this research was accepted because tobs was higher than t tabel (82.05 > 2.045). It also mean that Teaching English Vocabulary through Total Physical Response at the fifth grade of SDN Rawameneng kec. Blanakan kab. Subang was effective to improving student vocabulary mastery. Key words: vocabularies, Total Physical Response A. BACKGROUND Language is an important means for communication in our daily activity. Through language we can express our opinions, thoughts, ideas, and feelings. In order to make good communication, people must have enough words, which they understand and use. Considering this need, English as foreign language is taught in the early age, hence, in Indonesia, English is generally taught since kindergarten. Vocabulary as one of the language skill elements has an important role for English learner in learning a foreign language. Teachers teach students how to use vocabulary to convey their ideas, feeling, and knowledge. It also means that teaching speaking; writing, reading, and listening cannot be separated from teaching vocabulary. Harmer (1991:153) states that “Vocabulary provides the vital organs and flesh in English”. Children have special characteristics and needs, so teaching English for young learners is considered to be a complicated and challenging activity for English teacher. Total Physical Response creates the supportive condition in which students learn the target language coincide with their first language acquisition. It means that TPR allows 1 students to acquire vocabulary in a manner similar to how a child learns his or her first language. It introduces how to learn English especially vocabulary in cheerful conditions. The students do not feel forced to learn vocabulary because they can memorize the vocabularies that are given subconsciously. The students are just asked to see, listen, and practice what the teacher does. The TPR classroom, then, was one in which students did a great deal of listening and acting. The teacher was very directive on orchestrating a performance: the instructor is the director of a stage play in which the students are the actors. (Asher 1977:43). Concerning the facts above, it is expected that research on teaching English vocabularies through TPR method can offer an alternative in providing the technique in teaching vocabulary in elementary school. B. THEORITICAL OF FOUNDATION There are many various means of teaching, like the old definition which means a process of transferring knowledge or skill connected with the definite subject to the students. In this case the teacher is more active than the students because the students only receive a dependent variable cannot be identified in isolation. it has any effect on the dependent variable. It was not a standard test. Research Instruments In this research. the other type of variables may have on it. Wallace (1982: 9) states that learning a foreign language is basically a matter of learning the vocabulary of that language. the experimental research comprises a number of elements among other: According to Brown (1988:7).2 what is taught by the teacher. Teaching vocabulary is very important since it is the essential term to learn foreign language. in Total Physical Response activities. “those independent variables are variable selected by researcher to determine their effect on or relationship with dependent variable”. The Research Design In this research. in the pretest and second. an independent variable is one that is selected and systematically manipulated by researcher to determine whether. the independent variable refers to teaching vocabulary through Total Physical Response Method (TPR). The posttest is given after treatment by Total Physical Response Method. “A dependent variable is observed to determine what effect. it made it easy for the writer to find out the mastery of students in vocabulary. C. researcher has to control and measure the measure variable. Experimental method is the research method that has an aim to explain about causality between one variable with other (variable X and variable Y). This experiment purposed to predict. As the summary. Thus. Teaching is “supporting adult with little English and little formal education in their efforts to understand and use English in its many form”. So. In short. 2. in the post test. or the degree to which. according to Brown (1988:10). . In this research. To explain this causality. it is the variable of focus – the variable – on which other variable will act if there is any relationship. while in the posttest they were given the test after the treatment. they were given the post test and the result were analyze as describe in data analyses. The treatment was explanation about the material using Total Physical Response method. Subang which were selected for this study. students listened silently to acquisition series of command and responds with appropriate physical action. While the other experts have developed teaching widely as stated by Wrigley and Guth (1992: 102). contextualized. Test given in two parts at first. Independent Variable Independent variable is a variable that is part of situation that exist from which originates the stimulus given to dependent variables. Identifying the variable is important to language learning and discovering how these variables affect the teaching language. Asher (1986) defines Total Physical Response method as language-teaching method builds around the coordination of speech and action. In the other word. 3. practiced and then revised to prevent students from forgetting. They are some different classifications of variables within the statistical language studies: a. Experimental method is not only used to explain causality between one variable and other variables but also to explain and predict a movement or tendency a variable in the future. It makes sense only in the context of the other variable in the study” b. In addition. the writer used a pre-experimental design of one group pretest and posttest. “Variable is something that may vary or differ”. The test was developed by the writer. After the treatment. if any. Thus. A few things that have to be remembered in teaching vocabulary are that should be connected with the students’ previous knowledge. The pretest given before treatment. In the pretest the students were given the test in multiple choices. Research Method The research method in this research is quantitative method and the writer decided to apply experimental method. the writer used test as the instrument during this research. It means that the students in the class were given a pretest and posttest. the writer chose an experimental method to investigate the problem of the sixth year students at SDN Rawameneng kec. In this research. the students were given the pretest before the treatment. In this research. Dependent Variable Dependent variable is a variable that receives stimulus and measure for the effect of the treatment has had upon it. Variable is also observable characteristic that may vary among individuals. Research Methodology 1. According to Brown (1988:10). Blanakan kab. it attempts to teach language through physical (motor) activity. In this research. Determining t-observed (t o) to = e. 5. Thus. Blanakan kab. 6. Find out the standard deviation of difference (SDD) with the formula: 2 SDD = b. Research Procedure Research procedure is most important part of research sequence. Simple random is choosing sample method. Determining degree of freedom (df) df = N-1 . b. whether individual. Therefore. Find out the mean of difference (MD) 8. Data Analysis The obtained data of this research was analyzed by “T” test and follow the steps below: a. which are related to this research based on English Program Outline. Therefore. the writer ready to use that instrument for all students as a sample in this research. c. this research procedure has to prepare well to get the truth and to find out the result. because all students who were observed were students in elementary school. the writer meets and consults to the first and second supervisors who are given suggestion to the writer during this research to get agreement from them. “Sample is group of subject from whom data are collected”. that conform to specific criteria and to which we in tend to generalize the result of the research”. the writer gives some examples how to answer the question about the material that is given. Sample According to Milan. objects or events. 7. There are some procedures during this research: a.2012 which were described in the following table. It consists of 19 male students and 26 female students in academic year 2011 . Organizing teacher procedure by using Total Physical Response Method 1) Explaining Before giving a pretest. the population in this research was fifth grade students in SDN Rawameneng kec. Population According to Milan (1992:69). Subang that have 45 students. In choosing the sample. 1) 2) 3) 4) Practicing the research procedure Organizing the research instrument Trying out the research instrument to all student Analyzing the trying out data Administering the pretest to find out the initial ability 5) Giving the treatment to the class using Total Physical Response Method 6) Administering the posttest after given treatment MD = c. the writer explains what he will do for all of the students. where all member of population get same chance to be chosen as member of sample. Calculated the standard error from mean of difference (SEMD) SEMD = d. 4) Consultation and training instrument test 5) Before making and trying instrument test. Subang. In this research the writer selected 30 students of population at fifth grade students of SDN Rawameneng kec. Data Collection The data in this research were collected by asking question on the post test after two meeting during the research on May 17th and 18th 2012. Based on supervisor agreement and suggestion. Blanakan kab. Research preparation II The writer prepares some materials. “A population is a group of elements or cases. (1992:69). until they understand what they will do in this research. It has to do to get more information in prove hypothesis during this research and to make all procedure easier.3 4. d. the population was homogenous. The writer explains procedure in this research to all of the students in the class. Research preparation I The research preparetion includes: 1) Submitting research permission 2) Preparing research instrument 3) Research instrument is prepared before start a research. the writer used simple random as sampling technique. 2) Giving an example After all. Data Processing In doing the research. The pretest is a test to find out the initial ability in the class. The Comparison of the Result 60 70 No 55 50 80 80 45 70 75 65 65 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Table 4. posttest and questionnaire Drawing conclusions and making suggestions 15 16 17 Student 15 Student 16 Student 17 Student 18 Student 19 Student 20 Student 21 Student 22 Student 23 Student 24 Student 25 Student 26 Student 27 Student 28 Student 29 Student 30 Total 25 50 45 35 20 20 55 35 40 45 35 35 35 45 50 60 1110 55 75 85 45 50 35 80 45 60 85 45 35 55 75 80 65 1875 D. 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 a. The Pretest result Table 4. Instrument The instrument used to collect the data is a test. in the pretest and second.3 Score of the Comparison Results Students’ Name Student 1 Student 2 Student 3 Student 4 Student 5 Student 6 Student 7 Student 8 Score pretest 45 45 30 20 35 30 10 45 Posttes 60 70 60 60 70 55 50 80 D= (X-Y) -25 -25 -30 -40 -25 -25 -40 -35 D2 = (X-Y)2 625 625 900 1600 625 625 1600 1225 . 2. FINDING AND DISCUSSIONS 1. and degrees of freedom. the comparison of the test result. in the posttest a. tobs. standard deviation of difference. which he has collected to find out the pretest and the posttest result. The posttest is given after the treatment by Total Physical Response.1 Score of pretest and Posttest Results No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Students’ Name Student 1 Student 2 Student 3 Student 4 Student 5 Student 6 Student 7 Student 8 Student 9 Student 10 Student 11 Student 12 Student 13 Student 14 Score 45 45 30 20 35 30 10 45 45 10 45 55 30 35 Score 60 70 60 b. the writer processed the data research. b.4 7) Analyzing the data collected from pretest. standard error from mean of difference. Test given in two parts at first. 63 b.02 The result of t-observed was -82. Data Summary a. The mean of difference (MD) MD = .38 the writer calculated the standard errors from the mean of difference (SEMD ) between variable X and Y: SEMD = = = = 1.045. Regardless the minus.63 To find out the mean of differences (MD) between variable X and Y.905 The last calculation is determining the result of t obs (to) of the test with this formula: to = = = -82.093.25 c.156. so the observed was higher than t-table. to complete the result of the research.5 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 Student 9 Student 10 Student 11 Student 12 Student 13 Student 14 Student 15 Student 16 Student 17 Student 18 Student 19 Student 20 Student 21 Student 22 Student 23 Student 24 Student 25 Student 26 Student 27 Student 28 Student 29 Student 30 Total 45 10 45 55 30 35 25 50 45 35 20 20 55 35 40 45 35 35 35 45 50 60 80 45 70 75 65 65 55 75 85 45 50 35 80 45 60 85 45 35 55 75 80 65 -35 -35 -25 -20 -25 -30 -30 -25 -40 -10 -30 -15 -25 -10 -20 -40 -10 -0 -20 -30 -30 -5 -750 1225 1225 625 400 = = = 14. Then.02.25 After gaining the result of SDD = 10. The standard deviation of difference (SDD) with the formula: SDD = 14. it does not indicate a negative score.156. 82. the writer found out the degrees of freedom (DF) with this formula: df = N-1 = 30-1 = 29 (see table of “t” value at the degree of freedom) At the degree of significance 5% the t-table was 2. the writer used this formula: MD = = = . The standard error from mean of difference (SEMD) SEMD= 1.02> 2.905 625 900 900 625 1600 100 900 225 625 100 400 1600 100 0 400 900 900 25 22225 The writer found out the standard deviation of the difference (SDD) with the formula: SDD = = - . 3. Edinburgh: Pearson Education Limited. Teaching by Principles: An interactive Approach to LanguagePedagogy (2nd edition).045. The t-test was 0. In conclusion the alternative hypothesis (H 1) is accepted and null hypothesis (H0) is rejected. BIBLIOGRAPHY Asher.com/ asher.context. support it. 20th 2008 Brown.org/ICLIB/IC06/Asher. H. it is a high time to apply. Heide Spruck and Guth.http://www. J. Subang” It can be used to improving students’ vocabulary mastery. Douglas. The Determining t-observed (t o) to = 82. (1977) Language by Commands: The Total Physical Response Approach to Learning Language. 2006.http://www/sil. Total Physical Response method. In fact t-test was 82. H and Schumacher. J.6 d. so the observed was higher than t-table. Discussion of TPR. J. Harmer. 4. The Determining degree of freedom (df) df = 29 f. TPR can become a method that is used by the teacher to lead the students to learnt not only vocabulary but also grammar and other language skill. Blanakan kab. was proven to be able to make the students more engaged in learning vocabulary. Subang. (2001).02 e. CONCLUSIONS AND SUGESTIONS 1.htm. Bringing Literacy to Life: Issues and Optons in Adult. 2006. Hypothesis Testing The alternative hypothesis in this research “Teaching English Vocabulariy Through Total Physical Response At The Fifth Grade Student Of SDN Rawameneng Kec. Jeremy.htm Asher. The result of this research showed that Total Physical Response method does not only improve the students’ vocabulary achievement. New York: Longman.The Conclusions improving vocabulary achievement of fifth grade students.A. Douglas. The writer tested the hypothesis by using a t-test. Michael. Gloria J. 82. The degree of significance 5% the t-table was 2. [online] November. (1992). S. Blanakan Kab. it was known as 2.02 and it was higher than the table.htm [online] November. Brown.tprsource. Cambrige: Cambridge University Press. it appears that Total Physical Response method maybe effective in . It means that the instructions should meet the students’ characteristics and needs. but it also motivates the students to learn in an interesting way. H. Practical Language Teaching: Teaching Vocabulary. What is TPR? IT’S ALL IN THE WAY WE LEARN. Wrigley. The population of this research was forty five and the sample was forty students of the fifth grade student of SDN Rawameneng kec. Moreover.org/lingualinks/languagelearn ng/WaysToApproachLanguageLearning/TotalPhys icalResponse. Hence. Inc. Understanding Research in Second Language Learning: A teacher’sGuide to Statistics and Research Design. 2. J. (2001). 20th 2008 Asher. D. (1990).045. McMilan. Hopefully. and fun for the students. environment. ESL Literacy The use of TPR method in the young learners’ classroom can be successful when two main aspects.05 at a significant level by using the degree of freedom (DF = 29). the findings of this study can encourage teachers who teach English in elementary schools to consider TPR as an alternative method in realizing a better English learning in their classrooms. New York: Addison Wesley Longman. which gave a context. The Suggestion Based on the findings. London: Heinemann Educational Books.045. The Practice of Language Teaching. appropriate materials and appropriate classroom activities. http://www. Wallace. (1991). (1984). Research Education: A Conceptual Introduction (5th Education). Furthermore. namely.02 > 2.
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